The Danish Peace Academy
Holger Terp: Danish Peace History1
Working paper 1
When the history of peace disappears, myths are created. The most important is the myth that all agreed with the policy of their rulers, and yes, there was no opposition. The early Danish concepts of peace have yet to be fully investigated.
Little has been written in the international academic literature about peace work in Denmark. The Biographical Dictionary of Modern Peace Leaders has only two Danish entries. Professor Gene Sharp discovered one of many Danish publications on non violence. The history of peace work and pacifism in Denmark is nearly non existent before 1849.
The much learned Canadian professor of history Peter Brock fails to find one Scandinavian pacifist in his “Pacifism in Europe to 1914”. The volume of Brock could have been titled, 'Religious Pacifism in Europe to 1914' from 1972 an update of Hirst's “The Quakers in Peace and War” from 1923. Peter Brock knows the history of the peace movement including the history of the radical and political parts of the movement. He have read Bart de Ligt, Jacob ter Meulen and the publications from the Norwegian Nobel Institute. In “Pacifism in Europe to 1914” there is p. 508 one promising reference to Norway and one reference to a Norwegian publication: August Schou: “Historie de l'internationalisme” vol. II and III. Brock has no direct references to Danish and Norwegian pacifism, even though Schou in Vol. III refers to Fredrik Bajer and in the chapter §3 Le movement de la paix organisé Danemark, has a short history of the Bajer and the Danish Peace Society. In vol. II August Schou and Christian L. Lange tells the story of Norwegian peace apostle Anders Kempe, but they also overlook the story of Jesper Baltzarsen Könecken.
Two years before the publication of “Pacifism in Europe to 1914”, Peter Brock had discovered the Danish conscientious objectors law of December 1917: “In no country could nonreligious objectors gain official recognition until in 1917 Denmark instituted an alternative service system for which no religious test was required”.
Then Peter Brock did not ask the simple question: why was the Danish conscientious objectors law written as it was? Could the answer be because of great politically based objection? Twenty one years later Peter Brock publish his “Freedom from violence”, wherein Fredrik Bajer is (rightly) turned down as pacifist, he was an internationalist.
In “Freedom from violence” Peter Brock describes Scandinavian Christian pacifism.
As in his former books we see that the main focus of Brock is the religious pacifism, as the appendix has the title “Christian Pacifism in Denmark and Sweden to 1914”. In the appendix appears the following to me unknown pacifists: Mogens A. Sømmer and Christian Hope.
The domestic and international Danish peace work has a long tradition, just as other countries.
I am not an historian or peace researcher. I am an educated librarian with poor eyes, using the tools of my trade and here mostly historian thesis and printed primary sources. Secondary volumes are used mainly to check how the history had been used; and looking through newspapers as a source to the contemporary peace movement as most Danish newspapers are online.
Thanks for the kind help and expertise from the employees at the Record Office, the Royal Library of Copenhagen and my local library at Friheden. Also many thanks to American professor in English Julianna Free for improving my poor English.first
The first student rebellion
uring the Nordic war between Denmark and Sweden1657-59, while Copenhagen was the capital of the dual monarchy Denmark and Norway, Jesper Baltzarsen Könecken or Jasper Köekenii (1629-1715) as he later was called in the Netherlands, in training for the ministry preached to the war-torn state. Among the audience in the pews were students from his own university, citizens and the defenders of Copenhagen. At that time people were allowed to speak in the course of the service who were not actually the minister of the church congregation.
Taken by surprise, the patriots heard from the learned young man, that according to the New Testament, wars for Christians were unlawful. Also, it was the view of Könecken, that Christians should not be rulers2. And if war were unlawful for the Christian Danish monarch, so it also was unlawful for the Christian Swedish king Charles Gustav(1622-1660). Accordingly Könecken wrote two letters to the Swedish king, demanding him to stop the war3.
Jesper Baltzarsen Könecken was not alone in his views, but disappeared from history, until the church historian Holger Rørdam(1830-1913) published a learned biography “the fanatic Jesper Baltarzen Könecken” in his journal Churchhistorical Collections in 1853; the second biography on Könecken4. Two years later Rørdam published his most important study on the Danish and Norwegian students participation in the defence of Copenhagen against Charles Gustav5.
On October 5, 1658 all students at the University of Copenhagenwere ordered by the king to “military service”; on the walls at day and guard duty at night. Of the 600 students only 266 volunteered, though the penalty for disobedience was arrest and exile6. This means that more than three hundred forty students absented their military duty. In his name index Rørdam records “the students of the University of Copenhagen during the siege”; including the name of Könecken7. However Rørdam publish “the newly found” university conscription registers from September 1658 and January 4th 1659; without the name of Könecken8.
Parts of the files of the University were destroyed during the British terror bombardment of Copenhagen in 18079. As the war year 1659 passed the students dissatisfaction with the military service grew, proved the later research of Holger Rørdam.
The total of amount of students in the university of Copenhagen in 1658 were 600 so the total given by Helweg is a misunderstanding. The drafted student colleges of Könecken were the subject of royal letters concerning “greater precision in the fulfilment of their military duties”10, and, that “the professors ordered the students to be at their post”11. This rebukes did not work; so the students were drafted12. Neither did this help. A month later a new letter from the king shows, that even the conscription had failed. Again the professors were commanded to “order the students to yet some time diligent to stay at their posts”13.
The head master of the university, Rasmus Enevoldsen Brochman, posted his resignation on May 21, 1659 thereafter he wrote two apologies to the King. On September 12th. 1659, three days after the second letter from the king the Academic Council agreed to continue as usual! Therefore first after the drafting of the students in October 1659 the new head master of the university was appointed14.
Later next year, while the Kings Council agreed on a cut in the defence expenses in Norway15, the king commanded to the new head master of the university, that “the arms of the deserted students should be returned”16.
Because of his pacific and anti-authoritarian views in the newly absolute state of Denmark, Jesper Baltzarsen Könecken was condemned in 1663 by the Copenhagen University Academic Court and expelled from Denmark after spending some time in prison17. Via Sweden he settled in the Netherlands, where he continued to express and publish his pacific views18.
The first Latin printed book in Denmark was on war19. The possible first pacific book in Denmark was printed shortly after the reformation: Erasmus of Rotterdam's Een christelig og nyttig bog om kongers, fursters riigts landes oc stoeders regimente digtighed ... och kaldet en christen fyrstis underwiisning och laere, printed in Roskilde, 1534; a translation of Institutio principes christiani saluber-rimis referta præceptis, from 1515.
Around the same time as the sermon of Könecken a theological booklet was circulated: A little track, how a just Christian soldier ought to warre against spiritual and carnal enemies. Also on some causes to War; thereupon, on the noble and precious gift of the peace of' God.
This edifying booklet was an reprint of an edition from 1647, where the name of the author appears: Jens Søffrensen Nørnissom20. According to Bibliotheca Danica, this is the only Danish published publication recorded in the national bibliography relevant here.
Foreign peace books were banned and burned in Scandinavia: Paul Felgenhauer's Perspicillum Bellicum was, according to Arthur Thuesen, published in German in 1652 and translated into and published in Swedish by peace apostle Anders Pedersson Kempe in 166421. The book was banned in both Sweden and Norway, and, on March 31, 1671, judged to be burned on the fire. It is not known, but likely, that this book also was banned in Denmark.
Danish-Norwegian censure, established during the church reformation in 1536, was not complete22. Privileged could read Marsilius Patavinus: Defensor Pacis. Basle, 1522; which later was destroyed during the British terror bombardment of Copenhagen in 1807 and a Danish translation of Immanuel Kant’s Zum ewigen Frieden published in 1796. Employees in the foreign office could read a copy of Hugo Grotius: De Jure Belli et Pacis from 169623. Jesper Baltzarsen Könecken explained to the court, that before he wrote De bellis Christianorum Novi Testamenti, he had read one German book with the title Irenicum by an unknown author. If I read Jacob ter Meulden right, the author could be Daniel Zwicker, whose Irenicum irenicorum first was published in Amsterdam in 1658, short time before Könecken’s sermon. The early Danish conception of peace and pacifism needs to be investigated.
As late as in 1849 the state gave up and with the new Danish constitution granted religious and political freedom, but according to a classic study by church historian Bjørn Kornerup: Quaker propaganda in Denmark and Norway in older times, the Quakers were not accepted by the church of Denmark before 1924, when pacific bishop Valdemar Ammundsen (1875-1936) wrote the preface to Anne Vedde's the Quakers and by then there even was a Christian peace group in Denmark.
During World War One, youth socialist Niels Johnsen was sencented two months prison for the authorship of the booklet “the Fight Against Conscription”24. This was as far as I know the last censorship of pacific publications in Denmark.
Könecken is neither recorded in Jacob ter Meulden's Bibliographie du movement de la paix, 1480-1776, in the Catalouge de la bibliotheque l' institut Nobel Norwegien from 1912, in Swinne’s Bibliographia Irenica 1500- 1970, or in my bibliography Peace in Print, and to my knowledge Jesper Baltzarsen Könecken is not mentioned in the text books on the history of the peace movements, peace research and pacifism or in popular Danish history books25.
The early press of Denmark is recorded in the compulsory reading of literature historian P. M. Stolpe (1832-1918): The Press in Denmark. Stolpe’s history of Danish newspapers also includes a commented bibliography of books and leaflets from 1482 to 1671 and mentions some 150 Danish and foreign newsletters published in the years 1657-1660. No mention of Könecken.
Fr. Hammerich’s historical lecture on Christian II in Sweden and Charles X in Denmark has a most important bibliography of contemporary hand-written and printed sources to the war between Denmark and Sweden. Hammerich even index “the most important” newspapers Stolpe not recorded26.
The history of peace work and pacifism in Denmark is nearly non existent before 1849. Little has been written in the international academic literature about peace work in Denmark. Yet the domestic and international Danish peace work has a long tradition, just as faced as peace work in other countries.
Historical research and historical publications are indexed in Danish Historical Bibliography and there is great interest in Denmark for writing about historical subjects. The Danish Historical Bibliography 1943-1947 alone index 9343 titles, two articles on political pacifists can be used in our study: one on Lars Bjørnbak and one on Viggo Hørup and two articles on Frederik III are useful27. Diaries and biographies on Frederik III? The Danish historical Bibliography was taken over by the Royal Library and made online from 1990.
Most Danish academic research fields have their own research guides and specialised magazines, with the expectation of the peace movement. The history of the international peace movement is more or less left undone except for Danish historians studying parts of the Danish peace movement. There are some learned prefaces to a dozen or so academic theses.
The main reason for this poor situation is the missing peace (research) education in Danish universities. According to Robin's Directory of College and University Peace Studies Programs, there is only a International Peace University Programme c/o Copenhagen Peace Research Institute.
Also there are no peace libraries and peace archives in Denmark, though some libraries and archives have publications and archives from the peace groups. The most important are The Royal Library, the Record Office and Arbejderbevægelsens Bibliotek og Arkivall in Copenhagen and the State Library in Aarhus.
Even though it is possible through long and complicated studies of history, social movements, administrative history, agricultural history and so on it is possible to find single visionary individuals who have misunderstood the policy of the rulers, they are according to myth the exception, which proves that the myth is right28.
