The Danish Peace Academy
Terp, Holger: Peace in print - Introduction
Unfortunately, it seems at first view at the library shelves and in the library catalogues, that there has not been much writing about the history of the international peace movements. In particular this is true if one compares the number of publications about the peace movements and the history of the people connected to it compared to the number of volumes about international politics or armaments, weapons or military matters1. As late as in 1964 Terence Prittie writing about Carl von Ossietzky, complained: "He was one of the outstanding political martyrs of the Nazi era, but twenty-five years after his death there had still been no bibliography of this infinitely gallant man, no edited volume of his writings and letters, no real recognition of his essential worth"...2
The apparently small numbers of publications on the history of the peace movement are classified under many different headlines: peace movements, social movements, non-violent movements, conscientious objectors, etc. These make searches for the relevant information rather difficult for those who unfortunately not are educated information mediators, computer freaks, historians or academicians.
Another aspect of the books written about the history of the peace movements is, that they are historical theses, parts in a political debate or different jubilee editions held in a festive mood. Therefore the publications as a rule only covers one subject, one group or one movement over a short time. Very few books cover entirely the history of the peace movements internationally from the genesis of their activities in 1815 and onward as well as all the subjects of organized peace work. It would certainly create some thick books, as some of them already indeed are. The many subjects and writings on, and about the peace movements, do not always agree. Neither on political or on classificational matters. This makes it rather difficult for the student to get an easy view of the writings available on the history of the peace movements. The records on the history of the international peace movements will establish that there are quite a few books on organized peace work. Peace work is not limited to a single movement, a single country nor groups of countries, nor even that their activities are limited in time. The recordings of books about the history of the peace movements and the persons who are, were active in it, forms the basis of this volume. However, the work is not complete, but rather illustrates the broadness of the many subjects concerning the different peace groups.
Why is it important to study the history of the international peace movements? First, because the peace movements represent an alternative to the wisdom of the establishment. Their policies are to end wars and armament by peaceful means and create peaceful alternatives in a world ridden with conflicts. Secondly, the peace movements have somewhat failed to reach their goals even though the good news of successes can be found. Like the peaceful separation of Norway and Sweden in 1905. More recently, the successful campaign of INFACT International against General Electric, which caused the company to cancel all activities in nuclear weapons production3.
Wars and armaments continue still since the beginning of the peace movements. Therefore the lessons of history are important, if not to the politicians the more to their subjects, in helping us to understand the successes and failures of the peace movements. To help us learn from the experience and to the establishing not only of the numerous roots, but also the many different branches of the peace work. When, why and where were the peace movements created? What preceded the organized peace work? What have the peace organizations done? How have they and their opponents reacted in times of peace and in times of war? What proposals have the persons within the peace movements suggested to solve the many problems of international policy? Besides that, there are fundamentally, much interesting stories of dedicated persons and organizations that make interesting reading. The events of real life persons some time can be more exiting than fictitious lives in novels.
By using the experience of the past one make sure that the former generations of peace workers not are forgotten and thus did not work vainly. By learning of successful actions, recycling of ideas and actions becomes possible. Learning about peace work in different countries can also help the growth of, and the need for, more international understanding and co-operation. That is: We in the different peace groups are not working alone, even though it sometimes seems like it.
WHAT IS PEACE?
The subject of the peace movements or in older time's peace societies is peace, but alas, neither the linguist's, the academician nor the politician agrees on one simple definition of peace. There are many distinct definitions of this concept. Based not only on different religious, philosophical and political views but to complicate this even more, the development of the ideal of peace also has a historical development. The interpretation of the concept reflected the different religious, philosophical and political order of the time, Politically expressed in the term "Pax Americana", etc. Also, because of the many different interpretations of the concept of peace, there are both more than one subject of the peace groups. There is more than one peace movement. This is examined briefly in the following in order both to understand what is being discussed, the peace movements and their activities to be able to conduct qualified literature searches.
According to the "Encyclopedia Americana"'s definition of the concept of "peace," then "The word itself has neither been acceptably defined, nor has there ever been agreement on how to achieve peace."
The concept "peace" covers a state of mind and a state of the world. The word "peace" has at least three different interpretation's, relating to each other. The first part of the definition is in the sense of "peace and quiet"," harmony," and "peace of mind" for the individual which does not need an explanation. The second part of the definition is the developing of a negative and a positive value in the concept of "peace" as an instrument in international policy. The third part of the definition of the concept peace, is peace as "a peaceful spirit as the opposite of nationalism."
In the second part of the definition "negative peace" as it is expressed in the noun: "Peace" or "ahisma," "eirene," "fred," "heiwa," "mir," "pacis," "pax," "pyong wa," "salaam," "sandhi," "satyagraha" and "shalom," all means peace in the sense of non war, (Wiberg). Besides that, peace has other cultural (Chinese, Japanese, Indian, Arabic), religious (Augustin, Pierre Dubois (? -1321), Alighieri Dante (1265-1321)), Marsiglio di Padua (c 1270-1342?), historical (Charles Irénée Castel de Saint-Pierre (1658-1743), political Thomas Münser, Gerrard Winstanly (1609-?), Benjamin Constant (1767-1830), Jean Paul (1763-1825), V. F. Malinovski (1765-1814), Claude Henri Saint-Simon (1760-1825), judicial William Penn (1644-1718), Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and philosophical interpretation's King George of Podebrady (1420-1471), Desiderius Erasmus Rotterdamus, Sebastian Frank (1500-1542), Emery Crucé, Hugo Grotius, Jean-Jaques Rosseau (1712-1778), Voltaire (1694-1778) Immanuel Kant (1727-1804), and Spinoza( 4).
UTOPIA OF PEACE DEFINED AGAIN
Peace is more than just peace.
For all to live in "positive peace" is for all to live in community and experience "the absence of imperialistic aggression" (V. I. Lenin). Peace is "The achievement of national self-determination, the end of apartheid and racial segregation, the realization of the prerequisites of a decent and human material and social life" (W. E. B. du Bois). More generally speaking "positive peace"- which includes human rights - is "a time when there is no war. When combat has ended and there is no aggression. Peace is a time when there is no preparing for wars (Immanuel Kant). A time where each individual is not limited in providing for his basic needs in form of food, education, work, housing, family, freedom of speech, freedom to organize" and so on. Peace is in other word's, freedom from "structural violence" (Johan Galtung). Peace includes "the security of life and property," or "law and order," where "social development" and "social security" (Viggo and Ellen Hørup, Barthélemy de Ligt, Martin Luther King Jr., Dalino Dolci and Rigobertha Menchú) is important. "Peace develops security and secure development" (Jan Øberg). "Peace propagates wealth and justice" (Michael Gorbatjov). Thus it can be concluded that peace and freedom cannot be secured without social development and that peace is the contention of policy with other means. The most important tool, in hands of the peace movements to achieve peace, is pacifism.
A pacifist is a person who
"neither willingly, nor under compulsation, takes any part in government activity, and should therefore be neither a soldier, nor a field-marshal, nor a Minister of State, nor a tax-collector, nor a witness, nor an alderman, nor a juryman, nor a governor, nor a Member of Parlament, nor, in fact hold any office connected with violence"5.
Later after this antique clear ideal demand, the concepts are become more complicated.
