Syrien
Geografi ; natur og klima ; demografi ; historie ; kultur ; film ; musik ; politik ; politiske partier ; forsvar ; fredsbevægelser ; religion ; sociale forhold ; uddannelse ; økonomi og våbenhandel.
Geography; Nature and climate; Demography; History; Wars; Culture ; Art; Film; Music; Politics; Political parties ; Defense; Peace movements; Religion; Social conditions ; Education , Economics and Arms trade.
Géographie; Nature et climat; Démographie; Guerres; Histoire; Culture ; La musique; Politique; Partis politiques ; La défense; Mouvements de paix; Religion; Conditions sociales ; Éducation; Économie et commerce des armes

Syriens krige

Syrisk deltagelse i krige / Syrian participation in wars / Participation à des guerres / La participación en las guerras / Beteiligung an Kriegen
Se også: Korstog.

Se tillige: Afrikanske krige ; Krige fra Amerika ; Krige fra Asien ; Krige fra Europa ; Krige fra Oceanien (inkl. Australien og New Zealand)
Afghanske krige ; Albanske krige ; Algeriske krige ; Andorras krige ; Amerikanske krige ; Angolas krige ; Antigua & Barbudas krige ; Argentinske krige ; Armenske krige ; Aserbajdsjanse krige ; Australske krige ; Bahamas krige ; Bahrainske krige ; Bangladesh krige ; Barbados krige ; Belgiske krige ; Belizes krige ; Benins krige ; Bhutans krige ; Bolivianske krige ; Bosnien-Hercegovinas krige ; Botswanas krige ; Brasilianske krige ; Britiske krige ; Brunei Darussalamske krige ; Bulgarske krige ; Burkina Fasos krige ; Burundiske krige ; Canadiske krige ; Cambodjanske krige ; Camerouns krige ; Centralafrikanske krige ; Chiles krige ; Colombianske krige ; Comorernes krige ; Congolesiske krige ; Costa Ricanske krige ; Cubanske krige ; Cypriotiske krige ; Danske krige ; Den demokratiske republik Congos krige ; Djiboutiske krige ; Dominicas krige ; Dominicanske krige ; Ecuadors krige ; Egyptiske krige ; El Salvadors krige ; Elfenbenskystens krige ; Eritreas krige ; Estlands krige ; Etiopiske krige ; Fijis krige ; Filippinske krige ; Finske krige ; De forenede arabiske Emiraters krige ; Franske krige ; Færøske krige ; Gabons krige ; Gambianske krige ; Georgianske krige ; Ghanas krige ; Grenadas krige ; Græske krige ; Grønlandske krige ; Guatemalas krige ; Guineanske krige ; Guinea-Bissaus krige ; Guyanske krige ; Haitis krige ; Honduras krige ; Hollandske krige ; Hvideruslands krige ; Indiske krige ; Indonesiske krige ; Irakiske krige ; Iranske krige ; Islandske krige ; Irske krige ; Italienske krige ; Jamaicase krige ; Japanske krige ; Jordans krige ; Kap Verdiske krige ; Kasakhstaniske krige ; Kenyanske krige ; Kinesiske krige ; Kirgisistans krige ; Kiribatiske krige ; Kosovoanske krige ; Kroatiens krige ; Kuwaits krige ; Laotiske krige ; Lesothiske krige ; Letlandske krige ; Liberianske krige ; Libyske krige ; Liechtensteinske krige ; Litauens krige ; Luxembourgs krige ; Madagascarske krige ; Makedonske krige ; Malawiske krige ; Malaysianske krige ; Maldivienske krige ; Malis krige ; Maltesiske krige ; Marokkanske krige ; Marshalløernes krige ; Mauretaniens krige ; Mauritiuske krige ; Mexicanske krige ; Mikronesiske krige ; Moldoviske krige ; Monacoske krige ; Montenegros krige ; Mozambiques krige ; Myanmars krige ; Namibiaske krige ; Naurus krige ; Nepals krige ; New Zealandske krige ; Nicaraguanske krige ; Nigerske krige ; Nigerianskes krige ; Norske krige ; Nordkoreanske krige ; Omans krige ; Pakistanske krige ; Palaus krige ; Palæstinas krige ; Panamanske krige ; Papua Ny Guineanske krige ; Paraguays krige ; Peruvianske krige ; Polske krige ; Portugisiske krige ; Qatars krige ; Rumænske krige ; Russiske krige ; Rwandanske krige ; Salomonøernes krige ; Samoas krige ; San Marinos krige ; São Tomé & Principles krige ; Saudi Arabiske krige ; Schweiziske krige ; Senegals krige ; Serbiske krige ; Seychellernes krige ; Sierra Leones krige ; Singapores krige ; Skotske krige ; Slovakiets krige ; Sloveniens krige ; Somaliske krige ; Spanske krige ; Sri Lankas krige ; St. Kitts & Nevis krige ; St. Lucias krige ; St. Vincent og Grenadinernes krige ; Sudanesisk krige ; Surinams krige ; Svenske krige ; Swazilands krige ; Sydafrikanske krige ; Sydkoreanske krige ; Sydsudans krige ; Syriske krige ; Tadsjikistanske krige ; Taiwanesiske krige ; Tanzanianske krige ; Tchadske krige ; Thailandske krige ; Tjekkisk krige ; Togos krige ; Tonganske krige ; Trinidad & Tobagos krige ; Tunesiske krige ; Turkmenistanske krige ; Tuvaluske krige ; Tyrkiske krige ; Tyske krige ; Ugandas krige ; Ukrainske krige ; Ungarnske krige ; Uruguayske krige ; Usbekistanske krige ; Vanuatuske krige ; Venezueleanske krige ; Vietnamesiske krige ; Yemens krige ; Zambiase krige ; Zimbabwes krige ; Ækvatorial Guineaske krige ; Østriske krige ; Østtimorske krige.