Reading of history prove, that Danes both before and after Jesper Baltzarsen Könecken protested against wars, conscription, the burden of militarism and that these protests are recorded in the most unusual places, some in criminal and military records. As early as 1584-1585 skilled labours deserted from conscripted service; the building of ships for the navy29.
Around the year 700 the Danes developed a ship building technique, which made it possible to travel long distances. Some predictably aggressive persons used the ships to plunder northern Europe. As time went by, records shows that it became more increasing unpopular to partake in the plundering. In order to get the Viking ships manned a national conscription register system called skipæn, was created. Even though there are no records of early conscientious objection, the creation of the conscription system proves, that the farmers and fishers did not volunteer as much as were wanted.
As we move up in the European middle age before 1200, the printed research material on conscription becomes greater. The historian C. A. Christensen wrote in 1980, that the church, in Roskilde, became rich, because of local collective draft resistance. The only lawful way to avoid the draft were to give up land and farms to the church, which then were in charge of the draft. Even though Christensen only is investigating one bishopric, Roskilde, one could, with caution conclude, that there were similar draft systems and resistance to them in the other countries of Denmark. (However, this has still to be researched).
In the 13th. century the country laws in Denmark (Swedenand Norway), which introduced the international laws of the church became effective30. And with the new laws came the growing influence of the church and the kings.
In 1095, Treuga Dei, the peace and truce of God was created for all Christians and some of the first peace groups like the English the Lollard’s and the French Poor men from Lyon appears31. During the synods of 1047 (Synodus Helenesis) and Narbonne1054 the peace of God was expanded to include the clergy, monks, nuns, pilgrims, merchants, farmers, women, churches, monasteries etc. The peace of God meant, that violent conflicts had to cease from Wednesday night to Monday morning and also on holidays.
During the time of Queen Margrethe 1 (1353-1412), the Peace of God was developed into a complex Danish conflict preventing system of women peace; and also the peace of the king, the peace of houses, farms, fields, things and ships. The peace of women from 1396, meant, according to historian Erik Arup, that women should enjoy a particular peace - not be violated during times of war - with the offender being punished by death. This was way in advance of the addendum to the Geneva-protocol of 1977.
In Scandinavia there are two expressions for disarmament: “afrustning”which means complete disarmament and “nedrustning”which means partial disarmament. The following is the case of complete disarmament.
In 1631, King Christian IV commanded the rebuilding of the fortification of Ålborgby forced labour. Thus the construction of the fortification was slow. Nine year later the Kings Council granted two taxes more for the work, too late; for the enemy a year later came to the town where the citizens opened the gate and asked the enemy colonel to show mercy. Shortly afterwards the fortification disappears so completely, that today there is no “trace left of it”32.
The war in 1658 went bad for the Danes. The Swedes conquered Jutland. Danes in Jutland were drafted by the Swedes, but deserted and only Danish officers were in place in the island Funen. The peasants of the small island were drafted, but deserted helped by the landowners because all the officers were Dutch, and the peasants did not want to learn that foreign language, tells the military historian Th. Thaulow33.
Thus deserting from the draft and deserting from the war service was common in Denmark.
According to church historian Ludwig Helweg who preceded by two years Rødam’s biography of the first student rebellion The History of the Danish Church after the Reformation from 1851, during 1658 the king did not hope in vain for support by the bourgeois and the academic in Copenhagen for the throne: “The students and the citizens competed to give the promise, to defence themselves until the uttermost. Then the powers were not used; but soon the opportunity to honour the promise came”. While the enemy were at the gate of the city, the promise to the king was given again. The students armed. They totalled 600 in two companies. Everybody were ready for the defence of the city, but first they congregated in the churches where the priests admonished the great gathering to serious prayer and penance to turn the threatening wrath of God. While everybody did their duties the priests and the bishop were on the walls strengthening the terrified and weak-hearted.
“One student, Jesper Baltzarsen Könecken inspired by the Quaker views of the sermons of Niels Svendsen, recommended the citizens to lay down their arms in order to not be defiled with the blood of the enemy”. “But his voice”, wrote Helweg, “became silent in the common zeal”34.
Also in Norway, there was rebellion against the draft35. On April 28th. 1663 the king ordered 8 named persons who had rebelled against the draft and killed an lieutenant to be sent to the military prison in Copenhagen to labour in iron.
During the Scania war 1675-1679 between Denmark and Sweden there were so many Danish draft absence cases and deserters, that they are described in the popular Politikens History of Denmark36. Even Swedes deserted from their the war duties.
The Swedish priest Nicolaus Petri and the Danish priest Mikael Colding living across the border of Småland in Sweden made together with their vassals and parochial church councils a peasant peace treaty in spite of the newly declared war: “No one in their parishes should fall upon each other and with murder, plunder and fire inflict one another damage, but just as before stand by a common good neighbourhood. There had earlier been similar peace treaties in 1611 and 1644”37. The peasant peace treaty worked, until it was broken by the Danish guerrilla soldiers, called snaphaner, during the Swedish conquest of the Danish territory in Scania, Halland and Blekinge.
The ruling system of absolutism created a perverse system of oppression against the unpropertied persons, culminating with the adscription (registration of and forced labour of villeinages) in 1701.
To learn about the absolute society I am dependent on archival references of the administration of agricultural history, development of law & order and punishment, legal history and the history of taxation. Taxation could show the interaction between the military burden, taxes and protests against them.
Denmark was a farming country then. Browsing in the encyclopaedic Handbook for Danish local historians38gave the article Hartkorn, a Danish unit for land valuation and the key words and the reference needed were given. The key words are: portion money39, cavalry money40, march money41, food tax42, all taxes that were part of the military burden. The reference is from Nielsen and Thalbitzer’s jubilee publication Tax and tax administration in older times43. It was the first breakthrough. The two tax historians wrote, that by the time of the great Nordic war 1701-1720, the navy had to be rearmed and an expensive system of conscripted soldiers was introduced: The share of military burden in the total state budget were so great, that chances in the military areas marked the total account. The preponderance of the military expenses of wars, armaments and changes in the military policy thus greatly influenced the states finances and was quickly manifested in the tax policy44. And because it was the history of tax and tax administration, the different military related taxes and the protests against them was easy to find and prove; as the connection between tax administration and conscription also is the subject of the important philosophical doctor’s thesis “Great Landowner and Public Administrator” of the archivist Birgit Løgstrup.
Law & order and punishment would possible show non book printed protests especially regarding to the military, conscription and desertion. By 1701 a complex detailed ascription conscript registration system was created; wherewith the agricultural workers became slaves of the landowners; the only time off was during military service45. Historian Finn Stendal Pedersen connects again the conscription register to the landowners from 1733 to 1793, when conscription was taken over by the military46.
By the year 2000 Tyge Krogh was able to publish his second major empirical based thesis, The Enlightenment and the magical : Executions and corporal punishments in Denmark in the first half of the 18th century47. Krogh analyses criminal cases 1719 to 1756 presented to military courts covered by the Provincial court of Zealand. Krogh even has a database of military criminal cases48! Soldiers drafted collectively. The military historian Niels Friis wrote, that as late as July 21, 1783, 37 soldiers deserted, “possible at the same time”49. Now the pacific desertion cases and protests against conscription should be easy to record in the period up to the Danish constitution of 1849:
Birgit Løgstrup proves in 1986 that general protests, disobedience, strikes and even civil disobedience, like boycotts was possible for the peasants, at least from 178150.
Birgit Løgstrup analyses in her thesis some of the conscientious objector cases: refusal to engagement up to 174151, bribery52, complaints to the supreme court and the king53, deserting from the land owners54, refusal of church confirmation and communication to 177755, marriage, employment in towns56and skilled employment as in the case of the musician Olle Larsen Esch (after 1755) etceteras. In a later volume Bound to the Earth, Birgit Løgstrup also describes emigration by conscientious objectors57and self mangling is seen as late as 184658. It should be kept in mind, that these learned historians only researched local cases and that similar research has to be completed in the rest of Denmark.
The intelligence work of the police began on May 10, 1780, according to the historian Kenn Tarbesen59. The police intelligence should “control and put social clubs under surveillance”.
During the Napoleon wars there was a rebellion in the Norwegian valley Lejrdalen or Lerdalenagainst conscription in January 1802. Also there was a similar rebellion in the island Karmønear the Norwegian town of Stavanger. The people in Lejrdalen gave meeting at the draft and was registered, but did not report for service in the army. An armed military expedition was sent from Denmark to the dale, and the citizens gave in; but formed only a light company with the explanation, that none of them “could ski”60.
After the battle of Copenhagen, Danish and Norwegian prisoners of war were imprisoned in English prison ships (an early form for concentration camps) up to 1814, when they were released. Some of the imprisoned Norwegian sailors became Quakers and established Quaker communities in Norway, which got under Swedish rule after the Napoleon wars61. The British imprisonment policy during the Napoleon wars needs attention, regarding the prisoners of war from countries other than Denmark and Norway.
In 1841 the Quaker Elizabeth Fry and her brother Joseph John Gurney visited Copenhagen, where they had talks with the king, recommending him to abolish slavery in the Danish West Indies Islands62.
In the “strange year” of 1848 the Danish-German three year war began63.
In august 1849 the fourth (or third) international peace congress was held in the German town of Frankfurt a/M.. The congress asked Elihu Burritt (1810-1879), Joseph Sturge and Frederick Wheeler to mediate in the war between Denmark and Germany. The mediation offer was accepted, and the parts in the conflict were “reminded that an old treaty made provision for the settlement of disputes by arbitration”64. Burritt spoke Danish; one of his booklets was later translated into Danish65. This mediation case needs research in Danish.
During the mobilisation of the army in December 1849, which needed to draft men from Slesvig, the military police officer Leerbeck asked for help from the Haderslev country house authorities66 to announce the drafts, (recorded the Danish general staff 30 years after the war)67. The country house in Haderslev declared that it could not accept the usual draft announcement, only that the parish executive officers made the draft announcements, leaving it up to each individual, whether he would co-operate or not. Then Leerbeck did not use the country houses, but himself announced the drafts in the whole of Slesvig.
Consequently not all the soldiers could be drafted at once so that enlisting men became difficult as the order had to be given to nearly every man individually; and in different areas the civil servants and agitators tried to sabotage the draft -- pretending that the draft did not have the legitimacy of the legal authorities; even some of the persons sent out with the draft orders were arrested and enlistment campaign results were very small.
Announcement in pro-Danish newspapers resulted in most of the draft enlistment. However, some did not meet and on the other hand not a few people fearing draft enforcement by the army of Slesvig-Holstein left Slesvig for the island of Als. Thereupon the ministry of war decided, that they should be sent to the island Funen, and if they would not accept the military service during war, they had to prove to the civilian authorities that they were able to support themselves, they could take residence where they wanted.
The political debate over the defence policy of Denmark began before and during the discussions over the new constitution in 1849.
As early as in May 1836, counsellor of justice and land owner Malte Bruun Nyegaard(1789-1877), in the Vi-borgAssembly of the Estates of the Realm68, argued against general conscription and a rise in military expenditures, “Because of the coming rule of reason, wars will become rare, and the best projection for the country is the diplomacy”. Expensive Danish armament would “not benefit against the great powers”69.