According to the "Encyclopedia Americana"'s definition of the concept of "Pacifism and Non-violence" the concept "pacifism" is defined as: "The refusal to sanction or participate in warfare on the grounds of principle. The word acquired this meaning during World War 1, prior to which pacifism generally meant any advocate of peace. Modern pacifism also has acquired a liberal, reforming orientation that has lead to the organization of non-violent forms of action grounded in a social philosophy that may be called non-violence. Accordingly pacifism has broadened from an individual to a social philosophy. It has become rooted not only in Christian tradition, but in other cultures as well, notably in Gandhiists' India. The conservative "The New Encyclopædia Britannica," defines in the article: "Pacifism and Non-violent Movements": "Pacifism is taken ... to embrace the sum of all endeavors and programs for the realisation of an lasting or, if possible, a perpetual peace between peoples in the belief that this goal is of a positive value and can be attained within the historically foreseeable future. This is a broader definition, of course, than that of common usage, which refers to movements for the total abolition of war. The term "non-violent movements" refers to what has been, as a rule, sects or movements of small minorities that share a fundamental conviction that it is possible to transmit the individual ethic of "negative actions" (non resistence, sufferance, and non-violence) to the collective arena." According to Gene Sharp non-violent action involves the following: "protests, resistance and intervention without physical violence. It may be used as a technique of active struggle and as a sanction for achieving certain objectives in conflict situations where submission or violence might otherwise have been practised. Within the technique, considerable variations exist, including the specific methods applied, the motivation for non-violence, the attitude toward the opponent, the objectives of the action, the intended process of change, and its relation to other techniques of action."
It will not be wrong however to state that both the concepts "peace" and "pacifism," like the "peace movement," have a historical development6. In Europe, during the era of the Roman Empire and during the era of the Vikings [900-1066] peace meant simply a time when there was no war. Later, in Denmark during the middle ages , peace was expanded to include peace of property: "peace of field"," peace of home", "peace of labour" and "peace of women." This meant, that during times of war the field, the four walls of home, the labour and the women should not be violated7. Which they did anyway8. This development, toward more civilisation, can also be seen in other countries, like England and later in America. Here the police, in older times, were called "peace officers." Of course national or even international regulations of how to conduct wars or make them illegal like the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 never ended the wars or merely ended the maltreatment of non-combatants. The first way to stop war was the idealism of single individuals who were active conscientious objectors and besides that they did also in some cases refuse to pay war related taxes.
War is a crime according to international law, agreed upon by the politicians.
This is but a few samples of international treaties:
TAX PAYING FOR WARS?
A pacifist should neither
"voluntarly pay taxes to governments, either direcly or indirectly; not should he accept money collected by taxes either as salery, or as pension, or as a reward, nor should he make use of governmental institutions supported by taxes collected by violence from the people.9"
Not every member of this violent world was, as it later will be learned from the history of the peace movements, happy about wars for whatever good causa belli: whither wars are called imperialistic, civil, just or defensive wars. One thing is the loss of life, health and property. Another importent thing is that wars are as a rule very costly. The cost of war preparing, armaments and even the waging of war had to be paid by the taxpayers in cool cash. Either in form of money, or in older times, in form of supplies of goods for the armies and the navies. As the wars grew in size and thus became more and more expensive through the years, the kings and the soldiers burdens on the taxpayer grew burdensome. Both taxpayers who are supporters of pacifism and nonviolence even complained over paying taxes for war. Of course many tax objectors like the american naturalist and transcendentalist philosopher David Henry Thoreau (1817-1862) was brought to trial over their civil disobedience of complaints over paying taxes for wars, armaments or refusing to bear arms10. How can the knowledge in this field help us to understand the development of the early peace works and the early civil disobedience?
Complains from the public to civil servants are as a rule usually recorded very carefully, just in case it could be used against them. This means that there is an often ignored source for the history of the early peace work and the early civil disobedience not only in public record files and archives but also in analyses of the history of public servants and here especially analyses of the development of the governmental tax administration11. Also, court cases are recorded. This means that, regarding to the history of the early peace work, there is, in the files of the courts and the judges, another often ignored but very important source of information about the early peace works12. However, if we all are to live in peace and possess a peaceful spirit, we have to learn about peace.
Peace Education is also commonly called "international education." "Peace is movement towards globality and universality of civilization" (Michael Gorbatjov). "Peace education" is a general term which refers to "teaching and learning about peace however it is defined, both within the formal education system and in society at large, although it is usually associated with education at the secondary and elementary school levels." Peace education" became a topic of the peace movement around 1890. One of the pioneers in peace education was the Danish public school teacher Niels Petersen.
A peaceful spirit
can be defined as the opposites of "nationalism." Nationalism is both the opposite of and limitation of internationalism, world federalism, an "over-estimation of one's own nation," a "tendentious estimation of other people and also attempts to encourage chauvinist feelings, by the provoking of antagonism to other countries.13"
or "peace studies," in universities is often inter-disciplinary and are based upon history, policy and sociology and includes economics and psychology. Peace research is a particular kind of applied approach; a department of politics may consider relations between nations but peace research seeks also to promote good relations between them; an institute of strategic studies may count nuclear missiles but peace researchers ask how they can be reduced in numbers or eliminated; a department of economics may study the military spending but peace research sets out to evaluate military costs within an appreciation of public spending and external and internal politics. The early works of peace research are, according to Beverly Woodward (1973 pp. 8.), "found in the work of certain theologians and legal scholars as well as in the work of social sciences." The main development of the peace research movement came from two directions, one from the peace movement and another from the academic world: one pacifist and another non-pacifist, the later inspired by Pitirim A. Sorokin (1889-1967), L. F. Richardson, Bouthoul and A. Rapport.
Peace Research institutes
The establishing of the first peace research institutes began slowly before and during World War 1. In the United States, the Psychologist William Jame's, tried in 1910 to get the American Psychological Association involved in peace research. One of the first established peace research institutes was The Institute for the Study of the Social Consequences of War, established at Copenhagen in 1914 by Pavus = Dr. Phil. Alexander Israel Lasarenvitj Helphand. Another early peace researcher was Bart de Ligt. The development of the peace research institutes speeded up during and after the 1930's, expecially after World War 2. Peace research became formalized during the late 1950's and the beginning of the 1960's with the establishing of special peace research institutes in many universities or as independent institutes where one of the firsts was The International Peace Research Institute, Oslo founded in 1962 then headed by Johan Galtung.
THE BEGINNING, HISTORICAL PEACE CHURCHES
"Thou shalt not kill"14
Some pacifist orientated persons have been working for both peace and conscientious objection long before the first peace movements were organized and even also long before the concepts we here are clarifying were defined. During the history of the Christian churches, the pacifist message became an important part in mostly protestant sects which are commonly now known as "historical peace churches", where the Society of Friends and other pacifist religious groups played a big role, but the history of pacifism is much older than that15. People have always I hope in some way or another dreamed of peace either as "eschatological pacifism" ie peace in heaven or as "peace on earth" since the beginning of wars. Through the years, the main stream of the established Christian church societies have supported their government's policy of war even though a message of pacifism can be found in both the Old and the New Testament16. The Old Testament prophet Jeremiah was pacifist (Jeremiah chapter 2-38). Some christian and other individuals like Count Leo Tolstoy17 Mohandas Gandhi and more recently Franz Alt18, as well as most of the members of the peace congregations, argues however, that the main source of understanding the pacifist tradition in the Christian churches is "The New Testament" of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, especially his Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of St. Matthew chapter 5-7: especially ... "Ye have heard it has been said, 'An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth: 'But I say unto you, That ye resist no evil" ... (Matthew chapter 5, v. 38-39).
The peace organizations had been under way for some time, and the credit for being the founding father of the organized peace work can be given to a number of persons in different countries.
In 1815 the worlds first peace groups were founded independently in America: The New York Peace Society, founded by David Low Dogde and The Massachussets Peace Society, founded by Noah Worchester.
According to Allen (1930 pp. 4) "On the night of June 7th. 1814, William Allen, an English Quaker-linguist, educator, preacher, man of science, and publisher of The Philanthropist-trhumped the pages of his diary and made the following laconic entry: "A meeting to consider of a new Society to spread tracks etc., against war." But the meeting in William Allen's house did not result, until after the peace of Paris, on June 14, 1816, in the actual establisment of The Society for Pernament and Universal Peace with ten founding members".
The programme of The Society for Pernament and Universal Peace included, according to (Hirst 1923 pp. 244) "substitution of arbetration for war, a general reduction of armaments, and the institution of an International Court of Justice for the settelment of disputes".
