Development of Environmental Data for Navy, Air Force, and
Marine Munitions. / : J.L. Clausen, C.L. Scott, and R.J.
Cramer, 2007. -
Munitions containing RDX, HMX, TNT, and perchlorate are used for Army, Air Force, Navy, and Marine training in the continental United States, and this practice has a high potential for introducing contaminant residues into the environment. In particular, units using large numbers of Smokey Sams (mock missiles fired at fighter aircraft) have the potential to release large quantities of perchlorate into the environment.
ITRC (Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council). 2005. Perchlorate: Overview of Issues, Status, and Remedial Options; PERCHLORATE-1. Washington, D.C.: Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council, Perchlorate Team. Available on the Internet at http://www.itrcweb.org.
'Highly soluble and mobile in water, perchlorate is also very stable. Most of the attention focused on perchlorate contamination concerns groundwater and surface water contamination. However, perchlorate can also contaminate soil and vegetation. The potential for perchlorate contamination in drinking water and food supplies is a human health concern because it can interfere with iodide uptake by the thyroid gland and, through this mode of action, result in decreased thyroid hormone production.'