Secretary of culture, bishop D. G. Monrad spoke later “about political dreaming”, when nationalists wanted a strong defence. During this debate the first liberal party the Society of Friends of the farmers70, was created71, with the pacifist teacher and politician Lars Bjørnbak (1826-1878) as one of the leaders. In 1870 the Christian Lars Bjørnbak was the author of the first pacific protest to the parliament. Bjørnbak was active in the Danish Folk High School movement.
Browsing through the justice ministry’s files in the Record Office revealed, that this ministry was in charge of the general conscription in the period 1851 to 1914; when conscription was taken over by the Ministry of the Interior, which still is the administrator of conscription72.
Danes used civil disobedience73, desertion and were conscientious objectors during the 1864 war with Germany-Austria . In the period 1863-65 the moulder Ove Petersen was sentenced four times for objection based on religious conviction. The military court used the same argumentation as in the case of Könecken: “because of religious fanaticism objected to dress in the uniform and conscription”, and because of religious fanaticism objected “duty” and “deserted”74. This is but one of many cases during and after the war.
Some Danish prisoners of war were returned to Denmark years after the war. Their German prison experience made them insane75. This subject is unknown to military historians and needs more research.
German military service enforced upon the conquered Danes of South Jutland; which only had one legal option to escape: emmigration. By 1870 nearly all conscripted Danes in the so called optant movement, emigrated to Denmark76.
It is not known how many Danes who emmigrated to the United States and Canada because of military conscription in the years 1849 to 191777. However the study of historian Peter Mikael Hansensuggest a connection with the abstention from the draft and the Danish emmigration in the period 1880 to 191478.
Also during World War One more than 2.400 Southern Jutlander’s with Danish symphaties deserted from the German colours by escaping to Denmark79.
Journalist, publisher and liberal politician Viggo Hørup (1841-1902) is unknown outside Scandinavia, though he was the most important Danish antimilitarist politician in the last part of the 19th century, when Denmark 1849 to 1894 was a militarised police state. Hørup introduced the concept militarism in the debate over the fortification of Copenhagen and asked the simple but powerful question in the parliament: What should it [the military] benefit?. As a part in the political struggle between the nationalists and the liberals Hørup founded the newspaper Politiken 1884 of which he became the chief editor. The liberals founded many newspapers in order to conquer the public opinion. Viggo Hørup was the father of Ellen Hørup, herself a pacifist journalist. Most Danish biographies about Viggo Hørup are written by politicians, and only a couple by historians80.
Fredrik Bajer (1837-1922) published his memories in 1909. This covers the period up to 1908. As one of the few Danes in international organised peace work he was awarded with a half Nobel peace prize in 190881. Bajer was a founding member of the Inter-Parliamentary Union82, The International Peace Bureau83and the Danish Peace Union84, a Danish biography covering the period from 1908 to 1922 is much needed and an English biography might highlight Danish peace work85.
His wife Mathilde (1840-1934) is nearly forgotten today, even though she worked in international women peace groups on her own rights86, she were vice-president in Alliance universelle des femmes pour le paix. Also the couple established the first women rights organisation in Denmark. A biography over Mathilde Bajer might be needed. Also useful might be bibliographies on both Bajer’s87inclusive of the archive at the Record Office88. Though members of the same political party Bajer and Hørup didn’t get along well. Hørup wanted to conquer the political power in the parliament, while Bajer were working a grassroot.
The first Danish Christian Peace Union, Kristeligt Fredsforbund,was created in the spring of 1913. Its now rare magazine “Fredsvarden” is an invaluable source of information to Danish and international Christian peace work from 1913 to 1940. The Danish Christian Peace Union’s history needs to be written.
The first world war introduced women and workers to the Danish peace movement. After the international women’s congress in the Hague, the Danish chapter of the later Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom was created; much to the dislike and debate of the men in the Danish Peace Society89. The printed record of the congress at the Hague was located in the Royal Library in Copenhagen by the key word women’s movement, not under peace movement90.
The world’s first anti war movie was produced in Denmark during WW1, based upon the novel of Bertha von Suttner: Die Waffen Nieder. From 1915 three anti war movies were produced in Denmark.
Political conscientious objectors during WW1 created the first conscientious objectors union on September 17th. 191592. The unions members of worker’s pacifists and anti-militarist’s was total objectors. Also there were abstention and deserter cases from “simple people” during the war93. The debate over the imprisonment of the conscientious objectors led to the conscientious objectors law of December 1917.
Danish foreign missionary work had began in 1714 in the Danish colony Tranke-bar in India. After the turn of the 20’th century missio-nary Eduard Løventhal was advocating women missionaries to work in India, because men could not enter the houses, where the women were.
In 1913 the teacher and missionary Anne Marie Petersen (1878-1951) joined the elder Løventhal at his mission station which she later took over.
While doing research on Indian education Anne Marie Petersen and Mahatma Gandhi meet the first time in January 1917; long before Gandhi was a popular politician in the West.
The Danish mission to India is a subject for the thesis “Dependency and Identity : Problems of Cultural Encounter as a consequence of the Danish Mission in South India between World Wars I and II” by Bent Smidt Hansen94.
The contact on the one side between Danish missionaries, Scandinavian supporters of the Indian liberation movement and on the other side Mahatma Gandhi is documented in the anthology “Gandhi and Nordic Countries”.
The Danish debate over peace education from the late 19. Century
was renewed in the inter-war period. In 1921 Quaker inspired
teacher Peter Manniche (1889-1981) founded the International
People’s College95as an expansion of
the (Christian national oriented) folk high schools. The Nordic
Teachers Peace Union was created in 192596parallel to a growing debate amongst
historians over nationalism and militarism in text books. The
debate lead to a reform of Danish school books in 1933. The
‘6th. International Montesorri Congress’ on peace
education was held in Copenhagen in August 193797.
During the early twenties were founded Danish chapters of the War Resisters’ International, Aldrig mere Krig, and the religious international organisations the World Alliance for Promoting Inter-national Friendship through the Churches and Faith and Order98.
Around 1936 a Danish chapter of the International Friendship
League was created, led by police chief C. R. Ege in Hobro99.
In May 1933 the Danish chapter of the All Peoples Association’s invited Sir Norman Angell to a lecture in the Women’s Reading Society in Copenhagen100.
During the early 1930s contemporary Gandhi literature was published in Denmark101; more than in the rest of the Scandinavian countries together. The Friends of India was organised by pacifist Ellen Hørup (1871-1953) in 1930 in Copenhagen, and the organisation published one of the first magazines outside India, promoting the Indian nonviolent struggle for freedom.
Both Ellen Hørup and the Friends of India organisation were under surveillance by British intelligence services in the beginning of the 1930s. After Ellen Hørup in 1933 moved to Geneva The International Committee for India was created. The Committee which had elected Ellen Hørup as secretary organised international conferences on the political situation in India and published a newsletter Indian Press to 1936.
After Denmark joined the League of Nations in 1920, the Danish defence policy was adjusted accordingly. The Danish army and navy were disarmed; a policy even bourgeois politicians after much debate agreed on as no foreign threats were seen against Denmark102. According to George Lansbury's My Quest for Peace: “Very little money is spent on war preparations [in Denmark in 1938]. It would in any case be absurd for Denmark to arm against her enormously powerful southern neighbour. She has moreover no empire to hold by force, or to excite the covetousness of other countries. Iceland has the same King, but is in no other way dependent on Denmark. The Danish West Indies were sold to America early this century. The sole trace of the imperialist habits of the early Danes is the Danish flag that flies over the inhospitable Greenland.
The country is not out-and-out pacifist by any means. Conscription is still the law and there is a small "coast defence" which is hardly a real navy. But the policy of Denmark ever since the war has been to support earnestly every move which seemed to help peace. Nobody who considers the Danes' record can deny that their efforts have been genuine and continuous”103.
Danish politicians and idealists got involved with the promotion of the League of Nations. Accordingly the Danish Peace Society changed its name to The Danish Peace and League of Nations Society. When Nansen received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1922, the Danish publisher Christian Erichsengave his whole fortune, the matching amount of Nansen’s Nobel prize, who gave the Nobel prize money and the money from Erichsento humanitarian work in Russia.104.
While Germany was busy rearming and preparing for the Second World War, the War Resisters’ International held its international conference in Copenhagen in July 1937105. After the congress the Dutchman Bart de Ligt (1883-1938) published The Conquest of Violence in English and Fight without Weapons106was published in Denmark of which later professor Gene Sharp made good use107. Sharp wrote, ”that Lindberg attempted, and appealed for, a comparative evaluation on practical grounds of the advances, disadvantages and consequences of nonviolent action, military resistance, terrorist resistance and guerrilla war”108.
While responsible politicians declared ‘peace in our time’ the year following, informed pacifists, journalists and refugees knew better. Ellen Hørup established the international news agency: Journal des Archieves, 1938-1939, in Geneva to communicate analyses of the current political situation in Europe to the rest of the world109. Because of critic against the Swiss restricted policy towards German political émigrés, on February second, 1939 the chief of the Swiss Police féderale des étrangers recommended that the residence permission of Ellen Hørup not was renewed. She moved to France110.
In May 1938 Ellen Hørup took the initiative to a three days international conference in the French town Marseille for prominent women on the subject “the morale in international relations”. The conference was attended by 700 women111.
I have failed to find research references to Journal des Archieves in the international peace literature; so this subject awaits its historican.
In 1938 three Danish women, Melanie Oppenheim, Kirsten Gloerfelt-Tarp and Thora Daugaard from the Danish Women’s Council and the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, began the import of German and Austrian Jewish children to Denmark, which “needed agricultural students”! 325 Jewish children came to Denmark and in December 1939 most of them were shipped to Haifa in Palestine112.
Shortly before the World War Two aid to the families of prisoners in German concentration camps were organised by the organisation Skandia-Hjælp. Ellen Hørup as well as other Danes like Else Zeuthen had protested against the Spanish civil war 1936-1939, the battlefield of Capitalism113. The Danish country wide collecting of aid in cooperation with Swedish and French refugee organisations to the suffering women and children of the Spanish civil war began in about January 1936. The Danes and Swedes worked also together with the International Save the Children Fund at Geneva114. They might have been inspired both by the well known work of Nansen in Russia and by a lecture held September 30, 1935 by Pierre Ceresole in Copenhagen on “Conscientious objection and reconstruction in ravaged areas”115and by aid work of WRl116.
This subject needs a closer look by historians.
At the beginning of the second world war, the Danish author and refugee friend Karin Michaëlis emigrates to New York. She returns to Denmark in 1946.
The German professor Walther A. Berendsohn (1884-1984) from the University of Hanburg, was living in Denmark after 1933. He collected German language émigré literature for his study Die Humanistischen Front (Züric 1946 and Worms 1976)117.
Also the German educator Dr. Franz Mockrauer was living in Denmark in 1937118. Mockrauer offered lectures to persons interested in subjects related to peace.
The official Danish policy at the beginning of the occupation was co-operation with the Germans: To deport Germans political refugees and deserters back to Germany119; who according to the Germans:
“werden wegen Vorbereitung zum Hochverrat von Deutscehn Gerichten gesucht. Es besteht hier ausserdem der Verdact, dass sie heute noch ihre staatsfeindlilichen Betättigung fort-zetsen. Sie bilden eine Gefahr für die Aufrechtterhandlung der öffentli-chen Sicherheit und Ordnung und müssen daher für die Dauer der Anwesenheit der deutsche Truppen in Dänemark in Verwahrung ge-nommen Werden“120.