The following is a list of peace or pacifist churches which were established before the foundation of the first peace movements in 1814 which are listed as well as the date of their founding. The list is because I'm not a church historian, not hopefully in any way complete.
WHAT ARE THE PEACE MOVEMENTS?
There are, as it was in the case with the concept of peace, no established scientific or philosophical paradigms of the concept of peace movements. Peace movements are "independent, social, religious, and/or political groups which clearly mark their attitude toward the concept of peace, either as a part of their name or their subtitle, or as groups which define them as belonging to the peace movements" (Saunders). (Both new and old) social (and political) movements seek (more or less) fundamental changes in the social (and political) system (Jürgen Habermas, Ronald Inglehart, Henrik Kaare Nielsen). The peace group "seeks peace and pursues it," together with "reconciliation", and "contentious objection". Peace movements is to some degree "pacifist" and "beats swords into plowshares". The first national peace movement was The American Peace Society founded in 1828. This fairly broad definition of the concept of peace excludes unfortunately political parties and military organizations like NATO and the late Warsaw Pact Treaty Organization which claim to be peace movements even though their raison d'etre were the use of force, weapons and military strength to keep their form of peace, which is not always peace as the concept was analyzed earlier.
Peace movements can be analyzed not only from a contest or political point of view. But they also can be analyzed from an organizatorial and a geographical point of view, and last but not least from both a historical point of view and after their activities.
ORGANIZATORIAL VIEW OF THE PEACE MOVEMENTS
Peace groups are sometimes movements. The concept "movement" covers something which is moving, not only in the literary sense, but as - historical and/or political currents19. Most of the peace groups have been movements at some time of their existence or they still aspire to be. Movements have, opposite groups, many directions from where initiatives are taken although in and outside the peace movements there is not made a big difference in the use of the terms. The way the peace movements here are organized is new. The new thing is the showing of the many different historical peace organizations, which might be a surprise for those, who believed that the peace movement like the atomic bomb is a new invention.
The term "group" covers a body of people who are organized in some way and that they are working together towards a well defined, but not always a united goal.
The peace movements can be organized as traditional organizations which have a board and yearly general meetings and a structural organizatorial hierarchy. Like The Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, or as grassroots movements such as many of the END groups in Scandinavia, usually working with one or a few subjects, having an open, or loose organizatorial frame, without a designated single spokesman (women) for the group. The members are those who work in the organization. This sort of group is also called campaign groups. There are two types of grassroots movements: reform movements and transform movements, the last being the most radical.
Another way of looking at the peace groups are the geographical one. Peace movements can be international organizations, such as War Resisters' International, national organizations such as Canadian Peace Alliance, professional membership groups such as Librarians Within the Peace Movement, or they can be local organizations such as The London Peace Society. The League of Universal Brotherhood founded in 1847 by Elihu Burritt, was the first secular pacifist organization to directly seek support of common people. Moreover, Burritt's organization was, according to (Cooney & Michalowski pp. 27) "the first secular pacifist organization to gain international status". It had brances in the United States and in Britain and carried its educational work to Holland, Germany, France and Italy. All this type of group are the individual member groups. The second type of peace group are the non-membership organizations and the co-ordinating bodies such as Campaign Against Arms Trade and the North Atlantic Network, the umbrella-organizations of the peace movement.
Besides the organizations and groups the peace movements also consist of individual persons, who believe themselves to be an active part of the peace and antimilitaristic work, but are not necessarily members of a peace group as such. In Denmark pacifists were organized in political parties long before the first peace group, Foreningen til Danmarks Nevtralisering, was founded in 1882. An example of how this worked is the Danish Member of Parliament, editor and newspaper-owner20 Viggo Hørup (1841-1902), who on March 29. 1883 in the Danish parliament asked the simple but powerful question: "What shall it [the military] benefit"?21 Though not a member of any peace group and even critizising later Nobel peace laurate Frederik Bajer (1837-1922), member of the same political party, for not being broadminded enough22, Viggo Hørup was in fact the leading pen of the Danish antimilitarists of his time. This is also true about many of the socialists and anarchist antimilitarists of that period.
Persons in the peace movements can also work in other fields of social life: political parties, grassroots organizations such as women's lib, civil and minority rights, environmental movements and so on.
HISTORICAL PEACE GROUPS
There are in the literature of the peace movements many different suggestions of how many or how few types of peace movements there are and has been both in time and if the peace movements are looked on by the way of their goals. In a typical article by David M. Schilling, which is an overview of the peace movement in the United States and its goals, the peace movement has only four waves: traditional peace groups, anti nuclear groups, groups concerned with United States intervention in the Third World, and the justice movement, which works on domestic issues in a global context23.
However in order to conduct proper literature searches and in order to understand the historical development of the peace movements on an international scale, the break down of the waves of the peace movements have to be developed still further.
Beyond the conscientious objectors and their movements which, during the time of the organized peace movements have always existed along with the religious peace groups, there are some 15 historical peace movements (and a few samples of the many peace movements and of important personalities within the peace movements). The periods refers basic to the peak of the influence of these peace groups, but does not mean that the organization and the political party in question has not been inspired by the other groups or that they have not changed at all. Things are (hopefully) moving. The placing of a group in a category is not a political judgment of the group in question. It is merely a help to organize the peace groups in a practical manner to help improve literature searches by giving some key words to further literature searches for instance on biographies. It also happens on rare occasions that the peace groups co-operate and the work of a peace group overlap the work of another24.
This bibliography does not however refer to bibliographies covering only religious or political organizations in general if the main trend of the book in question is not concerned with peace work in some way or other. This does not mean, that bibliographies covering other subjects are of lesser value, but just that they are not included in this work25.
1) Religious Pacifism from 1815 onward
A) Christian Peace Work
Protestant groups, The Narzarene Church (c. 1845), Tolstoians, Massachussets Peace Society (1815) ?American Peace Society (1828 ff), New York Peace Society, (one founded in 1815 and another in 1906), London Peace Society The Society for the Promotion of Permanent and Universal Peace (1815-?), Antimilitarist Ministers and Clergymen, Church of England Peace League, Friends of Peace, Glasgow (c 1818); American Arbitration and Peace Society; League internationale et pernamentes de la Paix, Paris; Union de la Paix c. 1867, International Fellowship of Reconciliation (1919 ff); Der Bodenreformbewegung; Kristeligt Fredsforbund (1913-1988 Forsoningsforbundet (1988 ff), World Alliance for Promoting International Friendship through the Churches (1914 ff?), Clergy and Laity Concerned, Svenska Världsfredsmissionen, Antimilitaristiske Præster, Interkerkeliijk Vredeseraad = Inter Church Peace Council (1967-), The Standing Joint Pacifist Committee (1965-??). To The Standing Joint Pacifist Committee were affiliated The Anglican Pacifist Fellowship, Fellowship of Reconsiliation, Fellowship Party, Methodist Peace Fellowship and the Peace Plegde Union, Schweizerischen Evangelischen Hilfverk für die Bekennende Kirche in Deutschland, Bishop Valdemar Ammundsen (1875-1936), Uffe Hansen, Emil Dehn, C. F. Andrews, Erasmus Desiderius of Rotterdam (1469-1536), David Low Dogde, Anthony Benezeth, Thimothy Watrous, Noa Worcester, William Ladd, Carl Heath, Bishop Nathan Söderblom (1866-1931), Charles Strong, Richard Cobden, Devere Allen, William Jones, Reginald Reynolds, Martin Niemöller, Richard McSorley, Emilia Fogelklow, Henri Roger, Lillian Stevenson, Abraham Johannes Muste (1885-1967), Clarence Pickett, Norman Thomas, Professor Johannes Ude, Philipppe Vernier, Professor George Martin Schümer, Professor Georg Schümer (1873-194526), Bishop Antilio Parrila Bonilla, John Nevin Sayre27 . . . The Christian belief in, that war is in consist with the precepts and spirit of the Gospel.
