Stråling fremkaldt ved kerneprocesser, eksempelvis atombombesprængninger. Der er forskellige typer af radioaktiv stråling: Stråling skabes af partikler, eksempelvis elektroner eller positroner Stråling er elektromagnetisk stråling med enten meget høj frekvens og -energi eller med lavfrekvent energi. Lavradioaktiv stråling stammer fra kunstigt skabte isotoper. Der findes ingen sikker nedre grænse for radioaktiv stråling, som er en af de største kræftfremkaldende faktorer, der kendes. Radioaktiv stråling forårsager strålingsskader i form af hurtig eller langsom død af kræft eller ændringer i arveanlæg (DNA), alt efter strålingens styrke og ofrets beskyttelse og afstand fra kilden.
Radioaktivt nedfald er den forurening, der finder sted, når radioaktivt forurenede støvpartikler vender tilbage til jordoverfladen via regn og sne. Vinde kan føre radioaktive skyer over store afstande, helt til den modsatte side af jordkloden. Omkring 80,000 mennesker som levede i eller blev født i USA i årene mellem 1951 og 2000 vil udvikle kræft som følge af nedfald fra atmosfæriske atomvåbenforsøg, viser en undersøgelse fra the Institute for Energy and Environmental, Research: 'Well over 15,000 of these cases would be fatal. "This report and other official data show that hot spots occurred thousands of miles away from the test sites," said Dr. Arjun Makhijani, president of the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research. "The new fallout maps and radiation dose estimates show that nuclear weapons states not only harmed their own people but also people in other countries." Despite this classified reports leaked from the Pentagon of its' "nuclear posture review" show plans to develop a whole new generation of "mini-nukes"! The most recent government study, a fact sheet, and official fallout maps are posted on the IEER web'.
Following the invasion of Iraq in March 2003, concerns were raised about the security of Iraq’s radiological sources. Such sources are used in medicine, industry, and research, but unsecured sources could pose risks of radiation exposure, and terrorists could use them to make “dirty bombs.”
Forsvarsministeriet ikke var klar til at indsamle og sikre radiologiske kilder, da krigen begyndte i marts 2003 og i cirka seks måneder herefter.
Se også: Atomfysik ; Atomic Bomb Cassuaty Commission ; atomisvinterteorien ; atomkraft : bananflue ; BIER - US National Academy of Sciences Committee to Study the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation ; centi Gray ; demon core ; depleted uranium ; DNA ; dosis ; dosishastighed ; EMP ; EPA Standard of Radiological Safety ; Farallon Island Radioactive Waste Dump, Central California ; fordoblingsdosis ; Foreningen af Stråleramte Thulearbejdere i Danmark : gammastråling ; genmanipulation ; henfald ; heterozygotisk ; International Commision on Radiological Protection ; initialstråling ; ionisering ; jod ; Johnston Island ; kernevåben ; kromosommutation ; latentsfasen ; Lise Meitner ; mitose ; meiose ; mutagen ; mutantbyrden ; mutationspres ; neutroninduceret område ; US Nuclear Test Personnel Review (NTPR) Program ; nukiller ; overdominans ; peakfase ; US Radiation Exposure Compensation Act 1990 ; radiobiologi ; reduced collateral damage weapons ; selektionspres ; spontan radioaktivitet ; strontium 90 ; stråleskader ; tritium ; the UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) zink.


Allison, Pam Radiation Monitoring at Pantex: A Review of the Bureau of Radiation Control Environmental Data 1993-2003, Peace Farm, 2005.
Anspaugh, Lynn R.: Radiation Dose to the Population of the Continental United States from the Ingestion of Food Contaminated with Radionuclides from Nuclear Tests at the Nevada Test Site. Final Report Report to the National Cancer Institute. - Salt Lake City, UT : Lynn R. Anspaugh, Consulting, 2000. - 68 s.
Armed Forces Special Weapons Project ; Joint Crossroads Committee: Radiological Defense. Volume I-III. The Principles of Military Defense against Atomic Weapons (1951). -
Bertell, Rosalie: No immediate danger : Prognosis for a radioactive earth. 1985. - 435 s. - ISBN 0-7043-3934-X
Chadwick, James: Radioactivity and radioactive substances; an introduction to the study of radioactive substances and their radiations (1921). -
Curie, Marie: The discovery of radium. - [Poughkeepsie, N.Y.], [s.n.] 1921. - 18 s.
Curie, Marie: La radiologie et la guerre [første verdenskrig].
- Paris : Librairie Félix Alcan, 1921. - 194 s.
Curie, Marie: Thèse présentées a la Faculté des Sciences de Paris pour obtenir le grade de docteur ès sciences physiques.
- Paris : Gauthier-Villars, 1903. - 172 s.
Department of Defense: Report on Search for Human Radiation Experiment Records 1944-1994, 1997. I-III. - 101+60+92 s.
Appendix I Results of DoD Human Radiation Experiment Records Search - 390 s.
Appendix II Information Sources - 89 s.
Appendix III Acronyms and Abbreviations/ Appendix IV Radiation Terms
DOE: Radiological Effluents Released from U.S. Continental Tests, 1961 Through 1992. / C R Schoengold, M E DeMarre, E M Kirkwood. 1996.- 304 s. ' This report documents all continental tests from September 15, 1961, through September 23, 1992, from which radioactive effluents were released. The report includes both updated information previously published in the publicly available May 1990 report, DOE/NV-317, Radiological Effluents Released from Announced U.S. Continental Tests 1961 through 1988, and effluent release information on formerly unannounced tests.'
