Garden & Landscape Heritage: A Crisis of Tangible &
Intangible Comprehension and Curatorship. / : David Jones.
Asian Studies Association of Australia : 18th Biennial Conference
'The cultural landscape of George Town, Penang, Malaysia, embraces the historic enclave of George Town as well as a range of other significant colonial vestiges adjacent to the entrépôt. Many of these landscapes cannot be isolated from the énclave as they are integral to and part of its cultural mosaic and character. Perhaps the most important are the Penang Hill hill-station landscape and the 'Waterfall‘ Botanic Gardens. The latter is an under-valued 'garden of the empire‘—a garden that significantly underpinned the development and historical and botanical stature of the Singapore Botanic Gardens.
This paper reviews the cultural significance of colonial botanic gardens as they were established around the world during the scientific explosion of the late 1800s. It addresses their position within World Heritage listings, and considers the role, significance and importance of the "Waterfall‘ Botanic Gardens within this context, within the concept of 'cultural landscapes', and critiques its absence from the recent World Heritage Listing of the colonial enclaves of Georgetown and Meleka in Malaysia.'
WHC Nomination Documentation Orto Botanico, Padova, 1997.
'The world's first university botanical garden was created in Padua in 1545, which makes the Botanical Garden of Padua the oldest surviving example of this type of cultural property. Botanical gardens have played a vital role throughout history in the communication and exchange not only of ideas and concepts but also of plants and knowledge. The Botanical Garden of Padua is the original of botanical gardens in Europe, and represents the birth of botanical science, of scientific exchanges, and understanding of the relationship between nature and culture.'
Singapore Botanic Gardens Candidate World Heritage Site: Nomination Dossier, 2014.
World Heritage Nomination Document: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. / : Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Historic Royal Palaces, 2003.
London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, southwest Greater London.
'This historic landscape garden features elements that illustrate significant periods of the art of gardens from the 18th to the 20th centuries. The gardens house botanic collections (conserved plants, living plants and documents) that have been considerably enriched through the centuries. Since their creation in 1759, the gardens have made a significant and uninterrupted contribution to the study of plant diversity and economic botany.'