The demand was „meet“ so complete, that even the seized archives of the Danish émigré organisations was handed over to the Germans, who alas, “did not return them”121. Also 61 British and French citizens were deported to Germany on May, 17th. 1940122. Co-operation from the Danish police with the German police began even before the war in the International Criminal Police Commission123.
Export of Danish produced weapons and food to Germany and her allied took place during the whole war124.
One of the major accomplishment of the Danish resistance movement was the illegal press; even the German émigrés had their own news agency and communicated their documents to members of the German army. Die deutsche Frieheitsbewegung zur Zeit der Besetzung Dänemarks documents were collected shortly after the war. The paper war of the illegal press and its news agencies was not only important sources of information, but they also served as instruments for recruiting personnel to the resistance movement.
Thus the resistance work was partly non violent civil disobedience during war and partly violent, or as the Danish historians debate active and passive resistance. This is clearly exemplified by the medical profession.
The escape to Swedenof the 5.600 Danish Jews after October 1943 was only possible because the medical profession and students on a mass scale helped the Jews to escape125. The doctors used hospitals to hide the Jews and their cars for transportation126. Also the Danish chapters of the War Resisters’ International and the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom were active in the rescue of the Jews. However, not all the Jews were saved. Four hundred eighty-one Danish Jews ended in the concentration camp Theresienstadt.
After the escape of the Jews many of the doctors and students
became active in the militant resistance movement.
Members of the Other Germany, like Hilltgunt Zassen-haus (born 1916), tried to help Danish and Norwegian prisoners in Germany during World War II128. Her American autobiography was published in Danish in 1974.
The émigré Walther A. Berendsohn, the son of a Jew, escaped to Sweden in a small boat together with two German deserters from Luxemburg and a Danish saboteur129.
On October 22nd 1942 the German soldier Alfred Andersch deserted in Germany and sailed to Denmark130.
Denmark was in the unique situation that it was the only German occupied country, where organised peace work could continue without German persecution and imprisonment of pacifists. Thus Denmark became a safe heaven for German peace literature during World War Two, because of close contacts between Danish and German pacifists. A rare copy of Emil Flusser’sKrieg als Krankheit survived the book burnings of the fascists in Denmark131. Among other surviving books were Ernst Friedrich‘s: Krieg dem Kriege and Mathilde Vaerting‘s Die Struktur des friedlichen Menschen from 1933.
Around 100,000 Jewish books at the Royal Library were hidden from the Germans132.
The important Danish aid work during and after World War Two began with the aid to Norway founded in 1940 at Copenhagen by the Norwegian Ladies Committee133.
During the war the aid work grew in size and importance. The peace groups organised nation-wide collections of money and clothes and training camps for volunteer skilled workers.
Even new peace groups like The Youths Peace Society134 and the most important aid and relief organisation the Peace Friends Relief Work135were established - the later in January 1944. The Peace Friends Relief Work was supported by all the Danish peace groups, the Quakers and Kirkeligt Verdensforbund.At the end of World War Two hundreds of volunteers Danish craftsmen organised by the Peace Friends Relief Work supported by the governments Liaison Committee Concerning International Aid Work (established in September 1944); the Danish Red Cross and Save the Children136were ready to begin aid- and reconstruction work in Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Norway, Finland and Poland. Food parcels relief was also sent to Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Germany and the Soviet Union.
The motives for participating in the aid and reconstruction work was for the pacifist reconciliation and for the government bridge building into the victorious allied countries which succeeded when Denmark in late 1945 joined the United Nations137. When the Danish government in 1946-1947 closed the after the post war food aid programmes because of a poor balance of trade, the successful International Tuberculosis Campaign was created.138.
Danish United Nations societies organised the umbrella organisation Dansk Samråd for forenede Nationer.
In 1947 Peter Manniche was a Danish delegate to the UNESCO conference in Mexico City. Manniche “aimed at education for international understanding” with “adult education as a way to peace”139. According to the Australian education historian Max Lawson, Manniche was “instrumental in arranging the first UNESCO international course on adult education” in 1949. It marked the beginning “of an international adult education movement”140.
The cold war in Denmark is the subject of both heated political debates and historical research. The main Danish contributions to iron curtain of the cold war were the membership of NATO and the American Thule Air Base141. According to a study by Geir Lundestad, “it is impossible to study American-Danish relations without bringing in Greenland”142; and the Danish governments top secret allowances of US nuclear weapons in Greenland, contradicting the official security policy of no foreign bases and no nuclear weapons on Danish territory.
This was made possible by a little known Danish-American agreement, dated January 27, 1950, which article III stated, that all military related information between the two governments should be classified143. A new treaty on general security of military information was made February 27, 1981 after Scandinavian peace researchers discovered that the American archival rules were more liberal than their own countries restricted rules144. The much debated anthology: Grønland Middelhavets Perle : Et indblik i amerikansk atomkrigsforberedelsefrom 1983 is one of many samples of peace researchers who were looking too close into the politicians cards.
The Americans in Greenland has been investigated by the Danish Institute of International Affairs, Greenpeace and others, though not all yet has been said in this matter, neither by the historians and the courts145.
The American military facilities in the Faroe Islands during and after the cold war needs also a closer look.
After Denmark in the spring of 1949 became a member of NATO two communistic inspired peace organisations were created: the Danish Peace Conference and the Danish chapter of the international les Partisans de la Paix146. From March 1950 the Danish Peace Supporters collected signatures to the World Peace Council’s Stockholm-appeal against nuclear weapons; while the Danish Peace Conference during the first part of the cold war in the 1950s held three conferences to get the labour movement into organised peace work with little success. Another initiatives were the Committee on a independent foreign policy established by the magazine Frit Danmark and a Danish chapter of the One World Movement.
After the Soviet invasion of Hungary in 1956 the umbrella organisation Danish Refugee Council was created for the Danish aid and refugee organisations147.
Both official and private intelligence services surveyed and
recorded opposition groups as well as peace groups during and after
the cold war; contradicting official government policy statements
of March fifth, 1947, November 13, 1952 and September 30, 1968 on
no intelligence filing of “lawful political
activities”. As a one of many protest against the
intelligence services huge files on political active persons,
the Zealand Committee against the Card Files was established in
1965148. The Danish intelligence services
activities needs more research149.
From the end of World War two the main focus of nuclear weapons had been on power and deterrence. Back in 1944 the Danish nuclear scientist Niels Bohr (1885-1962) recommended to the UK Prime Minister Winston Churchill the establishment of international control over the use of nuclear weapons.
Shortly before the beginning of the Korean war July 9,1950 Bohr wrote an open letter to the United Nations, because “The promise and danger involved in the technical advances have now most forcibly stressed the need for decisive steps towards openness as a primary condition for the progress and protection of civilisation”150.
In the middle of the 1950s the general view on nuclear weapons policy chanced with growing concern over health and environmental damages caused by atmospheric nuclear weapons tests151. The Einstein-Russell-appeal of 1955 saw the creation of many campaigns for nuclear disarmament. Inspired by England the Danish campaign was created in January 1960 by members of the Danish chapter of WRI.
By the parliamentarian election of 1964, the nuclear pacifists were so strong, that a new liberal Peace Political Peoples Party was created; however it failed after the election to be represented in the parliament152. In 1973 Klaus Jørgensen published the first academic thesis on The Nuclear Weapons Issue in Danish Politics, with Special Reference to the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament153.
Anders Boserup (1940-1990) and Claus Iversen published a study on the Easter marches in the “past eight years”154. By then they had established the short lived Institute for Peace and Conflict Research Copenhagen. Boserup was a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Peace Research 1972-1974 and worked also for SIPRI on international law relating to chemical and biological weapons155- as an example from 1972: CBW and the law of war. From 1985 Anders Boserup played a key role in the European development of the theory on Non-Offensive Defence156.
The work of Boserup sparkled a growing interest for peace and conflict research in Denmark157, culminating so far with the creation of the Working Group of the Academic Council of the University of Copenhagenon Peace and Conflict Research in 1983158, the Copenhagen Peace Research Institute in 1984 (now a part of the Danish Foreign Policy Institute) and the Transnational Foundation for Peace and Future Research in 1985 of Jan Øberg in Lund, Sweden.
The Easter demonstrations against nuclear weapons were followed by demonstrations against the Vietnam war. In January 1967 the Danish Bertrand Russell Committee was created to organise the second session of the International War Crimes Tribunal, which was forbidden to hold its session in Paris and Stockholm. Under much publicity and debate the second session was held at Roskilde, late November 1967. The report of the tribunal was published in 50 copies in English and in French each and 100 copies in Danish159. The Danish police attacked a huge peaceful demonstration against the Vietnam War at the American embassy in Copenhagen on April 27, 1968160. Afterwards the Danish anti-Vietnam war groups split over discussions about imperialism161, but out of the Vietnam war movement grew the bookshop Demos and its co-operation with the Danish chapter of the WRI on the analysing and mapping of the Danish arms industry and military research establishment162. A work still undertaken by the Danish chapter of the War Resister’s International.
The revolt of the youth culminating with the partly occupation of the University of Copenhagen in 1968 began in the camps of the conscientious objectors in the 1950s. At the same time the numbers of discarded drafted personnel grew rapidly. The conscientious objectors began organising in 1965 and by January 1967 they established their union163. Up to 1973 the Danish numbers of conscientious objectors grew, and the politicians felt forced to chance the conscription system in order to halt the growing political influence of the conscientious objectors. In 1973, the yearly meeting of the Conscientious Objectors Union, was surveillanced by the military intelligence service164. The surveillance became the topic for investigations by two later commissions law courts and a third might be needed165. This story needs more research.
The debate over the new ‘European’ tactical nuclear weapons began in the Danish newspapers during the spring of 1979166. The double decision of NATO in December 1979 created a new fear for nuclear war. Both adults167and children168were worried over a potential third world war. Was is possible to prevent one?169Early 1980 saw the creation of the first two of the many new Danish peace groups: No to Nuclear Weapons (the Danish chapter of the European Nuclear Disarmament Appeal) and Women for Peace. In May 1981 a huge Nordic peace conference was held in Ålborg, organised by unions and the pacifist poet Carl Scharnberg170and this time succeeded in getting the labour movement and the unions into the peace movement, as a result the number of local and union based organisations grew rapidly, peaking with the much debated World Peace Conference in Copenhagen October 1986171.
The umbrella organisation for the Danish peace groups the Liaison Committee for Peace and Security had been established in 1973172. In 1977 it had launched a nation-wide campaign against neutron weapons, but after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979 most of the non communists left the organisation. Also the members of No to Nuclear Weapons and the Liaison Committee heated disagreements over tactics, slogans and policies especially over the idea of Scandinavia as a nuclear free zone disempowered the two groups.
In spite of the political disagreements the old iron curtain became rusty and peace began to move. The Soviet Peace Committee and the Soviet Women’s Committee had already seen the International Peace March-82 (Stockholm-Moscow-Minsk) organised by Scandinavian women peace organisations and the Bike-ride for Peace 83 from Moscow via Scandinavia to Washington DC173. Danish youth organisations created the campaign: Next Stop Soviet174. In the summer of 1989 nearly 3.000 Danish peace activist invaded Soviet Russia.
