Friendly Association for Gaining and Preserving Peace with the Indians by Pacific Measures
Omkring 1674 blev, hvad der nu er det nordlige New Jersey, Georgien og Pennsylvanien i USA, koloniseret af kvækere, herrenhuter og andre kirkesamfund. Frikirkerne begynder missionering blandt indianerne med den puritianske præst, John. Eliot (1603-1690) fra Boston, som en af de første missionærer. Senere i 1682 købte Penn og andre kvækerne det nordlige New Jersey af dets indehaver, og ikke længe efter, gav Hertugen af York Penn, hvad der nu er staten Pennsylvania (med Delaware smidt i), i udledning af en gæld af hertugen til Penn's far
Kolonien New Jerseys forfatning forbød slaveri, dødsstraf og gældsfængsel og anviste, at når en indianer anklages for en forbrydelse, skulle halvdelen af juryen bestå af indianere. Penn sønner og efterfølgere fastholdt ikke hans praksis for omhyggelig retfærdighed i forbindelse med indianerne. I 1737, næsten tyve år efter William Penns dødsfald, lavede hans søn Thomas Penn, der ikke var en kvæker, en traktat med indianerne om køb af jord som strækte sig til en-og-en-halv dag gang. Det var en almindelig metode til opmåling af jord, og blev opfattet som en normal ganghastighed. Men denne gang blev turen taget af to trænede atleter på en rutei, hvorfra underskoven var blevet omhyggeligt ryddet, og løberne var forsynet med pakheste til deres forsyninger og både var klar til at hjælpe dem på tværs af vandløb.
Penn's sons and successors did not uphold his practice of scrupulous fairness in dealing with the Indians. In 1737, nearly twenty years after the death of William Penn, his son Thomas Penn, not a Quaker, made a treaty with the Indians for the purchase of land extending for a distance of one-and-a-half days' walk. This was a common method of measuring land, and was understood to be a normal walking pace. But this time, the walk was taken by two trained athletes, over a path from which the underbrush had been carefully cleared, and the runners were provided with pack horses for their supplies and boats ready to help them across streams. The Indians never forgot this. In the frontier wars, only one instance is recorded in which a Quaker farm was attacked by Indians, and that was the farm of a man complicit in the Walking Purchase.
The Indians of the
Pennsylvania region, regarding themselves as betrayed by those they
had come to trust, allied themselves with the French when the
French and English fought. When the war extended into Pennsylvania,
the Governor (not a Quaker) declared war, and the Quaker members of
the Assembly resigned. [During] the war, they organized "The
Friendly Association for gaining and preserving peace with the
Indians by Pacific Measures." Though they would not pay war
taxes, they assessed themselves a greater sum to be used in
compensating the Indians for past injuries, including the "Walking
The Pennsylvania Assembly had been Quaker-dominated, but most Quaker members resigned in 1756, as they did not want to hold office in a land at war. A large part of the Pennsylvania population, while not Quaker, refused to cooperate in prosecuting the war.
Organisationen støttes, ifølge Regen, af militærskattenægtere: Friends who had mostly refused to pay taxes for the war now gave lavishly to this Organization. They wanted to achieve the desired result and at the same time demonstrate the adequacy of peaceful methods.
Anthony Benezet er, ifølge Hirst, blandt de ledende medlemmer af the Friendly Association for Gaining and Preserving Peace with the Indians by Pacific Measures oprettet i 1756. In 1755, after the hapless Acadians were banned from their homes by the British Government, he was single-handed a relief committee for the five hundred quartered in Philadelphia. He build them houses, collecting clothing and money, and found them employment… He worked untiringly for the Indians.
Blandt andre medlemmer var kasseren John Reynell og Christian Frederick Post, a deacon in the church of the Unitas Fratrum.
Christian Frederick Post lykkes det for, at løse The French and Indian War i Pennsylvania i 1757.
Frederick Christian Post (fl 1710-1785) was a Moravian missionary, who spent the greater part if his life in preaching to the Indians of Pennyslvania and Ohio. He travelled extensively in that area, and was even used as an official government messenger to the hostile Indians, among whom he succeeded in securing a kind of neutrality. His other diplomatic adventures, undertaken during the struggle for colonial supremacy between the French and English in America, included a expedition into the area of Fort DuQuesne, whose French commandant offered a price upon his head, and a trip to carry news of the treaty of Easton (Oct 1758) and pave the way for General John Forbes's advance. Post kept several journals describing his journeys1.
The treaty of Easton in 1758 brought peace between Pennsylvania on behalf of the Delawares. Both Teddyuscung and Post wanted the Delawares in the Ohio-Alleghany region to be aware of it, thus the journey across Northern Pennsylvania, Wallace says, "News of the peace treaty, which a brave Moravian, Christian Frederick Post, carried to the Ohio-Alleghany country detached many of the Indians there from the French". Fort Duquesne fell without a shot being fired in 1758.
Even so, no man in that day knwe more about the Indians than Anthony Benezet. He attented all the important treaties of that period; he knew intimatly and confererd often with Christian Frederick Post; Conrad Weiser, Papunhung, Tedyuscung, and other Indian chiefs; he set aside in his will certainb sums as a foundation for the education of Indian children…2. Arkiv: Moravian Archives, Pennsylvania State Archives ; the Friends Historical Library at Swarthmore College ; University of London (Library - Senate House).
1 Authorisations for Christian Frederick Post.
2 Brookes, George S.: Friend Anthony Benezet p. 124.
Authorisations for Christian Frederick Post. University
of London (Library - Senate House).
Brookes, George S.: Faith in the Indians. I: Friend Anthony Benezet s. 110-124.
Heverly, Clement F.: Pioneer and Patriot Families of Bradford County, 1770-1800, Vol. 1, Bradford Star Print, 1913.
Hoddkin, V.: Under dine Vingers Skygge. I: Freds-Varden, 1923:1 s. 10-12.
Parrish, Samue: Some chapters in the history of the Friendly Association for Regaining and Preserving Peace with the Indians by Pacific Measures. - Philadelphia : Friends Historical Association, 1877. - 140 s.
Thomsen, Benedict: Missionen blandt Indianerne i Nordamerika. I: Højskolebladet, 1900:34 spalte 1073-1078.
Thomson, Charles: An enquiry into the causes of the alienation of the Delaware and Shawanese Indians from the British interest (London, 1759), which includes 'The journal of Christian Frederick Post, in his journey from Philadelphia to the Ohio, on a message from the government of Pennsylvania, to the Delaware, Shawanese and Mingo Indians [15 July-20 Sept. 1758]'.
Cowanesque Indian Trail Played Part in Penn History / Joyce M. Tice - Chester P. Bailey.