Anti-intellectualism In American Life. / : Richard
- New York : Alfred A. Knopf, 1963.
The Paranoid Style of American Policy. / : Richard Hofstadter. Harper's Magazine, November 1964.
'It had been around a long time before the Radical Right discovered it—and its targets have ranged from “the international bankers” to Masons, Jesuits, and munitions makers.'
Using Expectancy Effects Theory To Analyze the Groups Who Supported Senator McCarthy.
'In this essay, Festinger's cognitive dissonance theory (which seeks to explain how individuals try to reconcile holding two inconsistent beliefs at the same time) is used to explore the nature of expectancy effects and what possible roles they play in the thinking of the radical right. The paper first defines expectancy effects and explains how they work by discussing three variables in the expectancy process: senders' disposition, reinforcement, and correspondence bias. The theory of expectancy effects is then used in the paper to examine three of the groups who supported Senator Joseph McCarthy in the 1950s to show that even though the beliefs that each group holds may be false, when each group looks for ways to resolve this tension between beliefs, they create an additional false predisposition. The groups are the pseudo-conservatives (so-called by Richard Hofstadter), certain ethnic groups, and small businessmen. Next, the paper examines how the rest of the expectancy process works with the radical right. The paper concludes that expectancy effects are a useful tool for explaining the implications of the tension reducing strategies described by Festinger.'