Military personnel organisations and the right wing created its own organisations to fight the peace groups175. The Soviet nuclear submarines in Swedish waters and on the Swedish archipelago176was used by the growing right wing to claim, that the leaders of the peace movements indeed were Soviet and East German influential agents or spies, and as a result many left the peace groups. The Danish politicians held the election of 1987 on the nuclear weapons issue. The liberals and the conservative won the election. The summits between Reagan and Gorbatjov were seen as the end of history, where nuclear war and weapons had been defused by international treaties. The No to Nuclear Weapons split over the position to the Gulf war. With the active participation in the Gulf war and by the creation of the Inappropriately named Danish international Brigade (all the soldiers are Danes and they can be used wherever the US government want’s them), the military policy was acceptable to the voters, according to several opinion pools during the late 1990s.
The disenfranchised peace movements began a long, but difficult successful campaign to aid draft evaders and deserters from the former Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) in Denmark177, while Danish racism was growing. The successful campaign against Danish export of naval ships and naval ship technology to Indonesia was began by the Danish chapter of the War Resister’s International. Also Danish shipping companies world-wide transport of arms was stopped, after it was discovered, that the shipping companies were subsidised by low insurance premiums, funded by the partly state owned Foundation for War Insurance of Ships, established during World War One178which permitted them to bid more competitively internationally. During the budget negotiations of 1997, the politicians was asked to privatise the foundation, which they did and Danish shipping companies no more transport arms.
The small peace movement became invisible in the media, though it had politically success while the Danish governments acted as being an local American state by rearming and participating in the Gulf war.
The Danish peace and disarmament activist Ulla Røder, is a fine sample of Denmark’s commitment to international solidarity, when the need is seen. She began her peace work protesting against the French nuclear weapons tests in the Pacific, became secretary for the Danish Peace Commission and later a member of the Trident Ploughshares 2000179.
The Danish Peace Commission’s members came from the Danish chapter of Artists for Peace, the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, Pugwash Conferences of Sciences and World Affairs, War Resisters’ International and the Danish organisations: the Conscientious Objector’s Union, the Peace Tax Foundation, Women for Peace and other organisations.
The war against terrorism and the American war against Iraq created many new Danish campaigns against the war and also a new umbrella organisation the Danish Peace Council was created in February 2003.
Many Danes are against the war in Iraq, and they get great help by few dedicated journalists and a couple of newspapers, with the daily Information being the most important. The Internet is used by the peace groups and campaigns to communicate ideas and information.
For the last 15 years the Danish government have had just as many problems in clothing its citizens in the uniform as the rulers had during the time of Jesper Baltzarsen Könecken. The difference from then and the present time is, that now the government is spending about £ one million/$1,800,000 on military advertisements each year in vain.
War is the alternative to peace, not the other way around. For two or three years ago I took the initiative to the establishing of the Danish Peace Academy, an educational institution still under development. We Danes knew to much about war and too little about peace. The idea had developed from the wars in Yugoslavia, where army personnel conquered the news, every night. Why was not a civilian or better a pacifist explaining what were going on?
A few friends of mine established a working group and we are trying to get Danish academicians to establish a peace education in Denmark. So far, with but little response.
For many years I have had the idea that the history of pacifism and the peace movements were neglected within the Danish research establishment, where more important things were studied in order to get butter on the table. For me it meant that all historical and political text books were wrong, because they missed the peaceful corrective in long periods of Danish as well as international history and policy. None in Denmark had heard of Anthony Benezet (1713-1789), the French-American inventor of social movements.
I started of by collecting a bibliography of the international peace movement, Peace in Print, and then I got the idea to write a documented world history and a Encyclopaedia on peace and security. Because of the Internet, I could publish there, not being ready to publish on paper, yet. There are still a few subjects which needs to be taken care of.
The peace academy has a time line where documented events can be followed as they develop both at the present, past and future. The time line is linked together with the encyclopaedia so it is easy to read the definitions. And it is possible to go from the encyclopaedia to the time line. The documentation are printed publications, reprints and links. Also there are some few experimental lessons.
The idea with the peace academy has taken some 20 years of work to evolve. Most of the documents are in Danish, but there are some English and a few German pages.
The address is http://www.fredsakademiet.dk/index.htm
When the published documents of social movements disappear, the communication of their history and ideas from primary sources prove to be difficult. Danish peace work has been and still is international oriented.
The online access to records of printed books in Denmark is surprisingly good. However, the same are not the case regarding articles in newspapers and magazines, though specialised bibliographies exist.
The cases here presented shows, that protests against militarism in Denmark are much more common than recorded by the popular historians from the middle age to the present time, and that coming historians of Danish peace history have many subjects to deal with. Danes have used all legal ways and some illegal means to stay civilians. The problems seems to be, that either the popular historians are victims of propaganda, asleep eyes wide open, or they are fabricating slick volumes which leave out the history of peace, the protests against armaments, wars and conscription. By doing this, the popular Danish history books becomes lopsided. Military personnel takes the floor every time present and historical events are explained in the mass media, especially radio and television.
Researchers in the field of peace history in other countries where written records of protest against militarism are sparse, might benefit from using some of the methods used in this article. Old historical presentations as well as old sources is vital important, especially while researching for events, which might only be described by local or specialised historians.
Comments, debate and critique is most welcomed.
Where nothing else is mentioned, the place of publication or publisher is Copenhagen.
Bibliotheca Danica – online edition.
Danish Foreign Policy Institute: Dansk udenrigspolitisk Årbog,1980-1994. From 1995 the yearbook is titled: Dansk udenrigspolitisk dokumentation.
From Erasmus to Tolstoy : The Peace Literature of Four Centuries; Jacob ter Meulen's Bibliographies of the Peace Movement before 1899 : edited with an introduction by Peter van den Dungen. - London : Greenwood Press, 1990. - 145 pp. ; Bibliographies and Indexes in Law and Science ; 14). - ISBN 13-2682-7-4.
Kirkehistorisk bibliografi. 1979.
Scheuer Nielsen, Helge: Viggo Hørup : En litteraturliste.
Birkerød. Own printing, [nd]. – ISBN 87-981372-0-4
Swinne, Axel: Bibliographia Irenica 1500-1970. Hildesheim, 1977. (Swinne index 2061 publications).
Journalisten Ellen Hørup : En personalbibliografi.
1992. - 148 pp.
Terp, Holger: Fred på Tryk : Bibliografi over dansk freds- og sikkerhedspolitisk litteratur. 1989. (Covers the period 1881-1988. According to Søren Hein Rasmussen, p. 10, there are more than 2.500 titles in Fred på Tryk.).
Terp, Holger: Peace in Print : The history of the peace movements : (1.567 titles)
General history of Denmark
Danmarks gamle love paa nutidsdansk I-III, 1945-1948.
Manley, R.: Coppenhagen. - London, 1670. – 1 p. (map).
Nørgaard, Ellen: Lille barn, hvis er du? En skolehistorisk undersøgelse over reformbestræbelser inden for den danske folkeskole i mellemkrigstiden. 1977.
Rasmussen: Dagsregister fra 1601 til 1664.
Stolpe, P. M.: Dagspressen i Danmark, dens vilkaar og Personer indtil midten af det attende Aarhundrede. 4 vols. 1878. Reprinted 1977.
Thaulow, Th.: Den danske Soldat gennem Tiderne. Folmer Christensen, 1946.
Absolutism and agricultural history of Denmark
Krogh, Tyge: Oplysningstiden og det magiske : Henrettelser og
korporlige straffe i 1700-tallets første halvdel. 2000.
Københavns Universitet1479-1979. 1980. 4 vols.
Stendal Pedersen, Den ulige frihed : Studier i myten om stavnsbåndsløsningens betydning. Odense University Press, 1990
Protest og oprør : Kollektive aktioner i Danmark 1700-1985 / ed. Flemming Mikkelsen. Århus, 1986.
Violence and the absolute state : Studies in European and Ottoman History / ed. Stephen Tyrk Christensen. 1990.
Pacifism and peace work in Denmark History of the academic
Danmarks Nationalleksikon: Dansk udenrigspolitisk historie 1:
Konger og krige 700-1648. 2001.
Hansen, Peter Mikael: Militærvægring 1849-1917 : En geografisk og historisk undersøgelse af artikuleret militærnægtelse og ulovlig sessionsudeblivelse i Danmark 1849-1917. University of Roskilde, 2001. Online edition: http://www.fredsakademiet.dk/pmhansen/index.htm
Jørgensen, Klaus: Atomvåbnenes rolle i dansk
politik : Med særligt henblik på Kampagnen mod
Atomvåben. Odense University Press, 1973.
Risskov Sørensen, Kurt: Fredssagen i Danmark 1882-1924. Odense University Press, 1981.
Stender Clausen, Jørgen: Det nytter ikke at sende hære imod ideer : Georg Brandes kulturkritik i årene omkring 1. verdenskrig. 1984.
History of the activists
Bajer, Fredrik: Livserindringer. 1909.
1 Danish titles translated in text, the original titles are in the notes or in the literature list.
2 The concept patriot is borrowed from the first volume of Dansk identitetshistorie. 1991. Helweg, Ludwig: Den danske kirkes Historie efter Reformationen, Vol. 1, 1851 pp. 390-391.
3 The first letter is dated September 16th., 1658.Bishop Brochmand helped Könecken to become a student in 1648 and Könecken was a house teacher and friend of professor M. Peder Spormand.
4 Starkii, Casp. Henr.: Kurße Nachricht von dem fanatischen Außtionario zu Lübeck Iasper. Könekenio. In: Dänische Bibliothec oder Sammlung von alten und neuen gelehrten Sachen aus Dänne-marck. 1-5. Stück. Cph. u. Leipzig 1737-44. and 6-9. Stück. Cph. 1745-47. Vol. 8, 1746. pp. -674.
5 Rørdam, Holger Fr.: De danske og norske Studenters Deltagelse i Kjøbenhavns Forsvar mod Karl Gustav : Et Bidrag til Kjøbenhavns Universitets Historie 1658-60. C. G. Iversen, 1855. – 228 pp. See also: Rørdam, H.: Københavns Universitets Beskatning og Trængsler i Krigsaarene 1657-1660. In: Historisk Tidsskrift, 2. række VI pp. 478-481 and Matzen, H.: Københavns Universitets Retshistorie 1.
6 Rørdam 1855 p. 26. According to Rørdam, the 87 student witnesses in the court case of the student Niels Kragh, ‘hardly accounted for more than one third of the students who took to the walls at the beginning of the war, though Rørdam himself questions the high number: ‘A not insignificant numbers had evaded from the war service, though it cannot be accepted it is certain, that one and two abstained during a time when it had been more honourable for him, if he had laid down the book to catch the sword’.