B) Catholic Peace Work: 1869 onwards
Lique internationale et permanentes de la Paix, Friedensbund Deutscher Katholiken, The Catholic Workers Movement International, Berliner Konferenz Europäisher Katholiken (1964 ff), Katolsk Arbejderaktion (1962 ff), Pax Christi International (1945 ff), Pacem in Terres, CSSR; Frederic Passay, Marc Sangnier, Dr. M. J. Metzger, Professor L. Ragaz, Daniel and Philip Berrigan ...
C) Non Christian Religious Peace Work
Jehova's Witnesess (only conscientious objection towards military draft), Jewish Peace Fellowship28, Niwano Peace Foundation, Soka Gakkai, Hindi's, Buddhist's, Asian Budhist Conference for Peace, Mongolia, The Society of Praying for World Peace (1955 ff), Mohandas Gandhi ... According to Budhist law it's a sin to take life.
2) Early Workers Peace Work: 1847-1870
The League of Universal Brotherhood, Elihu Burrit ...
3) Liberal Internationalism 1870-1914
International Peace and Abriration Association (1890), Interparlamentarian Union (1890 ff), Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1910 ff), The Nobel Peace Prize (1901 ff) The Norwegian Nobel Committee (1897 ff), The Libary of the Norwegian Nobel Institute (1906 ff), Deutsche Friedensgesellschaft (1892 ff), Allgemenen Deutsche Friedensbund, Foreningen til Danmarks Nevtralisering (1883 ff) Dansk Fredsforening, Dansk Freds- og Folkeforbundsforening Fred ved Ret,Dansk FN-Forening FN-Forbundet, Christian Arbitration and Peace Society, Det radikale Venstre (1906 ff), International Peace Bureau (1891 ff), Svenska freds- och Skiljedomsforeningen The Swedish Peace and Arbitration Society (1884 ff), Peace Union of Finland (1920 ff), Universal Peace Union, International Committee of the Red Cross (1863 ff) Henri Dunant, Henri La Fontaine, Hodgson Pratt, Frederik Bajer, Norman Angell, Alfred Fried, Christian H. Lange, Bertha von Suttner (1843-1914)29 ... Including Free Trade up towards World War 1. The Austrian pacifist author Bertha von Süttner inspired the swedish inventor and businessman Alfred Nobel to establish the Nobel Peace Prize and the first Nobel Peace Prize was awarded in 1901. The Norwegian Nobelinstitute was established in 1905 and its library in Oslo the following year.
4) Peace Language Movement 1870 onwards
The reason for creating artificial or plain languages is to make a language which easyly can be learned by members of different cultures, on the assumption that many conflicts arise from lack of knowledge of different cultures.
International Auxilliry Language Association, International Movement for the Promotion of a Universal Auxiliary Language, World Languages Friends, Arnold Schrag, Tom de Junge, Otto Jespersen . . . There have been, according to P. E. Stojan 30, though the years developed more than 300 artificial languages created to promote peace.
5) Second "Socialistic International" 1870-1914 and Socialist parties 1914 ff.
The workers 2nd International (1889-1914), Cambridge Workers for Peace (1937?), Socialdemokratiet (1872-1914, ff). Dansk Socialdemokratisk Ungdomsforbund (1903-1918), Sveriges socialdemokratiske Ungdomsförbund (1892 ff), Indipendent Labour Party, UK; Socialistisk Folkeparti (1958 ff.), Jean Jeaurès (1859-1914), Karl Liebknecht (1971-1919), Rosa Luxemburg (1871-1919, Sidney Lens (1912-1986), Paul Goodman (1911-1972), Kirkby Page, Clara Zetkin, Zeth Höglund (1884-1956), Gerson Trier (1851-191833), Andreas Fritzner (1887-1969), Carl Lindhagen, Willy Brandt (1913-1992), Alva Myrdal (1902-19 ) ... The fighting against the militarism as a political system. The socialist's were not nessesarly all pacifists in the class struggle.
6) Syndicalism and Anarchism 1900-1940
The International Anti-Militarist Union (1904-1919), The International Anti-Militarist Bureau (1919 -?), Sociaal-Demokratische Bond, Christian Christensen, Herman Gorter, Rudolf Grossmann (Pierre Ramus), Thøger Thøgersen, Johannes Sperling, Oscar Hansen, Erricco Malatesta, F. Domela Niuwenhuis, C. J. Björklund, Leo Tolstoy, P. J. Prodhon, Emma Goldman (1896-1940), Carl Heinrich Petersen (1915-1988), Eguine Victor Debs (1855-1926), Ralph Chaplin, Anton Pannekoek, Henriette Roland-Holst, Martin Tranmæl, Erich Mühsam (1878-1934) ... Conscientious objection and the development of the teory of collective direct action. The Syndicalists were labour union people with some political importance up towards the end of the Spanish Civil War in 1939. Most important was their antimilitaristic work during and after World War 1 and their development of the theory of direct action. Fighting against militarism as a social and political system. The anarchict movement in this period were basicly nonviolent, contrary to the popular myth.
7) Women's Peace Work 1870 onward
Some women' peace groups are strictly for girls, other groups, like the Danish organization Kvindernes Fredsforbund which in 1931 chanced name to Fredsforbundet af 1916, alows also men as members. The Danish section of the Womens' International League for Peace and Freedom first was strictly for women, but men could write in their magazine and the group also published publications from men.
Women' Peace Work can be divided in two groups:
a) Human moral womens' peace organizations
The daughters of educated men (Virginia Woolf).
Alliance Universelle des Femmes pour la Paix (c 1896), De danske Kvinders Fredsforening (1906), Womens' Peace Party (1915-1921) ,International Womens' Committee of Pernament Peace (1915-1919),Womens' International League for Peace and Freedom (1919 ff), Norske kvinders Haag-komite 1915-1919, Danske Kvinders Fredskæde (1916-1924) Kvindernes Internationale Liga for Fred og Frihed (1924-1971) International Liga for Fred og Frihed (1971 ff), The Peace and Disarmament Committee of the Womens' International Organizations, Women's Peace Union (1921-1942), World Union of Women for International Concord, The Womens' Peace Crusade, Sisterhood of International Peace Womens' International League for Peace and Freedom, Australian branch (1915-ff), Womens' Strike for Peace (1960 ff), Mothers for Peace, Jane Addams (1860-1935), Emely Green Balch, Elanor May Moore (1875-1949), Clara Guthrie D'Arcis, Selma Lagerlöff, Gerda Visle, Ciaran Mckeown, Naima Sahlbom, Amalie Steward, Mathilda Widegred, Fredrika Bremmer, Emilia Fogelklow ... Womens' peace groups were first organized in USA in the beginning of the 1820's (Allen) and possible before, but the womens' peace work did not gain political significance before 187034.
b) Radical feminist peace organizations
Feminist Peace Work and womens' peace camps, Women for Peace, Frauen für den Frieden, Femmes pour le paix, Kvinder for Fred Danish Women for Peace, Link, Womens' Organization for Political Prisoners, Women in Black, Voice of Vomen, Women's Strike for Peace, Women´s Peace Army (1915-1922), Studiegruppen Kvinder og militarisme, Alice Paul, Ellen Hørup (1871-1953), Elin Wägner, Clara Zetkin (1857-1933), Vera Brittain (1893-1970), Rosika Schwimmer, Helen Caldicott, Carrie Chapman Chatt, Helene Stöckner, Dr. Tomiko Kora, Barbara Deming (1917-1984), Aung San suu Kyi ...
