Trinity

Engelsk: Treenighed.
Kodenavnet på den serie amerikanske tekniske forsøg under anden verdenskrig i Manhattan projektet som resulterer i udviklingen og afprøvningen af den første atombombe i juli 1945.
/ Code name of the series American technical experiments during World War II Manhattan Project that results in the development and testing of the first atomic bomb in July 1945.
Forsøgene foregik på the White Sands Proving Ground, nær byen Alamogordo i delstaten New Mexico, USA.
'Denne fase af atombombeprojektet, der er ledet af generalmajor Leslie R. Groves, var under ledelse af Dr. JR Oppenheimer, teoretisk fysiker fra University of California. Han skal blive krediteret for realiseringen af atomenergi til militære formål' / 'This phase of the Atomic Bomb Project, which is headed by Major General Leslie R. Groves, was under the direction of Dr. J. R. Oppenheimer, theoretical physicist of the University of California. He is to be credited with achieving the implementation of atomic energy for military purposes'. Groves s. 247.
Oplysninger om forsøget er stadig skjulte eller maskerede som klassificeret information også selv om at forsøget er beskrevet detaljeret i Nuclear Weapons Testing at the Nevada Test Site, 2011. De amerikanske atomvåbenforsøg fortsatte med Operation Crossroads 1946.
Se også: Atomalderen.
Se tillige: Operation Anvil ; Aqueduct ; Arbor ; Argus ; Bedrock ; Bowline ; Buster-Jangle ; Castle ; Chariot ; Charioteer ; Cornerstone ; Cresset ; Crossroads ; Crosstie ; Cue ; Dominic ; Dominic II ; Dugout ; Emery ; Fishbowl ; Flintlock ; Fulcrum ; Fusileer ; Greenhouse ; Grenadier ; Grommet ; Guardian ; Hardtack I ; Hardtack II ; Ivy ; Julin ; Latchkey ; Little Feller ; Mandrel ; Musketeer ; Newsreel ; Niblick ; Nougat ; Phalanx ; Plowshare ; Plumbbob ; Praetorian ; Project 56 ; Project 57 ; Project 58 ; Project 58A ; Quicksilver ; Ranger ; Redwing ; Roller Coaster ; Sandstone ; Sculpin ; Storax ; Sunbeam ; Teapot ; Tinderbox ; Toggle ; Touchstone ; Trinity ; Tumbler-Snapper ; Upshot-Knothole ; Whetstone ; Wigwam.

Litteratur

The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II: A Collection of Primary Sources
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 162. Edited by William Burr. 2007.
http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB162/index.htm
, herunder V. The Trinity Test, the Potsdam Conference, and the Execution Order
'Document 35: Cable War 33556 from Harrison to Secretary of War, July 17, 1945, Top Secret
Source: RG 77, MED Records, Top Secret Documents, File 5e (copy from microfilm)
An elated message from Harrison to Stimson reported on the success of the "Trinity" test of a plutonium implosion weapon. The light from the explosion could been seen “from here [Washington, D.C.] to “high hold” [Stimson’s estate on Long Island—250 miles away]” and it was so loud that Harrison could have heard the “screams” from Washington, D.C. to “my farm” [in Upperville, VA, 50 miles away][25]
Document 36: Memorandum from General L. R. Groves to Secretary of War, "The Test," July 18, 1945, Top Secret, Excised Copy
Source: RG 77, MED Records, Top Secret Documents, File no. 4 (copy from microfilm)
The first atomic test took place in the New Mexico desert on 16 August. General Groves prepared for Stimson, then at Potsdam, a detailed account of the “Trinity” test.[26]'
Bainbridge, K. T.: Trinity. Los Alamos National Laboratory & United States Energy Research and Development Administration, 1976. - 94 s.
Bradshaw, Jessica: Witnesses of Trinity: The first atomic bomb, July 16, 1945, New Mexico (2003).
http://www.archive.org/details/witnessesoftrini2003jess
Draft Final Report of the Los Alamos Historical Document Retrieval and Assessment (LAHDRA) Project (June 2009) - 558 pp. - http://www.lahdra.org/pubs/reports/Entire%20report/LAHDRA%20Draft%20Final%20Report_vJy23p.pdf
Nuclear Weapons Testing at the Nevada Test Site: The First Decade. / John C. Hopkins and Barbara Killian. Defense Threat Reduction Agency, 2011. - 662 s. - http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a552638.pdf
Hiroshima Cover-up: How the War Department's Timesman Won a Pulitzer / Amy Goodman and David Goodman. Published on Tuesday, August 10, 2004 by CommonDreams.org
'U.S. authorities responded in time-honored fashion to [Wilfred] Burchett's [Hiroshima] revelations: They attacked the messenger. General MacArthur ordered him expelled from Japan (the order was later rescinded), and his camera with photos of Hiroshima mysteriously vanished while he was in the hospital. U.S. officials accused Burchett of being influenced by Japanese propaganda. They scoffed at the notion of an atomic sickness. The U.S. military issued a press release right after the Hiroshima bombing that downplayed human casualties, instead emphasizing that the bombed area was the site of valuable industrial and military targets.
Four days after Burchett's story splashed across front pages around the world, Major General Leslie R. Groves, director of the atomic bomb project, invited a select group of thirty reporters to New Mexico. Foremost among this group was William L. Laurence, the Pulitzer Prize-winning science reporter for The New York Times. Groves took the reporters to the site of the first atomic test. His intent was to demonstrate that no atomic radiation lingered at the site. Groves trusted Laurence to convey the military's line; the general was not disappointed.
Laurence's front-page story, U.S. ATOM BOMB SITE BELIES TOKYO TALES: TESTS ON NEW MEXICO RANGE CONFIRM THAT BLAST, AND NOT RADIATION, TOOK TOLL, ran on September 12, 1945, following a three-day delay to clear military censors. "This historic ground in New Mexico, scene of the first atomic explosion on earth and cradle of a new era in civilization, gave the most effective answer today to Japanese propaganda that radiations [sic] were responsible for deaths even after the day of the explosion, Aug. 6, and that persons entering Hiroshima had contracted mysterious maladies due to persistent radioactivity," the article began.3 Laurence said unapologetically that the Army tour was intended "to give the lie to these claims." '
- http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0810-01.htm
Smyth, Henry De Wolf: Atomic energy for military purposes; the official report on the development of the atomic bomb under the auspices of the United States Government, 1940-1945. - Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1945. - 298 s.
http://www.archive.org/details/atomicenergyform00smytrich
United States Nuclear Tests, July 1945 through September 1992.
White Sands Missile Range Public Affairs Office: Trinity Site: 1945-1995. A National Historic Landmark. White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. 1995.
- http://www.atomicarchive.com/History/trinity/index.shtml


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