7 The citizens of Copenhagen is recorded in: Marquard, E.: Kjøbenhavns Borgere 1659. 1920. Marquard index 1) Census over those who can go to the walls January 10th., 2) Census over accommodated December 1659, 3) The students, including: conscription registerover the regiment of the students, list over the students January 1659 and the students receipts for financial assistance. No mention of Könecken. The names of the students at the University of Copenhagen are recorded in: Birket Smith, S.: Kjøbenhavns Universitets Matrikel I 1611-67. 1890. Birket Smith wrote that in the year 1659 'some confusion has entered into parts of the great report of the university's headmaster R. E. Brockmand'. It has the character of an scramp draft. In the printed volume of the student register of the university of Copenhagen 14 close hand-written folio pages is missing! 'Umiddelbart efter følger i Manuskriptet paa 14 tæt skrevne Foliesider en meget ordrig Skildring af danske, særligt Københavnske Tilstande ved begyndelsen af den anden svenske Krig'. Skildringen er oversat af Engelstoft og publiceret i tidsskriftet Skandinavisk Museum 1803.
8 Konsistoriets Arkiv: Acta belli Svecici. Four of the students are listed as dead!
9 ”Konsistoriets Kopibøger for Aarene 1646-1671, der existerede dengang [Professor L.] Engelstoft udgav sine Analer, nu er forsvundne”. Fortegnelse over Konsistoriets Arkiv i Selmers Købenahvns Universitets Aarbog 1842 pp. 20-26. Rørdam, Holger: De danske og norske Studenters Deltagelse i Kjøbenhavns Forsvar mod Karl Gustav p. 5. The 500 year jubillee volume of the University of Copenhagenis here only quoting Rørdam’s De danske og norske Studenter…
10 Kongebrev, hvori der paalægges Studerende større Nøjagtighed i opfyldelsen af deres militære pligter, August 15th. 1658. Ibid. p. 171.
11 Kongebrev, til Professorer om at tilholde Studenterne at varetage deres Poster, dated September 9th. 1658. Ibid. p. 174.
12 Konfirmation paa Studenternes leges Militares, dated October 5th. 1658. Ibid. p. 73-78.
13 Kongebrev, til Professorer om at tilholde Studenterne endnu nogen Tid flittigt at tage vare paa deres Poster, dated November 9th. 1658.Ibid. p. 180.
14 Engelstoft: Nogle Fragmenter om Dr. Rasmus Enevoldsen Brochmans rectorat ved Kiöbenhavns Universitet i Aarene 1658 og 1659. In: Skandinavisk Museum, 1803, vol. 2 pp. 121-134. Brochman’s two apologies to the King are dated June 16th. and 30th. 1659 regarding university and the students: “At Universitetets Privilegier maatte fornyes, og at alt, hvad der i den sidste svenske Feide (1657-1658) var passeret i adskillige maader, særdeles med Vagt, Indqvartering og Rytterhold og andet, som Akademiet for sin underdanige Trofasthed at betee, sig saa godvillig paatog taalmodig leed og udstod, aldrig kulde komme Akademiet, dets Professorers eller Supposita, nærværende eller tilkommende, paa nogen af deres Privilegier, enten i Fred eller i Feides Tid”… Engelstoft p. 126.
15 Aktstykker og Oplysninger til Rigsrådets og Stændermødernes Historie i Frederik III’s Tid, Vol 1 1648-50 / Editor C. Rise Hansen, 1959. See also: Aktstykker og Oplysninger til Statskollegiets Historie 1660-1676, 2 Vols. / Editor J. Lindbæk, 1903-1910.
16 Kongebrev til Universitetets Rektor om Afleveringen af de forløvede studenters Vaaben, dated September 19th. 1659. Rørdam, Holger: De danske og norske Studenters Deltagelse i Kjøbenhavns Forsvar mod Karl Gustavpp. 200-201.
17 Rørdam, Holger Fr.: Efterretninger om Sværmeren Jesper Könecken. In: Kirkehistoriske Samlinger, 2. række, vol. 3. 1853, pp. -261. [In: Southwest University Library]. Könecken, Jesper Baltzarsen: De bellis Christianorum Novi Testamenti. Hand-written copy recorded by the court during his trial at the University of Copenhagen; filed in the Record Office: Konsistoriets Kopibøger1656-58, No. 12.13.06 Fol. 333-336. See also Ludvig Helweg: Den danske Kirkes Historie 1855, vol. 1 p. 390.
18 Bibliotheca Danica : Systematisk
Fortegnelse over den danske Litteratur fra 1482 til 1830 efter
Samlingerne i Det store kongelige Bibliothek i Kjøbenhavn.
Med Supplementer fra Universitets-bibliotheket i Kjøbenhavn
og Karen Brahes Bibliothek i Odense, Vol 1.1877 ; Vol 3. 1896.
Bibliotheca Danica includes: “domestic published authors,
Danish authors publications translated into foreign
languages” and “foreign authors publications published
in Denmark regardless language” (Introduction p. IX). In the
first printed volume of Bibliotheca Danica he is headlined Jasp.
Könecken under the subject theology and the name is spelled in
Latin: Könekenius when indexed. In Vol. 3 his first name is
spelled in Dutch: Jasper and his surname is spelled in Danish,
under the headline history. In the online edition of Bibliotheca
Danica there is a second Latin version of his surname:
Könekenii. In the printed Latin student register 1611-1667 of
the University of Copenhagenfrom 1890, he is spelled Casper
19 Guillelmi Caoursin descripito obsidionis urbis Rhodie per johannem snel in ottenia impressa anno dñi 1482.
20 Nørnissom, Jens Søffrensen: En liden Tractat om den edle oc dyrebar Guds Gaffue, som er Fred, oc huor fra den kommer, oc om Wfred oc Krig etc. 1647. - 48 pp. Jens Søffrensen Nørnissom was a bookseller in Roskilde.
21 Felgenhauer, Paul : Perspicillum Bellicum : Det ähr krigz-perspectiv : uthi hwilket man kenna kan, hwad krig är, hwadan det kommer, och om een christen wäl met gåt samwet kan krig föra, emot sina fiender, för troon och religionen. Item hwad alt detta kriget betyder, och hwad för en ända det tagande warder; så och huru ganska snart och lätteligen man til freden komma kunde, om man allena siälf wille. Därjemte en skrifwelse om kriget til en Leutnant. Alla Gudsälskande och fredsamma til tröst, alt krigzfolck, så och alle dem som kriget belliga, til trogen Warning uthur den helliga Skrift fremstedt. - Amsterdam : Printer Christophorus Conradus, 1664. - 118 pp. Thuesen, Arthur: Beslaglagte og supprimerte bøker vedrørende Norge. - Oslo : Gyldendal : 1960, pp. 153-157.
22 Iversen, Max: Forbudte bøger : To Aarhundredes beslaglagte og konfiskerede Værker : En annoteret Bibliografi, 1948. - 200 pp.
23 Kjølsen, Klaus: Udenrigsministeriets historiske bogsamling i Eigtveds Pakhus : Det Griis-Bernstorffske Bibliotek. In: Spor - arkiver og historie : Afhandlinger tilegnet Nils Petersen på 65-årsdagen den 23. august 1987 p. 167.
24 Johnsen, Niels: Kampen mod Værnepligten. 1915.
25 Arup, Erik: Danmarks Historie. vol. 2 1282-1624, 1932. pp. 184-185. Danmarks Nationalleksikon: Dansk Udenrigspolitiks historie, vol. I-III , 2001 + 2002 + 2003. Gyldendals og Politikens Danmarkshistorie. 16 Vols. 1988-1991 Politikens Danmarkshistorie 14 Vols. 1962-1966. Schultz Danmarkshistorie : Vort Folks Historie gennem Tiderne skrevet af danske Historikere. 6 Vols. 1941-1943.
28 See also the introduction by Flemming Mikkelsen in: Protest og oprør. Århus 1986 pp. 3-8.
29 Køge Bys Historie / Udgivet af Turistforeningen for Kjøge og omegn ved Victor Hermansen ; Povl Engelstoft. 1932. - pp. 100-101.
30 Landskabslovene. Christensen, C. A.: Roskildekirkens jordegods før år 1200 : Fra skibengods til bispegods. In: Historisk tidsskrift, 1980:1 pp. 29-39. See also: Ulsig, Erik: Landboer og byder, skat og landgilde : de danske fæstebønder og deres afgifter i det 12. og 13. Århundrede. In: Middelalder, metode og medier : Festskrift til Niels Skyrum Nielsen, 1981, pp. 137-166.
31 Hirst, Margaret E.: The Quakers in Peace
and War. London, 1923. History of the Christian Church, Volume IV:
Mediaeval Christianity. A.D. 590-1073. (i.vi.vi). the
Christian Classics Ethereal Library at Calvin College. -
32 Flindt, H. E.: Byens veto mod at befæstes. In: Det ny Aarhundrede, 1905 p. 341. Jørgensen, Chr.: Det underjordiske Aalborg. Indhold: Udgravninger i 1934 på Bispegårdens grund ; Et nyt fund, der fortæller om Aalborgs befæstning ; Det store gennembrud ved anlægget af det nye Vesterbro 1930-31 ; Hvor lå Aalborg Gråbrødrekloster? ; Aalborgs befæstning og Skipper Klemens nederlag ; Aalborgs ældste havn, byens hoved In: Fra Himmerland og Kjær Herred. 1934, pp. 262-315. Stenholm, J.P.: Skipper Klement og Aalborg Slot : Om Skipper Clement, slaget ved Svenstrup og det gamle Aalborghus Slot. In: Fra Himmerland og Kjær Herred. pp. 131-147, 1918. Aalborgs historie. - [Ålborg] : Aalborg kommune, 1987-1992. - 5 Vols. Vol. 2 : Aalborg under krise og højkonjunktur fra 1534 til 1680 / Lars Tvede-Jensen, Gert Poulsen, 1988.
33 Thaulow, Th.: Den danske soldat gennem tiderne. 1946 p. 65. See also the learned thesis of Aage Fasmer Blomberg: Fyns vilkår under svensekkrigene 1957-1650. Odense University Press, 1973.
34 Helweg, Ludwig: Den danske kirkes
Historie efter Reformationen, Vol. 1, 1851 pp. 390-391. See also:
Nyerup, Rasmus: Efterretninger om Kong Frederik den Tredje og de
mærkværdigste i Danmarks og Norge under hans Regjering
indtrufne Begivenheder. Printed in Thieles Bogtrykkeri, 1817. - 456
35 Kongelig ordre 'til Norges Kansler Ove Bjelke, at 8 navngivne Personer, som "formedest Rebellion i Udskrivningen, og Drab begaaet paa Lieutenant Wilhelm", vare dømte i Kongens Naade og Unaade, skulde fremdeles ned til Bremerholm for at arbejde i Jern'. Nyerup, Rasmus: Efterretninger om Kong Frederik den Tredje og de mærkværdigste i Danmarks og Norge under hans Regjering indtrufne Begivenheder p. 377.
36 Politikens Danmarkshistorie, 1964. Vol. 8 p. 202-204.
37 Åberg, Alf: Striden om Skåne
1997 p. 25. Hammerich, Fr.: Christiern II. i Sverrig og Carl X.
Gustav i Danmark p. 143. Helwg, Ludweg: Den danske kirkes Historie
efter Reformationen. Vol. 1. 1951 pp. 388-389.