8) Radical Pacifism 1885 onward
PACO,The War Resisters International (1921 ff) The War Resisters League (1924 ff), No more War Movement, Union of Democratic Control (1914-19??), Nie Wieder Krieg, Rassemblement International contra la guerre et de la militarism = International Assembly against War and Militarism (1938-1939?), Bund Neues Vaterland, National Peace Council U.K.(1908 ff), Peace Pledge Union (1934 ff), Congress on Radical Equality (1942 ff), [Project] Ploughshare [groups], Deutchen Jugendschaft (1929-1934), Viße Rose, Viggo Hørup (1846-1902), Count Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910), Jualter Hammer, les Prudhommeaux, Andreas Fritzner, Normann Angell, Hans Paasche (1881-1918)35, Mohandas [Mahatma] Karamchand Gandhi (1869 -1948), Albert Einstein (1879-1955), Carl von Ossietzky (1889-1938), Fritz von Unruh, Otto Lehmann-Russbüldt, Sophie Scholl, Fritz Hartnagel, Thøger Thøgersen, Ellen Hørup, Barthélemy de Ligt (1886-1938), novelist Aldous Huxley (1894-1963), H. Runtham Brown, Jessie Wallance Hugham, Abraham Johannes Muste, Olaf Kullmann, Martin Luther King Jr.(1929-1968), Ralph Bernathy, Danilo Dolci, Abie Natan, Jørgen Johansen ... Peace work which has a lot of social significance in it.
9) World Federalism 1919 onward
The League of Nations (1919-1946), The United Nations (1945 ff.), The International Institute for Documentation and Research on a World Federal Authority - Oslo, (1969-1979), World Citizens Party, L. A.; Svenska Föreningen för Nationernes Förbund (1919-1957) Informationsbüron för fredfrågor och mellanfolkelig samarbete,Svenska kommiteen för av världsamling för fred Svenska Föreningen för et nyt Folkets Förbund (1937) Nordiska föreningen mellanfolkeligt samarbete för fred Svenska foreningen for forenede nationer Svenska FN-förbundet (1957 ff), Movements for World Federal Government, International Federation of League of Nations Societies, The League to Enforce Peace (1915), Peace Union of Finland (1920 ff), World Peace Ways, Dansk Folkeforbundskomitè (1923-1940), Een Verden (Denmark and Norway), Action pour une Assemble Constituante Mondale, United World Federalists (1947-1952), World Association of World Federalists (1923-1953), All People's Association, Immanuel Kant, Fridjof Nansen, Theodore Marburg, C.F. Herfordt, Vincent Næser, Philliph Noel Baker (1889-1992), Norman Cousins, Hermod Lannung (1895 ff), Alva Myrdal ... There have been ideas on world federalism before 1919, but these ideas were never raised to organizatorial practice. Although The League of Nations and The United Nations are not peace movements, but rather international organizations, or intergovernmental organizations, they are included here, because of a general public faith in these organizations work for better international understanding and because the peace groups of the International Peace Campaign and the World Federalism kind.
10) The Peace Research Movement 1930 onward
Pugwash (1957 ff36), International Peace Research Association, School of Peace Studies at the University of Bradford, Federation of American Scientists, SIPRI (1967 ff), PRIO (1960 ff), Kenneth and Elise Boulding, Adam Curle, Johan Galtung, Istvan Kende (1917-1988), Theodore Lenz, Nigel Young, Owen Wilkens, Anders Boserup ...
11) Communist Internationalism 1949-1960
The Partisans for Peace The World Peace Counsel,Fredens Tilhængere i Danmark, World Assembly for Peace - Helsinki, Frie-denskomite der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1949-1959), Kommitee für frieden, Abrüstung und Zusammenarbeit (1974 ff), Deutsches Komitee der Kämpfer für den Frieden = German Committee of Fighters for Peace Bert Brecht Johannes R. Becher Anna Seghers (1900-1983)37,Arnold Zweig Otto Nuschke Erich Honecker Franz Dahlem, (1949-1950),Deutsches Komitee des Frieden = The German Peace Committee (1950-1953) Friedensrat der Deutschland = The German Peace Council (1953-1963) Friedensrat der DDR. = Peace Council of the German Democratic Republic (1963 ff) ,Hermann Axen Manfred Feist, Svenska Kommitéen för fredens försvar, The Bulgarian Committee in Defence of Peace, The Hungarian Council of the Movement in Defence of Peace Országos Béketanács = The Hungarian Peace council , The National Committee of Yugoslavia for Defence of Peace, Rumanian Committee in Defence of Peace, Polish Committee of Peace Supporters, Soviet Committee in Defence of Peace (1949) Soviet Peace Committee, Chinese People' Association for Disarmament and Peace, Samarbejdskommiteen for Fred og Sikkerhed = Liaison Committee for Peace and Security (1974 ff), W. E. B. du Bois (1870-1964)38 ... Fighting for peace through the struggle against imperialism and colonial exploitation. Also the fightiing against Vest German rearmament.
12) Nuclear Pacifism 1957-1967
The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (1957 ff) The Committee of 100 (1960 ff) Bertrand Russel Peace Foundation (1963 ff), The Committee for Non-Violent Action, Sahara Protest team (1959-1960), The Direct Action Committee Against Nuclear War, The Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy, Mouvement Contre l´ Armement Atomique Mouvement pour le désarmament, la Paix et la Liberté, Comité Contra la Force de Frappe (1964? ff), Kampagnen mod Atomvåben, Socialistisk folkeparti, Sjællandskommiteen mod Kartotekerne, April Carter, Bertrand Russel, Robert Jungk (1913-1994), Harold Steele, Michael Randle, Fritz Hartnagel, Edward Palmer Thompson39, Anne Grieg, Carl Scarnberg, Jens Thoft, Mads Nissen Styrk ...
The idea of ending the arms race, not the human race.
13) The Anti Vietnam War Movement 1965-1975
International Confederation for Disarmament and Peace (1963-), Americans for Democratic Action, Vietnam Moratorium Committee, The Campaign for Nonviolent Action, Vietnam 69 De Danske Vietnamkomiteer Demos40, Bertrand Russel, Wilhelm Christmas Møller (1931-1995), Joan Baez (1941-ff), Phil Oachs (1940-1976), Peggy Duff, John Lenon, Daniel and Philip Berrigan, Bradford Lyttle ... In USA the anti-Vietnam war movement was basicly a draft resistence movement. More than 200.000 American draft refusal cases were sent to the Justice Department for prosecution, of these only about 8.000 were convicted and 3.000 served times in prison, untold persons failed to register for the draft ...
14) END movements 1977 onwards
European Nuclear Disarmament, Sammenwerkingsverband Stop de Neutronenbom - Stop de kernwapenwedloop, Freeze (1980-1987 SANE, 1987 ff), Comité pour le Désarmament Nucléaire en Europe - CODENE = The [French] Committee for Nuclear Disarmament in Europe (1982 ff), Nej til Atomvåben - No to nuclear Weapons (1980-1992), Beyond War, International Psycians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, Nuclear Disarmament Party of Australia, Australian Coalition for Disarmament and Peace, Nuclear Free and Independent Pacific Movements, Helsinki watch groups, Canadian Peace Alliance (1985 ff), Charter 77, Operation Dismantle, SAGE, Unge for Fred Next Stop Nevada Next Stop Sovjet, The Group for Establishing trust between the USSR and the USA (1982-?) The Moscow Trust Group, Campaign for Peace and Democracy/East and West, Charta 77 (1977-1992)41, Nordisk Folkerigsdag, The Campaign to Free Vanunu and for a Nuclear Free Middle East -London, Edward Palmer Thompson, Mary Kaldor, Modercai Vanunu, Vaslav Harzek, Randall Fosberg, James T. Stark, Tulle Ester, Eigil Poulsen, Judith Winther ... This movement began as a protest against the planned production of the neutron bomb and continued as a protest movement against the NATO's "twin track" policy of the modernization of the organization's nuclear forces coupled with the arms control talks of the super powers.
