lejesoldat

Lejesoldater og private hære har været kendt siden Romerriget op igennem den europæiske middelalder, hvor lejesoldater efter den franske revolution og napoleonskrigene afløses af stående, værnepligtige, hære.
Hvervesoldaternes arbejde i ældre tider regulæres af bestalninger og artikler.
Eksempler på fyrster som tjente store summer på udlejning af lejesoldater er den tyske landsgreve Friederich II og hans søn Wilhelm IV. Lejesoldat er en ældre betegnelses på en kontraktansat soldat, ofte i krigstjeneste uden for sit lands grænser, eksempelvis udlændinge i den franske fremmedlegion og danskere i Den internationale brigade som sendes udenlands.
Definition af lejesoldater i international lov:
International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries
http://www.ohchr.org/english/law/mercenaries.htm
Forskellen på en kontraktansat soldat og en lejesoldat er, at lejesoldaten hovedsagelig er motiveret til at deltage i krige for egen vindings skyld, og som af en part i konflikten loves en materiel kompensation, der langt overstiger lønnen, som kombatanter af tilsvarende rang eller funktion bliver betalt i partens væbnede styrker.
I Danmark registreres hvervede soldater i krigsruller og i mønsterruller.

'Security contractors' in Iraq

US State Department: Security Companies Doing
Business in Iraq
http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1763.html

  1. AD Consultancy
  2. AKE Limited
  3. Al Hamza
  4. Armor Group
  5. Babylon
  6. Bechtel
  7. BH Defense
  8. BHD
  9. Blackheart International LLC
  10. Blackwater / Greystone
  11. BritAm Defense
  12. Castleforce Consultancy
  13. Control Risks Group
  14. CTU ASIA
  15. Custer Battles
  16. D.S. Vance
  17. Diligence Middle East
  18. DTS Security
  19. Dyncorp Intl.
  20. EOD Technology, Inc.
  21. Erinys
  22. Excalibre
  23. GE International Inc.
  24. Genric
  25. Global
  26. Group 4 Falck A/S
  27. Hart Group
  28. Henderson Risk Ltd.
  29. Hill & Associates
  30. ICP Group LTD
  31. IRC
  32. ISI
  33. KBR
  34. Kroll Associates
  35. Meteoric Tactical Solutions
  36. Meyer & Associates
  37. MVM
  38. NAF Security
  39. Neareast Security
  40. Olive
  41. Omega Risk Solutions
  42. Optimal Solution Services
  43. Orion Management
  44. Overseas Security & Strategic Information Inc./Safenet-Iraq
  45. Parsons
  46. RamOPS Risk Management Group
  47. Reed
  48. RONCO
  49. Rubicon
  50. SAS/SASI
  51. Sentinel
  52. SGS
  53. Smith Brandon Int.
  54. SOC-SMG
  55. Sumer International Security
  56. Tarik
  57. Triple Canopy
  58. Unity Resources
  59. USA Environmental
  60. Wade-Boyd and Associates LLC
Private firmaer, Private Military Companies, med deres lejesoldater er en del af det militær-industrielle-komplex.
Blandt private firmaer som udlejer soldater er det amerikanske 'sikkerheds'firma Blackwater Security Consulting, holdingselskabet Branch Energy Associates i London som ejer selskaberne Executive Outcome i Sydafrika og det britiske Sandline. Executive Outcome råder over sit eget flyvevåben Ibis Air.
Også CIA anvender lejesoldater, eksempelvis i Afghanistan.
I USA er der bl.a. firmaerne Military Professional Ressources Inc. og DynCorp International (i 2003 købt af CSC) som har eller operer hhv i Afrika, Europa, Bosnien; Mellemøsten, Irak, Stillehavsområdet og i Latinamerika, Columbia.
Ifølge amerikanske og britiske kilder er der omkring 25.000 privat-kontraktet sikkerhedspersonel og lejesoldater i Irak.
THE LIST : A buyer's guide
Copyright Atlantic Monthly Company Sep 2004
The Iraq occupation-particularly the events in Fallujah and at Abu Ghraib-has introduced Americans to a newly prevalent kind of warrior: private corporate soldiers. Roughly 20,000 of them work alongside the coalition in Iraq-ten times as many per military soldier as served in the 1991 Gulf War. Blackwater USA and other private firms offer services ranging from feeding the troops to armed combat. According to P. W. Singer, the author of Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry, their pay ranges from $250 a month for Kurdish fighters to $1,000 a day for former Green Berets. The growth of these companies over the past decade is attributable to several factors: a trend toward outsourcing in business and government, the overextension of the U.S. military, and the increased frequency of conflict in a post-Cold War world. Here are some notable private contracts from the past decade, ranked by cost. - MATTHEW QUIRK
1. Supplying and training the Saudi National Guard, the elite forces that protect the Saudi monarchy and maintain stability, $831 million for five years (1998): Vinnell Corp.
2. Providing security for the Program Management Office monitoring the reconstruction effort in Iraq, $293 million for three years (2004): Aegis Defense Services. The contract calls for up to 75 two-man security teams trained in "mobile vehicle warfare" and "counter-sniping," and puts Aegis in charge of coordinating all the private security contractors in Iraq.
3. Leading an attempt to overthrow the Nigerian government of General Sani Abacha, $100 million (1998): Executive Outcomes declined the offer. Abacha died of natural causes that same year.
4. Providing a security detail for Afghan President Hamid Karzai, $52 million (2003): DynCorp.
5. Creating a new Iraqi police force, $50 million for the first year (2003): DynCorp
6. Training a new Iraqi army, $48 million (2003): Vinnell Corp. The contract called for Vinnell to train nine battalions; more than half of the first completed battalion later abandoned the army.
7. Protecting Iraq's oil pipeline, $39.2 million (2003-present): Erinys International. The job requires 14,500 guards.
8. Defending Sierra Leone's capital, repelling an invading rebel army, and storming its stronghold, $35 million (1995-1997): Executive Outcomes. While under contract Executive Outcomes defeated two violent coup attempts by the rebel army. Meanwhile, the firm allowed a quieter internal coup by a third party to succeed; this brought to power a head of state more sympathetic to Executive Outcomes.
9. Providing interrogation services in Iraq, $19.9 million (2003-present): CACI Systems. At least two contractors, one from CACI and one from Titan Corp., have been implicated in the Abu Ghraib scandal.
10. Providing a team of former New Zealand special-ops soldiers to rescue a businessman held hostage in East Timor, $220,000 (2000): Onix International.
Se også: Aegis Defence Services ; American civilian security contractors ; contractors ; corporate warriors ; Custer Battels ; dogs of war ; Dyn-Corp. ; desertør ; freelance ; frikorps ; Frikorps Danmark ; the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces ; Group 4 Falk ; Sir John Hawkwood ; kondotterisystem ; krigsforbrydelser ; landsforrædder ; landsknægt ; lejesvend ; løbepenge ; løbeplads ; mercenaire ; mercenary ; military consulting firms ; military provider firms ; military support firms ; Nonlethal Service Providers ; nostalgi ; mønsterherre ; mønstringsruller ; Olive Security ; profos ; Rumsfeld-doktrinen ; Sandline International ; Shield Risk Consulting : sikkerhedsvagter : soldier of fortune ; the United Nations Human Rights Commission Working Group on Mercenaries ; Vinnel Corporation ; The Victory Contracting Office, Baghdad, Iraq.