38 Håndbog for danske lokalhistorikere 1952-1956 ; reprinted 1965.
42 Fourageskat, madskat.
43 Nielsen, Helge: Skatter og Skatteforvaltning i ældre Tider / Helge Nielsen ; Victor Thalbitzer, 1948. Reprinted 1976. Another good historical research introduction to the history of Denmark in the 17th. and 18th centuries is the Handbook in Genealogy / Håndbog i Slægtsforskning by Albert Fabritius ; Harald Haat. 1963. Reprinted 1982. Løgstrup, Birgit: Jorddrot og offentlig administrator : Godsejerstyret inden for skatte- og udskrivningsvæsnet i det 18. århundrede, 1983.
44 Nielsen and Thalbitzer p. 25.
45 Krogh, Tyge: Staten og de besiddelsesløse på landet 1500-1800. Odense, 1987.
46 Stendal Pedersen, Finn: Den ulige frihed : Studier i myten om stavnsbåndsløsningens betydning. Odense, 1990. pp. 48-51.
47 Krogh, Tyge: Oplysningstiden og det magiske : Henrettelser og korporlige straffe i 1700-tallets første halvdel, 2000. – 608 pp.
48 Ibid.: Landmilitære straffesager i Sjællandsfar Landstings område m. fl. (1722) 1728-56. pp. 454-514.
49 Deserters were guilty in two crimes: perjure and desertion. Friis, Niels: Slesvigske Fodregiment i Krig og Fred. Haderslev, 1953 p. 37.
50 Løgstrup, Birgit: Bondeprotester på Lynderupgård 1781-1802. In: Protest og oprør. 1986 pp. 11-45.
51 Gårdfæstenægtere. Løgstrup, Birgit: Jorddrot og offentlig administrator p. 265.
52 Ibid. p. 275.
53 Ibid. pp. 278-279.
54 Ibid. p. 301.
55 Kassation p. g. a. ”ej konfirmeret”. Ibid. p. 301
56 Ibid. p. 300.
57 Løgstrup, Birgit: Bundet til jorden : Stavnsbåndet i praksis 1733-1788. 1987. p. 173.
58 Index finger missing. Thorsteinsson, Hjalmar: Sessionen i historisk perspektiv. Forsvarets Sundhedstjeneste, 1997 p 63.
59 Politiets Efterretningstjeneste. Terp, Holger: Noter om de danske efterretningstjenesters historie. In: Elsk-værdig sikkerhed, 1998, Vol. II supplement 14.
60 Reventlow, C. D.: Betænkning om Den nationale Hærreform og Forsvarssagens øvrige Udvikling i Perioden Oktober 1801-Juni 1803. In: Meddelelser fra Krigsarkiverne, 1883 pp. 289-290.
61 Here Norway disappears in my article. London Meeting for Sufferings: Minutes 1807-1814. The archives of London Yearly Meeting (now Britain Yearly Meeting), including the minutes and other records of the Meeting for Sufferings are housed in Friends House in London. Friends Historical Library has microfilm of the minutes as well as microfilm of other records of London/Britain Yearly Meeting. Roos, Carl: Prisonen : Danske og norske krigsfanger 1807-1814, 1954. - 233 pp.
62 Alexander, G. W.: Om den moralske Forpligtigelse til og det Hensigtsmæssige af Strax og fuldstændigt at ophæve Slaveriet i de dansk-vestindiske Kolonier. Studenterforeningen, 1843. - 27 pp. Friis, Finn: Christian den Ottendes og Caroline Amalies forbindelser med Elisabeth Fry og andre kvækere. In: Kirkehistoriske Samlinger 1975 pp. 109-143.
63 The concept strange year is borrowed from the anthology: 1948 – det mærkelige år / editor Claus Bjørn, 1998.
64 Hirst, Margaret E.: The Quakers in Peace
and War, 1923, pp. 255-256.
67Den dansk-tydske Krig i Aarene 1848-1850 : Udarbejdet paa Grundlag af officielle Documenter og med Krigsministeriets Tilladelse / udgivet af Generalstaben, 3die Del : Krigen i 1850. J. H. Schultz's Bogtrykkeri, 1880 pp. 154-157.
68 Viborg Stænderforsamling.
69 Thomsen, Rudi: Den almindelige værnepligts gennembrud i Danmark, 1949. p. 48.
70 Bondevennernes Selskab.
71 Det radikale Venstres Historie / edited by Gunnar Fog-Petersen. Odense : Kulturhistorisk Forlag, 1938.
72 Petersen, Niels: Justitsministeriet : Organisation og arkiv, 1982.
73 Bajer, Fredrik: Livserindringer. 1909 p. 120.
74 Hansen, Peter Mikael: Militærvægring 1849-1917. Roskilde 2001 pp. 69-70.
75 Politiefterretninger. Danmark. In: Adresseavisen, Kristiania [Oslo], 1869, No. 8 p. .
76 Indførelse af preussisk Værnepligt og Administration. In: Schultz Danmarkshistorie, Vol. 5 pp. 94-96.
77 Hvidt, Christian: Flugten til Amerika. Århus, 1971.
78 Hansen, Peter Mikael: Militærvægring 1849-1917 pp. 60 and 83.
79 Falkner Sørensen, Svend: Faneflugt? Dansksindede soldaters flugt fra tysk krigstjeneste 1914-1918. - Aabenraa : Historisk samfund for Sønderjylland, 1989 p. 25.
80 Arup, Erik: Viggo Hørup, 1941. Hørup i breve og digte : Breve, digte og litterære prosastykker til belysning af Viggo Hørup og hans kreds / publisher Karsten Thorborg, 1981. Krog, Torben : Viggo Hørup, 1984.
81 Nobels Fredspris : Hundre år for fred : Prisvinnere 1901-2000 / Øivind Stenersen ; Ivar Libæk ; Asle Sveen. Oslo, 2001.
82 Zarjevski, Yefime: The people have the floor : A History of the Inter-parliamentary Union. Dartmouth. 1989. See also vol. 2 of Alfred H. Fried’s: Handbuch der Friedensbewegung. Berlin, 1913 ; 1972.
83 Allen, Devere: The Fight for Peace. New York, 1930 ; 1971 p. 473.
84 Risskov Sørensen, Kurt: Fredssagen i Danmark 1882-1914, 1981 See also the volume of Sune Pedersen. In 1971 Dansk Fredsforening became a part of the Danish United Nations Union, FN-forbundet.
85 § 3.Le mouvement de la paix organisé. In: Augsut Schou: Histoire de l’ internationalisme III. Oslo: MCMLXIII pp. 510-516
86 Rimmen Nielsen, Hanne: Bertha von Suttner i København 1906 : Et billede i Kvindehistorisk Samling. In: Rotunden, no. 16, 2001 pp. -23.
88 Politikeren Fredrik Bajer (†1922) og hustrus [Mathilde Bajer] arkiv. 1963. - 28 pp. ; Foreløbige arkivregistraturer. Serie 8).
90 Bericht : Internationaler Frauenkongress, Haag – von 28. April-1. Maj 1915. – Amsterdam : Internationaler Frauenkomite für Dauernde Frieden, 1915. – 323 pp.
91 Lous, Eva: Karen
Jeppe : Danmarks første befrielsesfilosof.
92 Foreningen for Konsekvente Antimilitarister.
93 Klüwer, H.: Lejre Herred og Ledreborg Birk Herning Købstad og Hammerum Herred. In: De gamle Byfoed-Birke og Herredfuldmægtige, p. 133.
94 Aarhus University Press, 1992.
95 Lawson, Max: The International People’s College 1921-96.
96 Nordiske Læreres Fredsforbund established in Helsinki, Finland.
97 Opdragelse til Fred. In: Fred og Frihed, 1937:10 pp. 81-82.
98 Ammundsen, Valdemar: Kirkeligt Verdensforbunds Tilblivelse og hidtidige Virksomhed. In: Freds-Varden, 1926:2 pp. 19-23. Verdensforbundet til Fremme af Venskab blandt Nationerne ved Kirkerne: Formaal. Ibid. 1926:2 pp. 30-31. Verdensforbundet til Fremme af Venskab blandt Nationerne ved Kirkerne: Konstitution for den danske Afdeling. Ibid. 1926:2 pp. 31-32. Ostenfeld, H.: Hvorfor og hvorledes skal Verdensforbundet Arbejde i Danmark? Ibid. 1926:2 s. 17-18. Sparring-Petersen, G.: Kirkemøde i Lausanne : Hvad vil Faith and Order Bevægelsen? Ibid. 1927:4 pp. 49-53.
99 Internationalt Venskabs Forbund. In: Fred og Frihed, 1936:7 p. 58.
100 Kvindelig Læseforening. Note in: Fred og Frihed, 1933:4 p. 8.
102 Larsen, Knud: Forsvar og Folkeforbund : Et studie i Venstres og Det konservative Folkepartis forsvarspolitiske meningsdannelse 1918-1922, Aarhus, 1976.
103 Lansbury, George: My Quest for Peace. 1938 pp. 105-106. See also C. E. M. Joad’s Why War[?], mentioned in the article ’En udlænding ser paa Danmark’. In: Fred og Frihed,1939:4 p. 33.
104 Stensgård, Erling: En praktisk Idealist : En Bog om Chr. Erichsen. Århus, 1927. pp. 97-105
106 Kamp uden Vaaben : Ikke-Vold som Kampmiddel mod Krig og Undertrykkelse / Niels Lindberg ; Gammelgaard Jacobsen ; Karl Erlich. 1937 .
107 Sharp, Gene: The Politics of Nonviolent Action. Boston, 1973.
108 Sharp, Gene: The Dynamics of Nonviolent Action p. 569
109 It was described as “Service of international documentation. – Correspondents in London, Paris, Geneva, Zurich, Copenhagen and Chicago. Monthly Bulletin in three editions: English, French and German. Documents on political, economical and financial questions. Reproduction authorised and gratis, on condition of stating the source of origin and sending voucher numbers”. There is a copy of the English version at the Royal Library in Copenhagen.
110 Police fédérale des éstrangers, Case no. 778792 G/L. In: the Swiss Public Record.
111 Marseille-Kongressen. In: Fred og
Frihed, 1938:5 p. 45.
112 Hammerich, Poul: Valkyrierne : En nordisk kvindefront trodser valne myndigheder og rager jødebørn ud af Hitlers bål 1938-40. In: Undtagelsen : En krønike om jøderne i Norden. 1992. pp. 321-334.
114 Den danske Landsindsamling til Hjælp for Kvinder og Børn i Spanien. In: Fred og Frihed, 1936:2 pp. 12-13.
115 Ceresole, Pierre: Militærnægtelse og Genopbyggelse af hærgede Egne. In: Freds-Varden, 1935 no. 5 pp. 71-76.
116 Lukowitz, David C.: Pacifists and Class Warfare : The Spanish Civil War. In: 50 Years of war Resistance : What Now?. London: WRI, 1972 pp. 22-23.
117 Steffensen, Steffen: Professor Walther A. Berendsohn. In: På flugt fra nazismen : Tysksprogede emigranter i Danmark, 1987.
118 Fred og Frihed, 1937:10 p. 84.
119 VII Anholdelse, Internering, Udvisning eller Udlevering af fremmede Statsborgere. In: Justitsministeriet og Retshåndhævelsen under besættelsen, Aktstykker 1, 1950 p. 186-199.