15) Greenpeace kind of movements 1980 onwards
Greenpeace (1971 ff), Die Grünen (1980 ff), William Arkin, Petra Kelly, Gert Bastian ... Ecological or green peace movements. After the publishing of the UN-supported Bruntland-report in 1985 have many peace groups also became ecological movements.
THE ACTIVITIES OF THE PEACE MOVEMENTS
By looking at some of the activities of the peace movements, one develops yet another way of defining them and organizing them:
1) Activities which oppose to all types of war, conscription and armaments
The New England Non-Resistance Society, The Peace Pledge Union, WRI ...
2) Activities which oppose single wars and colonialism
Nederlandsche Anti-Oorlog Raad (The Netherlands 1914-1918). Landsforeningen for Konsekvente Antimilitarister (Denmark 1915-1918). Keep America out of War Congress (1938-1941/42), The International Committee for India (Geneva 1932-1935). The international Spanish Refugee and Relief Organizations (1936-1960). National Service Board for Religious Objectors (U.S.A. 1939? -1945?). The Clergy Committee to Rescue Culebra, The international Anti-Vietnam War movement (1965-1975) ... Center for Anti-War Action; Beograd.
3) Activities which oppose single elements of armament
END, The Campaign Against Arms Trade (1973 ff) The Trust for Research and Education on the Arms Trade, The International Campaign against the H. Bomb (1952). The International Campaign against the Neutron Bomb (1977-1980), Der Krefelder Initative, INFACT (1977 ff) International's Nuclear Weaponmakers Campaign & The GE Boycott, Freeze ...
4) Conscientious objection
American Friends Service Committee (1917 ff), WRI (international 1923 ff), The Anti-Enlistment League ( 1913 -, USA), No Conscription Fellowship (1915 -), End Conscription Campaign (South Africa), Yesh Gvul = There is a Limit (Israel), European Bureau for Conscientious Objection, (Germany and Belgium), Militærnægterforeningen (Denmark), Mouvement des Objecteurs de Conscience (France), Greek Commitee for Conscientious Objection (Greece), International Conscientious Objectors Meeting ICOM (1984 ff), Military Counseling Network (Germany) ...
Both total, general, political, religious and circumstantial objection.
It should be noted that not all conscientious objectors are, of course pacifists, but many were and still are. Many appear in modern history to become conscientious objectors because of political reasons when the concentious objecters in older times had their opinion because of religious beliefs. For instance, in the American Civil War 1861-1865 the following protestant religious organizations had conscientious objectors in both camps: The Society of Friends, the Mennonite Church, the Church of the German Baptist Brethren, the United Society of Believer's in Christ's Second Appearing, The Community of True Inspiration, the Schwenkfelder Church, Christ's Brethren, and the Rogerians42.
Also, during the Second World War, in the United States there were Jehovah's Witnesses who would fight, but only if it was the Lord's war of Armageddon; Black Muslims who refused to fight a white man's war, Catholics who refused to fight the Aryan German Catholics; American Nazis who refused to join America's fight against Hitler; and Troskyits who refused to fight in a capitalist war. However, most of the American CO's during World War II were pacifists.
5) International humanitarian Aid and/or Relief Work
Fredsvennernes Hjælpearbejde (1943 ff) Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke, UNESCO, International Voluntary Service, Quakers, Food and Disarmament International, International Committee of the Red Cross (1863 ff), French Doctors, International Physicians for the Preventing of Nuclear War, William Jones, Fridtjof Nansen (1861-1930) Christian Erichsen (1867-1935), Sigrid Helliesen Lund43, Emil Flusser (-1942), Premysl Dither, Svend Haugaard (1913 ff) ... Cleaning up the mess of the military during and after wars. The international relief work of the Scandinavian peace groups during and after World War II was followed by an international Tuberculosis Campaign (1947-1951), lead by the Scandinavian chapters of the International Red Cross and The United Nations Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF). This relief work of the peace movement and The international Tuberculosis Campaign sparkled the interest of the peace movements in the following years aid programmes to the so called un-developed countries.
6) Nonviolence and civil disobediance
Henry David Thoreau, Leo Tolstoy, Mohandas Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr. and the movements and personalities they inspired: The Congress of Radical Equality, The National Congress of India (1886-1947 ff), Indiens Venner (Copenhagen, Oslo 1930-1938), Friends of India, (London), Infact International, The Irish Network for Nonviolent Action Training, Andy Goodmann, Jawahala Neru, Susan Lisa Rosenberg ... Tolstoy reinforced in "The Kingdom of God is within You" the claims upon conscience put forth by Adam Bellow in "Christian Non-Resistance", immortalized in Thoreau's "Resistance to Civil Government". Gandhi, inspired by Tolstoy and others, developed the nonviolence to a collective movement. Thus including both the activities of Mahatma Gandhi and the American civil rights movement noting the difference, that the Indian nationalist Movement actually tried to break the British laws, while the American civil rights movement tried to get the American federal laws observed. The ideas of Gandhi was in Europe first promoted by the French author Romain Rolland (1866-1944).B
7) Peace education
UNESCO (1946 ff), The International Peoples College, Elsinore = Den internationale højskole (1924 ff), Associations françaises pour la paix par l'education, Nordisk folkehøjskole for fred og udvikling, Peace Education Network Canadian Peace Education Network, Lærere for fred, Preparedness for Peace, Åke Bjerstedt, Birgit Brock-Unte, Arma Mer Khamis, ...
THE PEACE PROFESSIONAL
The peace professional are persons and organizations who use their professional skills in the fight for peace.
Artists and cartoonist for peace
Das Junge Rheinland Käte Kollwitz Otto Dix, Künstler für den Frieden, Bo Bojesen, Francisco Goya, Imre Pérely, Honoré Victorian Daumier (1808-1879)C ...
Journalists for peace
Journal des Archives (1935-1939), Devere Allan, Samuel H. Day, Ellen Hørup, Viggo Hørup, Zeth Höglund, Emil Dehn, Carl von Ossietzky, Axel Pille, Friederich Wilhelm Sollmann ...
Librarians for peace
Librarians Within the Peace Movement - London, The Anti-Nuclear Librarians Clup - Japan, Bibliotekarer for Fred - Copenhagen, Ernst Friederich, Jacob ter Meulen, David Hoggatt, Ulla Brohed, Peter van den Dungen ...
Musicians for peace
Psyscians for peace
Psysicians for Social Responsibility, Læger for fred, Dyrlæger for fred ...
Writers and poets for peace
Leo Tolstoy, Henri Barbusse, Heinrich Böll, Jaroslav Hàsek, Thomas Mann, Romain Rolland, Eric Maria Remarque - pseudonym for Erich Poul Remark (1898-1970), Kurt Vonnegut, Oscar Hansen, Sidney Lens, Paul Goodman, Nazim Hikmet, Kurt Tucholsky, Stefan Zweig, Ernst Toller (1893-1939)47, Karl Brüger, Athur Rimbaud ... ETC.
Other related terms or key words of the subject of the activities of the peace movements are: arbitration, security, human rights, law, federalism, one world government, civil disobedience, dissident politics, civil rights, development and development studies, disarmament, nuclear weapon free zones, international law and - treaties, international organization, international co-operation, intergovernmental organizations, foreign policy discission making, comparative foreign policy, macro-oriented studies of war and peace, conflict and conflict resolution, international negotiations, the un-developed countries in international policy, transnational co-operations and ecology.
PEACE MOVEMENTS IN HISTORY
A third way of working with the history of the peace movements is from within historical currents which also illustrates the development of the subjects of the peace movements:
Before 1815: Individual (and mostly religious) attempts to create peace.
1815 to 1870: The end of the Napoleonic wars to the French German war peace and arbitration. Red Cross. Liberalism. Socialism.
1871 to 1915: The French German war to World War 1 peace and arbitration societies. 1915 to 1919: World War 1 conscientious objection.
1919 to 1947: Collective nonviolence The Indian nationalist movement.
1920 to 1933: The Veimar Republic protests against armament The League of Nations. Communism. Anarchism.
