Centralasien består af Afghanistan, Den vestlige og
vest-centrale del af Kina (provinserne Qinghai og Xinjiang) og
Tibet, Den nordøstlige del af Iran, Den asiatiske del af
Kasakhstan, Kirgisistan, Mongoliet, Dele af Pakistan og Indien, Det
sydlige Sibirien, Tadsjikistan, Turkmenistan og Usbekistan
Det sydlige Asien består af: Afghanistan, Bangladesh,
Bhutan, Indien, Iran , Maldiverne, Nepal, Pakistan og Sri
The United Nations Statistics Division defines Western Asia as
a geographic sub-region of Asia that encompasses Armenia,
Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Cyprus, Georgia, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait,
Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey,
United Arab Emirates and Yemen.
Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World, 2010.
U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386, Satellite Image
Atlas of Glaciers of the World, contains 11 chapters designated by
the letters A through K. Chapter A provides a comprehensive, yet
concise, review of the "State of the Earth's Cryosphere at the
Beginning of the 21st Century: Glaciers, Global Snow Cover,
Floating Ice, and Permafrost and Periglacial Environments," and a
"Map/Poster of the Earth's Dynamic Cryosphere," and a set of eight
"Supplemental Cryosphere Notes" about the Earth's Dynamic
Cryosphere and the Earth System. The next 10 chapters, B through K,
are arranged geographically and present glaciological information
from Landsat and other sources of historic and modern data on each
of the geographic areas. Chapter B covers Antarctica; Chapter C,
Greenland; Chapter D, Iceland; Chapter E, Continental Europe
(except for the European part of the former Soviet Union),
including the Alps, the Pyrenees, Norway, Sweden, Svalbard
(Norway), and Jan Mayen (Norway); Chapter F, Asia, including the
European part of the former Soviet Union, China, Afghanistan,
Pakistan, India, Nepal, and Bhutan; Chapter G, Turkey, Iran, and
Africa; Chapter H, Irian Jaya (Indonesia) and New Zealand; Chapter
I, South America; Chapter J, North America (excluding Alaska); and
Chapter K, Alaska. Chapters A–D each include map plates.
Geografihistoriske primærkilder og fremstillinger /
Geography Historical primary sources and
Géographie des sources historiques primaires:
Cornell University Library: Southeast Asia Visions eller The
Visions collection, herunder The John M. Echols Collection on
Southeast Asia som er' A comprehensive online collection of 335
Western travel accounts of Southeast Asia (1633-1923) from the
holdings of the Echols Collection on Southeast Asia.' -
Strabo's Geography Books 11-17.
'Strabo's Geography, Books 11-17, translated by W. Falconer.
Strabo, a native of Amasia in Pontus (Asia Minor), lived in the 1st
century B.C. through the 1st century A.D. His Geography is one of
the most precious sources for historical, economic, and
anthropological information from antiquity. The books in this
edition cover: 11. Eastern Asia Minor, the Armenian Highlands,
Caucasus; 12. Parts of northen Asia Minor; 13. Northwestern Asia
Minor and the island of Lesbos. Much mythological material; 14.
Parts of Asia Minor, Ionia, Caria, the islands Samos, Chios,
Rhodos, the countries Lycia, Pamphylia, and Cilicia, and the island
Cyprus; 15. India and Persia; 16. Assyria, with Babylonia and
Mesopotamia, Syria with Phoenicia and Palestine, the Persian Gulf,
the Red Sea, and coastal Ethiopia, and Arabia; 17. Parts of Africa:
Egypt, Ethiopia, and Libya.'
Turkestan består af Turkmenistan, Kasakhstan, Usbekistan,
Kirgisistan og Xinjiang.
Traditionelt opdeles regionen i Vest- og Østturkestan.
Turkestan, også kaldet Turan, Turkistan eller Türkistan;
"tyrkernes land", er et landområde i Centralasien, som
hovedsagelig er beboet af tyrkiske folkeslag: oghuz-tyrkere,
kasakher, khazarer, kirgisere og uighurer.
'The Silk Road was a network of trade routes, formally
established during the Han Dynasty of China, which linked the
regions of the ancient world in commerce. As the Silk Road was not
a single thoroughfare from east to west, the term 'Silk
Routes’ has become increasingly favored by historians, though
'Silk Road’ is the more common and recognized name. Both
terms for this network of roads were coined by the German
geographer and traveler, Ferdinand von Richthofen, in 1877 CE, who
designated them 'Seidenstrasse’ (silk road) or
'Seidenstrassen’ (silk routes). The network was used
regularly from 130 BCE, when the Han officially opened trade with
the west, to 1453 CE, when the Ottoman Empire boycotted trade with
the west and closed the routes.'
Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from
the Bronze Age to the Present. / : Christopher I. Beckwith.
Princeton University Press, 2009.
National Institute of Informatics - Digital Silk Road Project
Digital Archive of Toyo Bunko Rare Books
Digital Silk Road Project
The silk road Journal 2008-2009.
UNESCO: History of Civilizations of Central Asia
Volume I: The Dawn of Civilization: Earliest Times to 700 B.C.,
eds. A. H. Dani and V. M. Masson (Paris, 1992).
Volume 1 of this UNESCO multi-volume series traces the history of
man in this vast region from the Palaeolithic beginnings to circa
700 BC, when the foundations of the Achaemenian Empire were laid.
The earliest history of man is evidenced and the food producing
areas of Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and the Indus Valley explored.
The Bronze Age and the first signs of urbanization from the Indus
to the Oxus are described as is the development of the nomadic
pastoral tribes, such as the Aryans, whose history can be seen in
proper perspective through archaeological evidence now
Volume II: The Development of Sedentary and Nomadic Civilizations:
700 B.C. to A.D. 250, ed. János Harmatta, co-eds. B. N. Puri
and G. F. Etemadi (Paris, 1994).
Volume III: The Crossroads of Civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750, ed.
B. A. Litvinsky, coeds. Zhang Guang-da and R. Shabani Samghabadi
Volume IV: The Age of Achievement: A.D. 750 to the End of the
Fifteenth Century, 2 vols., eds. M. S. Asimov and C. E. Bosworth
(Part One, Paris, 1998; Part Two, Paris, 2000).
- http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001204/120455e.pdf Charles
C. Kolb. Review of Asimov, M. S.; Bosworth, C. E., eds., History of
Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV: The Age of Achievement: AD
750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century, Part One: The Historical,
Social and Economic Setting. H-Asia, H-Net Reviews. October,
Volume V: Development in Contrast: From the Sixteenth to the
Mid-Nineteenth Century, eds. Chahryar Adle and Irfan Habib, co-ed.
Karl M. Baipakov (Paris, 2003).
Volume VI: Towards the Contemporary Period: From the Mid-Nineteenth
to the End of the Twentieth Century, co-eds. Madhavan K. Palat and
Anara Tabyshalieva (Paris, 2005).
The lands of the eastern caliphate : Mesopotamia, Persia and
Central Asia from the Moslem conquest to the time of Timur. / : Guy
Le Strange. - Cambridge : University Press, 1905.