120 Ibid. p. 187.
121 Ibid. p. 189.
122 Ibid. p. 33.
123 Den Internationale Kriminalpolitikommission. Koch, Henning: Demokrati slå til! Statslig nødret, ordenspoliti og frihedsrettigheder 1932-1945. 1994, p. 232. See also: Madsen, Carl: Flygtning 33 : Strejflys over Hitlers Danmark, 1974 pp. 78-80.
124 Lov nr. 246 om Handel med samt Tilvirkning og Besiddelse af Vaaben m.m. af 10. maj 1940. In: Besættelsestidens Fakta, 1945. Vol. 1 pp. 9-11. The Danish Arms producing companies and arms export during World War two are documented in the Danish Peace Academy: Dansk våbeneksport til Tyskland under besættelsen.
125 Stræde, Therkel: October 1943 : The Rescue of the Danish Jews from Annihilation, 1993. See also the introduction to: Steffensen, Steffen: På flugt fra nazismen : Tysksprogede emigranter i Danmark efter 1933. 1987.
126 Den hvide Brigade : Danske Lægers Modstand / editor Aage Svendstorp, 1946.
128 Zassenhaus Hiltgunt: Walls.
129 Steffensen, Steffen: Professor Walther A. Berendsohn. In: På flugt fra nazismen : Tysksprogede emigranter i Danmark, 1987, p. 257.
130 Haase, Norbert: Deutsche Deserteure. - Berlin : Rotbuch Verlag, 1978. pp. 29-32.
131 Dungen, Peter van den: Dr. Emil Flusser : Forgotten Precursor of the Medical Peace Movement. In: Papers of the Peace History Commission IPRA/Malta 31 October – 4 November 1994 pp. 93-104.
132 Haxen, Ulf.: Det lille mirakel. Gyldendal 2003.
133 Boken om danskehjelpen. Oslo, 1947.
134 Ungdommens Fredsforbund. File in the private files of Holger Terp. Ungdommens Fredsforbund isdescribed in the thesis of Peter Kragh Hansen and Sune Petersen.
135 Fredsvennernes Hjælpearbejde. See: Haugaard, Svend: Fredsvennernss Hjælpearbejde. – Silkeborg : Aldrig mere Krig, 1947 and Kjeld Juul: Mod nye grænser : Fra europæisk genopbygning til u-landssamarbejde 1943-1963. Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke, 2002.
136 Red Barnet. Now part of the International Save the Children Alliance. The organisation works with children in armed conflicts and displacement.
137 Beretning til Rigsdagen: De Forenede Nationers første Plenarforsamling Afholdt i London 10. Januar –14. Februar 1946. – 115+131 pp.
138 Krogh, Tyge: Humanitært hjælpearbejde og udenrigspolitik : Om den statslige styring af det internationale hjælpearbejde 1945-1948. In: Spor – arkiver og historie. Afhandlinger tilegnet Niels Petersen, 1987. pp. 183-201. Krogh, Tyge: Mellem efterkrigshjælp og u-landsbistand : Den internationale tuberkulosekampagne 1947-1951. 1989.
139 Manniche, Peter: Adult Education as a Way to Peace. In: The International Peoples College 1921-1971, pp. 18-75.
140 Lawson p. 74. See also: Gunnarsen, Evald: Die Entwicklung der Skandinavischen Volkshochschulen. In: Zehn Jahre Freundschaftheim Bückesburg, 1958. pp. 43-50.
141 The concept iron curtain is traced to the beginning of World War One, where the Swedish politician Hjalmer Branting uses the concept to describe Germany during the mobilising in 1914: “The iron curtain went down around the great military power at the same moment Germany was declared in a state of war” – a kind of preparation for mobilisation. At once the isolation became complete”. News were censured by civilian and military authorities and nobody gets to know what is happening outside the borders of the realm. Though propaganda the citizens are given the impression that they are surrounded by enemies who aspire their lives and during these conditions they must guard themselves. It is only from this psychological chance, continues Branting, this mass psychosis, that the sudden change (the war fever) can come”. Hjalmar, Hjalmer: Arbetarklassen och världssläget. Stockholm, 1915. Quoted from: Boje, Andreas: Det tyske Socialdemokrati før og under Verdenskrigen, 1916 p. 92.
142 Lundestad, Geir: America, Scandinavia and the Cold War 1945-1949. Oslo University Press, 1980. p. 1.
143 Dansk-Amerikansk overenskomst om gensidig bistand på forsvarets område. 'Artikel III: Hver regering vil træffe sådanne sikkerhedsforanstaltninger, hvorom de to regeringer måtte træffe aftale i hvert enkelt tilfælde, for at hindre, at militære artikler, ydelser eller oplysninger af særlig (klassificeret) fortrolig karakter, leveret af den anden regering ifølge nærværende overenskomst, røbes eller prisgives'. Udenrigsministeriet: Dansk udenrigspolitik 1948-1966, II Bilag pp. 436-440.
144 Headquarters United States European Command: Index of International Agreements, 1989.
145 The Danish Institute for International
Affairs has been tasked by the Danish government to prepare a study
(white paper) on the security policy situation of Denmark during
the Cold War 1945-1990. The white paper is expected in 2004.
146 Fredens Tilhængere i Danmark and Dansk Fredskonference. Jørgensen, Jesper: Fredens Tilhængere. In: Årsskrift 2001. Arbejderbevægelsens Bibliotek og Arkiv, 2002 pp. 16-22.
148 Sjællandskommitten mod Kartotekerne.
149 Jensen, Erik: De hemmelige tjenester : PET og FE gennem 40 år : En oversigt. 1998. The latest example of exposed intelligence during the cold war is by the journalist Niels Lillelund: “… til herr ministerens personlige orientering. In: Jyllands-Posten, Oktober 14, 2003.
150 The Challenge of an Open World : Essays
dedicated to Niels Bohr, 1989. p. 7.
151 Nuclear Wastelands, 1995. In 1979 Professor Bent Sørensen, Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns Unit, Hvidovre Hospital, University of Copenhagen published a study: Burns : Management of burns occurring as mass casualties after nuclear explosion. In Burns : The Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries. Vol. 6 1979 no. 1, pp. 33-36.
152 Bertelsen, Aage: Her er dit våben, 1962. Bertelsen was a great inspiration for Jan Øberg. Nordendorf Olson, Peter: Fredspolitisk Folkeparti : Et pacifistisk forsøg på opnåelse af folketingsrepræsentation. Odense University Press, 1985.
153 Jørgensen, Klaus: Atomvåbnenes rolle i dansk politik : Med særlig henblik på Kampagnen mod Atomvåben. Odense, 1973.
154 Demonstrations as a Source of Change : A Study of British and Danish Easter Marches. Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 3, 1966 pp. -348. Jenkins, Robin: Who are these Marchers. Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 4, 1967 pp. -60.
155 Nield, Robert: Anders Boserup : In Memoriam. In: NOD, 1990, No. 16 p. 4.
156 NOD & Conversion: Særnummer om 10 års dansk forskning i ikke-offensivt forsvar og om ”Global Non-Offensive Defence Network”, 1994, Vol. 30A, p. 3 and 5. See also: Hans-Henrik Holm : Science, Peace and Peace Research. - Århus : Institute of Political Science ; University of Aarhus, 1976. - 19 pp.
157 In 1982 several attempts to establish peace research institutions in Denmark were recorded by G. K. Wilson in his A global Peace Study Guide, including: the Danish Peace Research Group and the Danish Peace Research Society. Rasmussen, Søren Hein: Sære Alliancer : Politiske bevægelser i efterkrigstidens Danmark, 1997. Rasmussen of the University of Århus describes careful and deeply social movements in Denmark after World War II: the peace movements, the movement against Danish membership of the EEC and the movement against nuclear power. Literature pp 289-299. Also references in notes pp 300-358.
158 Konsistoriums Arbejdsgruppe vedrørende freds- og konfliktforskning. The working group published: Fire forlæsninger om freds- og konfliktforskning på Københavns Universitet 1983.
159 Tribunal, Nr. A1 C to N 2 C.
160 Madsen, Carl: Proces mod politiet. 1969.
161 Kampagnen mod Atomvåben og Vietnambevægelsen 1960-1972 / Søren Hein Rasmussen ; Johannes Nordentoft. Odense University Press, 1991
162 DDVs Dokumentationsgruppe: Rustningsindustri og krigsforskning i Danmark, 1973.
164 Forsvarets Efterretningstjeneste.
165 Kommissionsdomstole. Demos: Undergravende virksomhed : Beretning fra kommissionsdomstolen af 13. juli 1977. 1977.
166 Salomon, Kim: Fredsbevægelser, 1985 can together with the volume of Liversage be used as contemporary general introductions to the debate over the subjects of the new anti-nuclear peace movement.
167 Conceptions of wars and fear of war. Krigsforestillinger og krigsangst. Jacobsen, Bo: Krigen, freden og danskerne : En undersøgelse af voksne danskeres opfattelse af internationale forhold. 1988 p. 47. Though published late in the debate over international policy, the investigation of Bo Jacobsen reflects the attitudes of the Danes during most of the second cold war.
168 Børn og unges psykiske reaktion på kernevåbentruslen. Holst, Erik: Kernevåbenkrigens trussel mod sundheden. In: Kernevåbnets medicinske konsekvenser for Danmark. In: Journal of the Danish Medical Association, 1986, no. 35 pp. 2250-2251.
169 Liversage, Toni: Den tredje verdenskrig – kan vi forhindre den? 1982.
170 Scharnberg, Carl: 20 års kamp for fred : Artikler og taler gennem 20 år – fra atomkampagnen til Aalborg fredskonference. Ålborg, 1981.
171 Øjne ser, hvad øjne vil se : Hvad der virkeligt hændte på verdensfredskongressen i København 15.-19. oktober 1986 / Eva Bendix ... [et al.] - Prague : Det internationale Journalistforbund, 1987. / Eyes see what eyes want to see : Western Media and the Peace Movement : What actually happened at the World Peace Congress in Copenhagen / Eva Bendix ... [et al.]. - Prague : International Organisation of Journalists, 1987. - 125 pp.
172 Samarbejdskommiteen for Fred og Sikkerhed.
173 Soviet Peace Committee: Report on the Participation of the Soviet Non-Governmental Organisations in the World Disarmament Campaign for the period 12. April – 20. October 1983. Moscow, 1983 p. 10.
174 Knudsen, Jørgen: I Sovjet : På rejse med next stop, 1989.
175 Teglers, Jørgen: Fredsbevægelsen – med og modspillere, 1988.
176 Lindfors, Tommy: Under ytan : Ubåtar och svensk säkerhetspolitik. Göteborg, 1996.
177 Hvidbog udgivet af Kampagnen til støtte for desertører og militærnægtere fra det tidligere Jugoslavien, 1996
178 Krigsforsikringen for danske skibe. The last known case of a Danish cargo ship carrying ammunition is Karin Cat, foundered south of Sicily on February, 18 2003. Danish Maritime Authority: Casualty Report: The Foundering of Karin Cat 18 February 2003. File. No. 01.40.01. - 22 pp.
179 Zelter, Angie: Trident on Trail : The case for people’s disarmament. Glasgow, 2001.