1933 to 1939: The Nazi rise to power The League of Nations48.
1939 : World War 2 conscientious objection49.
1945 to 1948: The reorganization of forces,United Nations.
1948 to 1974: The Vietnam War.
1949 to 1960: Cold War 1 disarmament.
1961 to 1977: Nuclear detente.
1978 to 1987: Cold War 2. New liberalism.
1988 to the present: The rise of Gorbatjof.
1989 The falling of the walls of Europe.
1991 The end of Cold War II?
5000 onwards: Peace on earth???
MILITARISM CREATES REGRESSION
The activities of the peace movements are not appreciated accordingly. In all countries the military establishment claims to be defending not only the status quo of present political power but also peace, freedom and democracy. However during this proces, the military especially in the Western World has just in the resent twenty years politically speaking roamed on many Watergate in their defense of democracy, freedom and peace.
The following is only a small summary of some of the cases from the resent years.
The government of the United States imprisons political prisoners from the peace movements, according to a Amnesty International study there are more than 300 political prisoners in the States50.
The use of secret diplomacy and intelligence cover up operations, concealed under the disguise of "national security", threatens to turn, not only all the countries of NATO, but all countries which accept such policy, USA, USSR, UK, France, Israel, and such countries where these operations take place into banana republics.
The House, Un-American Actions Committee during the Cold War which was preceded by The House Special Committee to Investigate Communist Activities (The Fisk Committee) of 1930 and the Dies Committee of 1940. The Kennedy administration and the FBI versus Martin Luther King Jr. and the civil rights movement. The Johnson and Nixon administrations versus the anti-Vietnam war movement. The CIA project Merrimac against the peace movement. The CIA/FBI operation Chaos against the peace movement (DeBenedetti and Chatfield).
The most powerful American government versus the small, weak island of Palau (Aldridge and Myers).
The Danish and the American governments versus the inughuit's (the local population) of Thule in Greenland, during the establishing of the later strategic Thule Air Base in 1951-1953, which violated not only local Greenlandic laws, but also the Danish constitution51.
In Canada, NATO low flying exercises threatens the life of the Inuite's.
The Norwegian government versus critical peace researchers and Folkereisning mot KrigS.
The Socialistic government of France against Greenpeace.
The so called "Spring Offensive" of the Conservative former British Secretary of Defence John Nott against CND in 1981 (Antola). In Northern Ireland, the policy of the English government not only threatens the local population, but also law and order, freedom of information and the freedom of the press in the whole United Kingdom.
The Greek government which is a full member of NATO and EEC, imprisons conscientious objectors again and againP.
In Turkey, also a full member of NATO, the military junta persecutes and imprisons members of The Turkish Peace Committee as well as the Kurds (Ole Espersen).
The end still does not justify the means.
To stop the military pacifists must organize. This can be done in many different ways.
It is this historical backdrop of the peace organizations that forms the frame work for the books in this bibliography.
1 See for example Walraven, Guido: Research on the history of the Dutch peace movement : the quest for effectiveness and empowerment. In: Bulletin of Peace Proposals. vol. 19:2, 1988. pp. 223-229.
2 Prittie, Terrence: Germans against Hitler p. 132. - London : Hutchinson of London.
3 INFACT Resource List & Order form 1993: Summer, pp. 1 and 4.
4 For bibliographic references to these persons works see Kende and Ter Meulden.
5 Tolstoy, Leo: Slavery of our Times. 1900. Conclusion.
6 Kende, Istvan: The History of peace : Concepts and organizations from the late Middle Ages to the 1870's. In: Journal of Peace Research. vol. 26:3, Ag '89. pp. 233-247.
7 Arup, Erik: Danmarks Historie [History of Denmark] vol. II, 1282-1624.- Copenhagen : H. Hagerup's Forlag, 1932. pp. 185-186.
8 Later in 1410 the punishment for violation the peace of women was made more rigorous which lead to the first execution of an nobel man, Abraham Brodersen, because of his rape of a women. Politikens Danmarkshistorie [Politikens' History of Denmark]. - Copenhagen : Politiken, 1963. Vol. 4. pp. 429.
9 Tolstoy, Leo: Slavery of our Times. 1900. Conclusion.
10 Thoreau was involved in the anti-slavery movement. He began to refuse payment of poll tax in 1842 on the grounds that money raised by the tax went to support slavery, and that to pay tax was to participate personally in the evil of slavery. By 1848, when Thoreau was jailed for his tax resistance, he was also refusing to support the American-Mexican war.
11 A sample of an analysis of the tax administration from Denmark is: "Skatter og Skatteforvaltning i ældre Tider" [Taxes and tax administrations in older times] / Helge Nielsen ; Victor Thalbitzer. - Copenhagen : Selskabet for Udgivelse af kilder til Danmarks historie, 1948 ; 1978. - 208 pp.
12 An American sample of early tax resistance in public records is The Case White V. M'Bride, 7 ky. (4 Bibb) 61 (1815!) according to Gerhard C. Wetkin, "was instituted by the Pleasant Hill Shakers against the deputy sheriff of Mercer County, Kentucky, to obtain possession of property taken to satisfy fines assessed against members of the community for not attending military musters. The Court, reviewing the applicable constitutional principles, holds that persons conscientiously opposed to bearing arms cannot be fined by a court martial for failure to attend musters". In: Shaker literature : A Bibliography / Mary L. Richmond. - Hanover : University Press of New England, 1977. pp. 253.
13 Nørgaard, Ellen: "Skolebogsbetænkningens historieafsnit" : Dens tilblivelseshistorie og træk af dens modtagelse. In: Årbog for dansk skolehistorie [Yearbook of Danish School History]. 1970. pp. 89-106. Her cited work is: "Betænkning vedrørende revivion af skolebøger" : Afgivet af det af Undervisningsministeriet under 8. august 1930 nedsatte Udvalg [Report on the Revisal of School Books] / Ministry of Education. - Copenhagen : Schultz, 1933. - 158 pp.
14 Deuteronomy chapter 5. v. 17.
15 Regarding the literature in connection with people associated with the Society of Friends, see: Smith, Joseph: A Descriptive Catalogue of Friends Books or Books written by Members of The Society of Friends, commonly called Quakers, from their first Rise to the present Time, interspersed with critical remarks, and Occasional Biographical Notices, and including all Writings by Authors before Joining, and by those after having left the Society, whether adverse or not, as far as known. - London : Own Publishing, 1867, - 1027 + 984 pp.
Smith, Joseph: Bibliotheca Quakersistica : A Bibliography of Miscellaneous Literature relating to The Friends (Quakers), Chiefly written by Persons not Member of their Society ; Also of Publications by Authors in some Way connected and Biographical Notices. - London : Joseph Smith, 1883. - 32 pp.
16 A typical sample from Denmark of a "Christian" king who relies on foreign military power is the King Frederik 1 (1471-1533). See: Lyby, Thorkild C.: Vi evangeliske : Studier over samspillet mellem udenrigspolitik og kirkepolitik på Frederik I's tid. - Århus : Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 1993. - 497 pp.
17 Tolstoy became a Christian pacifist like so many others because of his experiences with war and executions. He learned a lot from the anarchist writers Proudhon and Kropotkin.
18 Franz Alt did apparently not know the writings of Tolstoy on the Sermon on the mount when he wrote: "Frieden ist Möglich : Die Politik der Bergpredigt". - München ; Zürich : R. Piper, 1983 ; 1984. - 119 pp. - ISBN 3-492-00584-5
19 Of course peace groups move their headquarters for different reasons. Thus the Interparlamentary Union had it's headquarter moved to the following cities: Berne 1892-1911, Brussels 1911-1914, Oslo 1914-1920 and Geneva 1921 ff.
20 Viggo Hørup had together with Georg Brandes founded, what later should be one of Denmark's leading dailies, Politiken in 1884.