Fallout radionuclide distribution in lichen communities near Thule / Hanson, W.C. Arctic, v. 24, no. 4, Dec. 1971, p. 269-276, figure, tables ASTIS record 10161
'Concentrations of the worldwide fallout radionuclides manganese-54, zinc-65, strontium-90, cesium-137, and cerium-praseodymium-144, and naturallyoccurring potassium-40 were measured in 80 lichen species collected near Thule, Greenland, during July-August 1968. Emphasis was placed on 137Cs for detailed comparison of radionuclide distribution within the 6 major and 5 minor lichen communities of the 1,500 km.2 area studied. Mean 137Cs concentrations in major lichen species ranged from 22 picocuries per gram standard dry weight in Stereocaulon paschale to 50 pCi/g. in Cornicularia divergens, with an overall average of 33 pCi/g. Significant differences were noted between species, habitats and world regions.'
Killing our own : The Disaster of America's Experience with Atomic Radiation. / Harvey Wasserman & Norman Solomon with Robert Alvarez & Eleanor Walters - New York: Dell Publishing Co., Inc. A Delta Book, 1982. - 250 s.
GAO: Radiological Sources In Iraq : DOD Should Evaluate Its Source Recovery Effort and Apply Lessons Learned to Future Recovery Missions. -
Hacker, Barton C.: Elements of controversy: the Atomic Energy Commission and radiation safety in nuclear weapons testing, 1947-1974. University of California Press, 1994 - 614 pp.
Munck, Aske: Fransk militær afviser ansvar for stråleskader. I: Politiken, 08/15/2005.
Radiological conditions at the former French nuclear test sites in Algeria : preliminary assessment and recommendations.
— Vienna : International Atomic Energy Agency, 2005. - 71 s. ; Radiological assessment reports series, ISSN 1020-6566)
Radiological Effluents Released from U.S. Continental Tests 1961 through 1992.
The Radioactive Signature of the Hydrogen Bomb / : Lars-Erik De Geer.
Science & Global Security, 1991, Volume 2, pp.351-363.
Robert Jacobs, "Radiation as Cultural Talisman:Nuclear Weapons Testing and American Popular Culture in the Early Cold War," The Asia-Pacific Journal, Vol 10, Issue 26, No. 1, June 25, 2012.
Ritzaus Bureau: Danmark lod USA udlede radioaktivt spildvand. I: Information, 22. februar 2017.
Det var med fuld tilladelse fra Danmark, at USA fra 1960 til 1963 sendte radioaktivt spildevand ned i Grønlands indlandsis.
Secondary wind transport of radioactive materials after the Fukushima accident. / : M. Yamauchi.
Earth Planets Space, Vol. 64 (No. 1), pp. e1-e4, 2012
'Abstract: Data from the radiation monitoring network surrounding the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) revealed that the radiation levels generally decayed faster at a highly-contaminated area than at neighboring moderately-contaminated areas during the first month after the Fukushima nuclear accident in March, 2011. Two possible mechanisms are considered: secondary transport of radioactive dust by wind or rain, and non-uniform radionuclide ratio of contamination between radioiodine (131I) and radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs). The composition data from soil does not favor the latter scenario, except for the local coastal region south of the FNPP, while inter-regional transport from the highly-contaminated area to the moderately-contaminated areas explains both the general difference in the decay rate in the entire area and the relatively slow decay at a high-dose rate anomaly 40 km northwest of the FNPP.'
Transport of 137Cs and 239,240Pu with ice-rafted debris in the Arctic Ocean. / Landa, E.R. Reimnitz, E. Beals, D.M. Pochkowski, J.M. Winn, W.G. Rigor, I. Arctic, v. 51, no. 1, Mar. 1998, p. 27-39, maps. ASTIS record 42385
Tree rings reveal extent of exposure to ionizing radiationin Scots pine Pinus sylvestris / Timothy A. Mousseau et al. Threes. 2013.
'Abstract: Tree-ring widths (RW), earlywood (EW) and latewood (LW) widths, the transition from early to latewood (T) and the occurrence of intra-annual density fluctuations in EW (E-ring) and in LW (L-ring), as well as the presence of resin canals in EW and LW, were analyzed in Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) from three sites in Spain and one in Slovenia to find out if the anatomical characteristics can provide additional seasonal climate–growth information from contrasted environmental conditions. Principal component analysis was applied to elucidate the relationship between the measured parameters and climate. Principal component factor PC1 proved to be related to parameters of EW and the climatic variables of winter-spring; PC2 to parameters of LW and climatic variables of summer–autumn; PC3 to conditions during transitions from humid to dry periods. The three PCs vary between sites and are determined by the climatic conditions during their formation. The study demonstrates that wood anatomical features may provide complementary information to that contained in tree-ring widths. Since such results are obtained on contrasting sites, it is likely that it may be generalized over the wide range of P. halepensis distribution representing a useful proxy for studies on a regional scale.
Treasure Island Naval Station Historical Radiological Assessment: Former Naval Station Treasure Island, San Francisco, California. Weston Solutions, Inc. 2006. - 250 s. 'This document describes the history of operations involving general radioactive material (GRAM), which is defined as any radioactive material used by the Navy or Navy contractors not associated with the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program (NNPP).'

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