Litteratur

Security companies : selected bibliography on private military and security companies handed out for the preparation of the governmental expert workshop in january 2006 on private military and security companies in Küsnacht/Zürich 15 december 2005.
Swiss initiative in cooperation with the ICRC with regard to private military.

Ewald, Johannes: Levnet og Meeninger, 1804.
Digteren Johannes Ewald (1743-81), student som 15. årig og indledte som 16. årig en karriere som lejesoldat i Tyskland og senere i Østrig under den preussiske syvårskrig, hvor han fik ødelagt sit helbred. Tilbage i Danmark fortsatte han sine forsømte teologiske studier og blev digter.

The General Accounting Office: Military Housing: Better Reporting Needed on the Status of the Privatization Program and the Costs of Its Consultants. GAO-04-111, October 9, 2003.

Elsea, Jennifer K.: Private Security Contractors in Iraq: Background, Legal Status, and Other Issues. - Washington DC. CRS, 2007. - 40 s.

Madsen, Emil: Studier over Danmarks Hærvæsen i det 16de Aarhundrede. I: Militært Tidsskrift, 1898, Tilllægshæfte 1. - 89 s.

Mecenaries : An African Security Dillema / Abdel-Fatu Musa ; J. Kayode Fayemi [ed.]
- London : Pluto Press, 1999.

Møller, Bjørn: Private militære virksomheder og fredsoperationer i Afrika.
- København : COPRI, 2001. - 26 s.

Peace, Profit or Plunder? : The Privatization of Security in War-Torn African Societies / Cillers, Jakkie ; Peggy Mason [ed.] - Halfway House : Institute for Security Studies, 1999.

Singer, P. W.: Corporate Warriors : The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry. Cornell University Press, 2003.

Skjold Petersen, Karsten: Geworbne krigskarle - Hvervede soldater i Danmark 1774-1803.
Museum Tusculanums forlag, 2002.

Artikler

Blodpenge til Team CSC. I: Dagbladet Arbejderen, 07/25/2003.
Brøndum, Christian: Danske eks-soldater står i kø til Irak. I: Berlingske Tidende, 10/29/2003.
Burcharth, Martin: Private specialister er uden for Pentagons kontrol. I: Information, 05/08/2004.
Campbell, Duncan: Marketing the New 'Dogs of War'
Center for Public Integrity
http://www.publicintegrity.org/bow/printer-friendly.aspx?aid=149
Ellesøe, Mads: En boomende industri. I: Information, 07/04/2005.
Ellesøe, Mads: Privatansatte krigsforbrydere. I: Information, 07/04/2005.
Herdal, Jan: Når også krig bliver privatiseret. I: Arbejderen, 08/04/2004.
Holst, Benjamin: Privat militært firma tilknyttes FN. I: Politiken, 05/21/2000.
Note: FNs database over almindelige leverandører (UNCSD), Oslo.
Møller, Bjarke: Private rykker frem på krigspladsen. I: Information, 10/01/2003.
Perelman, Marc: Former Apartheid Enforcers Guarding Iraq. I: The Forward, 02/21/2004.
USA sender lejehær til Sydamerika : Præsident Uribe har indledt en militær offensiv mod befrielsesbevægelsen. I: Dagbladet Arbejderen, 08/22/2002.
Willum, Bjørn: Uganda støtter Congo-militser. I: Information, 10/31/2003.
Zimonjic, Vesna Peric: Balkans Soldiers Find Fortune in Baghdad. 2004 IPS-Inter Press Service, May 14.


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