21 The question came during 2. behandling af Lovforslag til Forsvarssagens fremme = The second debate about a proposal to promote the case of the defense.
22Hørup, Viggo: Hr. Frederik Bajer. In: Politiken. October 25. 1892.
23 Schilling, David M.: "The Peace Movement" : Who We Are, What We Can Do. In: Christianity-and-Crisis. 1986. vol. 46:4.pp. 85-89.
24 Howlett, Charles F. Fellowship with workers : F.O.R. pacifists and the inter war labor movement. In: Peace Research. vol. 22:4, N'1990. pp. 63-74.
25 A good sample for a reference books which should be consulted regarding religious pacifism in the United States is Richmond, Mary L.: Shaker Literature : A Bibliography. - Hancock, MA ; Hanover NH: Shaker Community inc. ; University Press of New England, 1977. - 253 + 337 pp.
26 Die Friedens-Warte 1947:1/2 pp. 62-65.
27 Howlett, Charles F. John Nevin Sayre and the International Fellowship of Reconciliation. In: Peace & Change. vol. 15:2, Ap'1990. pp. 123-149.
28 Regarding Jewish pacifism during the German revolution of 1919 see article by Bronner, Stephen Erich: Persisting Memories of the German Revolution : The Jewish Activists of 1919. In: New Politics, ISSN 0028-6494, 1995, vol. 5 no. 2 p. 83-94.
29 Abrams, Irwin. Bertha von Suttner [1843-1914] : bibliographical notes. In: Peace & Change vol. 16:1, Ja'91. pp. 64-73.
30 Quoted in Ruth Bentzen: "Om Babelstårnet og hvad deraf fulgte : Kunstsprogsamlinger i Det kongelige Bibliotek" [About the tower of Babel and what later followed : Collections of artificial language books in the Royal Library [of Copenhagen]]. In: Magasin fra Det kongelige Bibliotek. 1988. vol. 3. ; 1. pp. 3-16.
31 Regarding Danish
volumes on the the history of Esperanto see: Folkenes Forbund om
Esperanto som internationalt hjælpesprog :
Generalsekretariatets Rapport, antaget af Delegeretforsamlingen d
21. September 1922. - Copenhagen : Centra Dana Esperantista Ligo,
1924. - 58 pp.
32 According to A. N. Andersen: "Det internationale Hjælesprog", in 1921 there were three Ido groups in Denmark: "Dansk Ido-Forbund, "Internationalt Kvindeforbund" and Arbejdernes Idoklub". Fremad, 1921:20.
33 Petersen, Carl
Heinrich: Danske revolutionære.
34 Sandi Cooper: "The Work of Women in nineteenth Centry Continental European Peace Movements". In: "Peace and Change". 1983:3. pp. 11-28.
35 There is, according to Johann Gottfried Paasche in the article: Hans Paasche : A German Pacifist : Problems of Memory, a Hans Paasche archive at the German Youth Movement Archieves in Ludwigsburg. (Papers IPRA 1995 p. 69).
36 Rotblat, Joseph: The birth of Pugwash. In: New Times. 1988. p.6-11. Supplement.
and Rotblat, Joseph: Movements of Scientists Against the Arms Race. In:
...Scientists, the Arms Race and Disarmament. Rotblat (ed.). - London : Taylor and Francis, 1982. esp. "Peace Research Institute," pp. 144-156.
37 East German Anna Seghers was one of the initataters of the Stockholm Peace Appeal which collected some 600 millions signatures from 1952.
38 Marple, Manning: "Peace and Black Liberation : The Contributions of W. E. B. du Bois". In: "Science & Society", 1983-1984. vol. XVII:4. pp. 385-405.
39Schwägermann, Erik: "Politik og historie i E. P. Thompsons forfatterskab : En biografisk og bibliografisk gennemgang". In: Årbog for Arbejderbevægelsens Historie : 1991. ; pp. 201-218.
40 Demos gennem 25 år. In: "Demos Nyhedsbrev". 1994:32 pp. 3-10. Se also: "Rigsadvokatens redegørelse om begivenhederne på Nørrebro den 18. og 19. maj 1993. Afgivet den 29. august 1994 til Justitsministeren".
41 Information, November 6th. 1992.
42 Wright (1931) pp. 6.
43 Hammerich, Paul: Valkyrierne. In: "Politiken"s kronik. November 22, 1992.
Bhole, L. M.: Understanding Gandhi thrugh Romain Rolland's writings. In: Gandhi Marg. Ja' 1990. pp. 403-420.
Collections of anti-war art and cartoons are as a rule not included in this bibliography. Se for instance: Daumier, Honoré Victorian: "Daumier on War : 64 print reproductions after the original lithographies". - New York : Da Capo Press, 1977. - iii, 64 pp. : ill. - ISBN 0-306-80079-9. This collectin is a reproduction of the edition published in Leipzig in 1926 under the title "Daumier und der Krieg". The cartoons of Daumier were adabted from both the Leipzig edition an d the authorative French catalouge of Daumier originally published in bookform by Hazard and Delteil in 1904.
44 Regarding the songs and records of Joan Baez, see: Schvartz, Verner: "A Discography of Joan Baez". - Hovslund St. Røde Kro, 1977. - 119 pp.
45 Regarding Phil Oachs (and Joan Baez) and
the then "new" folk-movement, see: Rodnitzky, Jerome L.: "Minstrels
of the Dawn : The Folk-Protest singer as a cultural hero".
48 The musical to which the antiwar movie directed by Richard Attenborough the 1960ties, but the music were composed around World War 1. The music was originally collected for a radio broad cast "The Long Trail" by Charles Chilton. Two years later the music was turned into a musical by The John Littlewood Theater Workshop at West End's Wyndham Theater.
47 Politikens Kronik 21. 2. 1927.
48 Regarding German pacifists in exile see: Holl, Karl: German Pacifists in Britisk Exile. Papers, IPRA. 1995. p 81-92.
49 Rigby, Andrew: Pacifist communities in Britain in the Second World War. In: Peace & Change. 15:2, Ap'90. pp. 107-122.
50 Amnesty International: The Imprisonment of Conscientious Objectors To Military Service. - London : Amnesty International, Mr'85. 12 pp.
53 Thule : Fangerfolk og militæranlæg : En retslig - historisk undersøgelse af Thule basens anlæggelse, Thules flytning og befolkningens erstatningskrav / Jens Brøsted ; Mads Fægteborg. - Copenhagen : Jurist- og Økonomforbundets Forlag, 1985. - 213 s. : ill. - ISBN 87-574-4700-4. Se also Politikens kronik "Fortielse og usandhed om Thule-sagen". 3. 12. 1986.
54 See for instance: "Dommen over Gleditsch og Wilkens" : Fire kritiske innlegg / Torstein Eckhoff et al. - Oslo : PRIO, 1981. - 58 pp. ; PRIO-publikation P-28/81). "Forskning eller spionage?" : Rapport om straffesaken i Oslo Byrett i mai 1981 / Nils Petter Gleditsch ; Owen Wilkens. - Oslo : PRIO, 1981. - 413 pp.. "LORAN C og OMEGA" : Innstilling fra Utvalget til undersøkelse av saken om etablering af LORAN C og OMEGA-stasjonerne i Norge. - Oslo : Pax, 1977. - 132 pp.. "Onkel Sams kaniner" : Teknisk etterretning i Norge / Nils Petter Gleditsch ; Owen Wilkens. - Oslo : Pax, 1981. - 213 pp., and "S.O.S. U. S. Andøya" : Ikkevoldssagen og amerikansk antiubåtskrigsføring / . - Ikkevolds Redaktion ed. - Oslo : Folkereisningen mot Krig, 1986. - 148 pp. . - ISBN 82-90409-28-1.
55 Pasichas, Spiros: A Question of conscience : Greek COs face harsh odds. In: Peace Courier. vol. 3, '90. pp. 6.