The Danish Peace Academy
Holger Terp: Danish Peace History
Working paper 1
The Danish history research and communication
Könecken is neither recorded in Jacob ter Meulen's “Bibliographie du movement de la paix, 1480-1776”, in the “Catalouge de la bibliotheque l' institut Nobel Norwegien” from 1912, in Swinne’s “Bibliographia Irenica 1500-1970”, or in my bibliography “Peace in Print”, and to my knowledge Jesper Baltzarsen Könecken is not mentioned in the text books on the history of the peace movements, peace research and pacifism or in popular Danish history books28.
The early press of Denmark is recorded in the literature historian P. M. Stolpe (1832-1918): “The Press in Denmark”. Stolpe’s history of Danish newspapers also includes a commented bibliography of books and leaflets from 1482 to 1671 and mentions some 150 Danish and foreign newsletters published in the years 1657-1660. No mention of Könecken.
Fr. Hammerich’s historical lecture on “Christian II in Sweden and Charles X in Denmark” has a most important bibliography of contemporary hand-written and printed sources to the war between Denmark and Sweden. Hammerich even index “the most important” newspapers Stolpe not recorded29.
Historical research and historical publications are indexed in the “Danish Historical Bibliography” and there is great interest in Denmark for writing about historical subjects. The Danish historical Bibliography, 1943-1947 alone index 9343 titles, two articles on political pacifists can be used in our study: one on Lars Bjørnbak and one on Viggo Hørup and two articles on Frederik III are useful30. Diaries and biographies on Frederik III? The Danish historical Bibliography was taken over by the Royal Library and made online from 1990.
Most Danish academic research fields have their own research guides and specialised magazines, with the exception of the peace movement. The history of the international peace movement is more or less left undone except for Danish historians studying parts of the Danish peace movement. There are some learned prefaces to a dozen or so academic theses.
The main reason for this poor situation is the missing peace (research) education in Danish universities. According to Robin's Directory of College and University Peace Studies Programs, there is only a International Peace University Programme c/o Copenhagen Peace Research Institute.
Also there are no peace libraries and peace archives in Denmark, though some libraries and archives have publications and archives from the peace groups. The most important are The Royal Library, the Record Office and the Labour Movement Library and Archive all in Copenhagen and the State Library in Aarhus.
Even though it is possible through long and complicated studies of history, social movements, administrative history, agricultural history and so on it is possible to find single visionary individuals who have misunderstood the policy of the rulers, they are according to myth the exception, which proves that the myth is right31.
However, reading of history prove, that Danes both before and after Jesper Baltzarsen Könecken protested against wars, conscription, the burden of militarism and that these protests are recorded in the most unusual places, some in criminal and military records. As early as 1584-1585 skilled labours deserted from conscripted service; the building of ships for the navy32.
28 Arup, Erik: Danmarks Historie. vol. 2 1282-1624, 1932. pp. 184-185.
Danmarks Nationalleksikon: Dansk Udenrigspolitiks historie, vol. I-III , 2001 + 2002 + 2003.
Gyldendals og Politikens Danmarkshistorie. 16 Vols. 1988-1991
Politikens Danmarkshistorie 14 Vols. 1962-1966.
Schultz Danmarkshistorie : Vort Folks Historie gennem Tiderne skrevet af danske Historikere. 6 Vols. 1941-1943.
29 Kilderne til Carl Gustav i Danmark. In: Hammerich, Fr.: Christiern II. i Sverrig og Carl X. Gustav i Danmark : Historisk Foredrag holdte i det Skandinaviske Selskab. - København : F. H. Tide, 1847. - 268 p. ; pp. 255-261.
30 Fabricius, Knud: Frederik III. In: Danmarks Konger, 1943.
Sørensen, V. K.: Stormen på København Natten mellem 10. og 11. februar 1659. In: Ad Fortids Veje II, 1943.
31 See also the introduction by Flemming Mikkelsen in: Protest og oprør. Århus 1986 pp. 3-8.
32 Køge Bys Historie / Udgivet af Turistforeningen for Kjøge og omegn ved Victor Hermansen ; Povl Engelstoft. 1932. pp. 100-101.