Tekst:

Litteratur

Patterns of civilian and child deaths due to war-related violence in Syria: a comparative analysis from the Violation Documentation Center dataset, 2011–16. / : Debarati Guha-Sapir et al.
www.thelancet.com/lancetgh Vol 6 January 2018 e103
Lancet Glob Health 2018; 6: 103–10
Published Online December 6, 2017
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(17)30469-2
Background Since March, 2011, the Syrian civil war has lowered life expectancy by as much as 20 years. We describe demographic, spatial, and temporal patterns of direct deaths of civilians and opposition combatants from conflictrelated violence in 6 years of war.
Methods We analysed conflict-related violent deaths with complete information on date, place, and cause of death and demographic group occurring from March 18, 2011, to Dec 31, 2016, recorded by the Violation Documentation Center (VDC). We included civilian and combatant deaths in all Syrian governorates, excluding government-controlled areas. We did not include detainees and missing persons, nor deaths from siege conditions or insufficient medical care.
We categorised deaths based on VDC weapon type. We used ?² testing to compare deaths from different weapons in civilian men, women, boys, and girls and adult and child combatants. We analysed deaths by governorate and over time.
Findings The VDC recorded 143 630 conflict-related violent deaths with complete information between March 18, 2011, and Dec 31, 2016. Syrian civilians constituted 101 453 (70·6%) of the deaths compared with 42 177 (29·4%) opposition combatants. Direct deaths were caused by wide-area weapons of shelling and air bombardments in 58 099 (57·3%) civilians, including 8285 (74·6%) civilian women and 13 810 (79·4%) civilian children, and in 4058 (9·6%) opposition combatants. Proportions of children among civilian deaths increased from 8·9% (388 of 4354 civilian deaths) in 2011 to 19·0% (4927 of 25 972) in 2013 and to 23·3% (2662 of 11 444) in 2016. Of 7566 deaths from barrel bombs, 7351 (97·2%) were civilians, of whom 2007 (27·3%) were children. Of 20 281 deaths by execution, 18 747 (92·4%) were civilians and 1534 (7·6%) were opposition combatants. Compared with opposition child soldiers who were male (n=333), deaths of civilian male children (n=11 730) were caused more often by air bombardments (39·2% vs 5·4%, p<0·0001) and shelling (37·3% vs 13·2%, p<0·0001) and less often by shooting (12·5% vs 76·0%, p<0·0001). Interpretation Aerial bombing and shelling rapidly became primary causes of direct deaths of women and children and had disproportionate lethal effects on civilians, calling into question the use of wide-area explosive weapons in urban areas. Increased reliance on aerial bombing by the Syrian Government and international partners is likely to have contributed to findings that children were killed in increasing proportions over time, ultimately comprising a quarter of civilian deaths in 2016. The inordinate proportion of civilians among the executed is consistent with deliberate tactics to terrorise civilians. Deaths from barrel bombs were overwhelmingly civilian rather than opposition combatants, suggesting indiscriminate or targeted warfare contrary to international humanitarian law and possibly constituting a war crime.
Leder: Alle lyver om Syrien. I: Information, 10. april 2017.
The toll of War: the Economic and Social Consequences of the Conflict in Syria. The World Bank, 2017.
From 2011 until the end of 2016, the cumulative losses in gross domestic product (GDP) have been estimated at $226 billion, about four times the Syrian GDP in 2010.
A Reckless Disregard for Civilian Lives: Database indicates over 1,000 civilians credibly reported killed in first three months of Russia’s air campaign in Syria. / : Chris Woods. Airwars, 2016.
The Rush to Bomb Syria : Undermining International Law and Risking Wider War.
/ : Andrew Lichterman. Briefing Paper, Western States Legal Foundation, 2013.
Carter Thanks Danish Defense Minister for Counter-ISIL Help
DoD News, Defense Media Activity
WASHINGTON, May 4, 2016 — Defense Secretary Ash Carter met with Danish Defense Minister Peter Christensen today in Stuttgart, Germany, following a meeting of defense ministers from countries leading the coalition effort to defeat the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Pentagon Press Secretary Peter Cook said in a statement issued today.
