Bikini, Pikinni

Billedkilde: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bikini
1. Øgruppe i Stillehavet der er en del af Marshalløerne.
Bikini-atollen ligger 850 kilometer nordvest for Majuro på den nordlige udkant af Marshall-øerne og er sammensat af mere end 23 øer og holme.
Fire øer (Bikini, Eneu, Nam og Enidrik) tegner sig for over 70% af land-arealet. Bikini og Eneu er de eneste øer i atollen, som har haft en fast-boende befolkning.
Historie: Fire serier amerikanske  kernevåbenforsøg i Bikini Atoll Nuclear Test Site i perioden 1946-1958, eksempelvis Operation Cross-roads, 1946, Operation Castle, 1954 og Operation Redwing ved den lille ø Namu, 1956. På det tidspunkt atomvåbenafprøvningerne i Marshalløerne blev afsluttet i juli 1958 var i alt 67 atomvåbenforsøg blevet udført på Bikini-atollen over en 12-årig periode. Alle disse test var overflade eller atmosfæriske forsøg.
Oplysninger om operationerne er stadig skjulte eller maskerede som klassificeret information.
2. Sportsdragt eller badedragt til kvinder oprindelig bestående af bukser og brystholder. I nyere tid kendt fra juli 1946.
Bikinien kommer, ifølge Nationalmuseet i Brede, til Danmark i 1947, men bliver først almindelig med pop-kulturens gennembrud omkring 1960.
Se også: Enewetak ; Rongelap.

Litteratur

Bikini Atoll (Marshall Islands) No 1339. Undated. - 30 s.
Bikini Atoll coral biodiversity resilience five decades after nuclear testing. / : Zoe T. Richards, Maria Beger, Silvia Pinca, Carden C. Wallace.
Marine Pollution Bulletin 56 (2008) 503–515
- https://www.bikiniatoll.com/BIKINICORALS.pdf
Five decades after a series of nuclear tests began, we provide evidence that 70% of the Bikini Atoll zooxanthellate coral assemblage is resilient to large-scale anthropogenic disturbance. Species composition in 2002 was assessed and compared to that seen prior to nuclear testing. A total of 183 scleractinian coral species was recorded, compared to 126 species recorded in the previous study (excluding synonomies, 148 including synonomies). We found that 42 coral species may be locally extinct at Bikini. Fourteen of these losses may be pseudo-losses due to inconsistent taxonomy between the two studies or insufficient sampling in the second study, however 28 species appear to represent genuine losses. Of these losses, 16 species are obligate lagoonal specialists and 12 have wider habitat compatibility. Twelve species are recorded from Bikini for the first time. We suggest the highly diverse Rongelap Atoll to the east of Bikini may have contributed larval propagules to facilitate the partial resilience of coral biodiversity in the absence of additional anthropogenic threats.'
The Bravo Test and the Death and Life of the Global Ecosystem in the Early Anthropocene. / : Robert Jacobs.
The Asia-Pacific Journal, Vol. 13, Issue. 29, No. 1, July 20, 2015.
- http://japanfocus.org/-Robert-Jacobs/4343/article.pdf
Radiological Conditions at Bikini Atoll: Prospects for Resettlement. Report of an Advisory Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria. / K.Lokan et al. IAEA, 1998. - 80 s.
- http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/Pub1054_web.pdf
S. L. Simon and W. L. Robison: Detonation Data for U.S. Pacific Ocean Tests. In: Health Phys. 73(1):258-264; 1997.
Abstract—Prior to December 1993, tbe explosive yields of 44 of 66 nuclear tests conducted by tbe United States in tbe Marshall Islands were still classified. Following a request from tbe Government of the Republic of the Marshall Islands to the U.S. Department of Energy to release this information, the Secretary of Energy declassified and released to the public the explosive yields of the Pacific nuclear tests. This paper presents a synopsis of information on nuclear test detonations in the Marshall Islands and other locations in the mid-Pacific including dates, explosive yields, locations, weapon placement, and summary statistics.


Send kommentar, email eller søg i Fredsakademiet.dk
Locations of visitors to this page