Carter thanked Christensen for Denmark's recent decision to expand its role in the counter-ISIL military campaign, including the authority to participate in the full spectrum of combat operations in Iraq and Syria, Cook said.:
Taking Stock: The Arming of Islamic State.
Amnesty International, December 2015
- https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/mde14/2812/2015/en/
U.S., Russia Sign Memorandum on Air Safety in Syria
By Lisa Ferdinando DoD News, Defense Media Activity
WASHINGTON October 20, 2015 — Senior U.S. and Russian defense officials signed a memorandum of understanding today on air safety in Syria, the Pentagon's press secretary said.
The memorandum of understanding, or MOU, is aimed at minimizing the risk of inflight incidents among coalition and Russian aircraft operating in Syrian airspace, Peter Cook said at a Pentagon's news conference.
Danmark bør tage medansvar for civile tab: Ny rapport sætter fokus på de flere hundrede civile, som er blevet dræbt på grund af koalitionens bombardementer i Irak og Syrien. Initiativtageren opfordrer Danmark til at offentliggøre tid og sted for de indtil videre 411 bomber, som de syv danske F-16-fly har kastet mod Islamisk Stat. / : Charlotte Aagaard. I: Information, 12. august 2015.
Airwars
- http://airwars.org/
Cause For Concern Hundreds of civilian non-combatants credibly reported killed in first year of Coalition airstrikes against Islamic State. / Chris Woods et al. Airwars, 2015.
- http://airwars.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/airwars-cause-for-concern-civilians-killed-by-coalition.pdf
- http://airwars.org/civilian-casualty-claims/
CRS: Armed Conflict in Syria: Background and U.S. Response. / : Jeremy M. Sharp ; Christopher M. Blanchard. September 6, 2013 ; 2015.
National Security Archive: The October War and U.S. Policy, 2003.
UNESCO: Bombing of ancient temple is a war crime. 25. august 2015.
Ritzaus Bureau: Bombning af antikt tempel er en krigsforbrydelse. I: Information, 25. august 2015.
Rebuilding Kobanê: Tom Anderson and Eliza Egret report from the war-torn city of Kobanê and meet those trying to rebuild what Daesh and US bombs have destroyed. Red Pepper January 2016.
- http://www.redpepper.org.uk/rebuilding-kobane/
Report on urgent and essential needs in Kobanê. / : Reconstruct Kobanê, February, 2015.
- https://peaceinkurdistancampaign.files.wordpress.com/2015/02/en-kobane-reconstruction-report.pdf
Syrian War Causes The Global Doomsday Seed Vault’s First Withdrawal
- https://www.croptrust.org/news_tag/crop-conservation/
The International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) has requested the backup seed that they deposited in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault to restart their collection away from the horrors of the Syrian Civil War.
The collection holds some of the world’s most important diversity of Wheat, Barley, Grasspea and other crops. This diversity provides our scientists, breeders and farmers the raw material needed to improve agriculture to overcome the challenges of climatic changes, population growth, pests, and diseases.
The Huffington Post published an article on the 22nd of September, covering the pending request of the Syrian CGIAR Genebank ICARDA to retrieve seeds necessary to uphold their collection.
The doomsday seed vault on Norway’s remote Svalbard archipelago houses the world’s back up supply of seeds to ensure crop diversity. It contains deposits of nearly 865,000 varieties of seeds buried within a mountain in case of catastrophe. Due to Syria’s civil war, it will now allow a withdrawal of its contents for the first time in its existence.
The request to take out a small amount of the millions of total seeds from within the Svalbard Global Seed Vault comes from another gene bank, the International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas, which is currently based in the Lebanese capital of Beirut, but was previously headquartered in Syria.
One reason gene banks exist is to provide breeders, scientists and farmers with seed varieties to improve crop growth and yields in the face of changing climates. Amid Syria’s brutal civil war, however, ICARDA has struggled to provide this function.
As it’s become more and more difficult for the organization to handle requests for seeds from its former headquarters in Aleppo, spokesman Brian Lainoff of the Crop Trust that runs the Global Seed Vault explained that ICARDA has requested to get some of its deposits back from Svalbard.
Tekst:

Send kommentar, email eller søg i Fredsakademiet.dk
Locations of visitors to this page