NSA; US National Security Agency

NSAs hovedkvarter
National Security Agency. Det nationale sikkerhedsagentur eller Den nationale sikkerhedstjeneste oprettet i 1952.
USAs tekniske, elektroniske efterretningstjeneste, som især arbejder med aflytning og brydning af koder og elektronisk post, eksempelvis i lyttestationerne Menwith Hill i Yorkshire, England og i Bad Aibling i Tyskland. National Security Agency hovedkvarter er i Fort Meade i den amerikanske delstat Maryland. Det vurderes, at NSA har mellem 60.000 og 100.000 ansatte, hvoraf alene de 40.000 er ansatte i Fort Meade. Blandt NSAs leverandører af aflytningsudstyr er Autonomy Corporation og Science Applications International Corporation. Blandt afdelinger i NSA kan nævnes: Counter Terrorism branch ("CT"), Signals Intelligence Directorate (SID) og the Georgia Regional Signals Intelligence Center; Fort Gordon, Georgia. NSA administererer bl.a. Total Information Awarenes. Blandt ansatte (herunder tidligere ansatte) i NSA kan nævnes: Michael Hayden, Wayne Madsen, Edward Snowden og Russ Tice.
NSA samarbejder med private virksomheder så som CSC i en såkaldt Eagle Alliance. Den tidligere højtstående officer i NSA Thomas Drake siger, at CSC er »dybt involveret« i efterretningstjenestens arbejde, og at der er en stor fare for, at følsomme danske data overleveres til NSA skriver Politiken, 11/24/2013.
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Andrews_Drake
Se også: US Aerospace Data Facility - Buckley Air Force Base, Aurora, Colorado ; Aflandshage ; Black World Operations ; the Australian Defense Signals Directorate (DSD) ; Drug Watch Lists 1970-1973 ;Echelon ; ELINT ; GCHQ ; the US Joint Alternate Communications Center ; David Miranda-skandalen 2013 ; Laura Poitras ; Project MINARET 1960-1973 ; U.S. Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with respect to Intelligence Activities, eller, the Church Committee ; Project SHAMROCK (1945-1975 (overvågning af telekommunikation) ; SIGAD ; SIGINT.


Bamford, James: Body of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency From the Cold War Through the Dawn of a New Century. Doubleday.
Fiscal Year 2012 National Defense Authorization Budget Request for National Security Space Activities. H 15, 2011: Hearing on national defense authorization act for fiscal year 2012 and oversight of previously authorized programs before the committee on armed services house of representatives one hundred twelfth congress first session subcommittee on strategic forces hearing on budget request for national security space activities hearing held March 15, 2011.
Bamford, James: The Puzzle Palace. 1982.
CRS: Memorandum January 5, 2006: SUBJECT: Presidential Authority to Conduct Warrantless Electronic Surveillance to Gather Foreign Intelligence Information. FROM: Elizabeth B. Bazan and Jennifer K. Elsea, Legislative Attorneys, American Law Division.
Efterretningstjenesternes praksis og lovgivningen herom skal være i overensstemmelse med forfatningen, men er det ikke, skriver forfatterne. et enkelt citat fra denne rapports s. 13:
Since the 1930’s, intelligence agencies have frequently wiretapped and buggedAmerican citizens without the benefit of judicial warrant . . . . . past subjects ofthese surveillances have included a United States Congressman, Congressional staffmember, journalists and newsmen, and numerous individuals and groups whoengaged in no criminal activity and who posed no genuine threat to the nationalsecurity, such as two White House domestic affairs advisers and an anti-Vietnam War protest group. (Vol. 2, p.12) ...
The application of vague and elastic standards for wiretapping and bugging has resulted in electronic surveillances which, by any objective measure, were improper and seriously infringed the Fourth Amendment rights of both the targets and those with whom the targets communicated. The inherently intrusive nature of electronic surveillance, moreover, has enabled the Government to generate vast amounts of information — unrelated to any legitimate government interest — about the personal and political lives of American citizens. The collection of this type of information has, in turn, raised the danger of its use for partisan political and otherimproper ends by senior administration officials. (Vol. 3, p. 32.).
Madsen, Wayne: Hayden's Heroes: A tale of incompetence and politicization at America's super-secret intelligence agency.
May 10, 2005
Online Journal Contributing Writer
- http://www.onlinejournal.com/Special_Reports/051005Madsen/051005madsen.html
Byrckel, Tine: Fransk vrede over big brother på Concordepladsen. I: Information 25. juni 2015.
Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin.
CRS: Overview of Constitutional Challenges to NSA Collection Activities. / : Edward C. Liu et al. 2015
'Beginning in summer 2013, media reports of foreign intelligence activities conducted by the National Security Agency (NSA) have been widely published. The reports have focused on two main NSA collection activities approved by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC) established under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978. The first is the bulk collection of telephony metadata for domestic and international telephone calls. The second involves the interception of Internet-based communications and is targeted at foreigners who are not within the United States, but may also inadvertently acquire the communications of U.S. persons. As public awareness of these programs grew, questions about the constitutionality of these programs were increasingly raised by Members of Congress and others. This report provides a brief overview of these two programs and the various constitutional challenges that have arisen in judicial forums with respect to each.'
CRS: NSA Surveillance Leaks: Background and Issues for Congress. / : Marshall Curtis Erwin ; Edward C. Liu. July 2, 2013. - 18 s.
'Recent attention concerning National Security Agency (NSA) surveillance pertains to unauthorized disclosures of two different intelligence collection programs. Since these programs were publicly disclosed over the course of two days in June, there has been confusion about what information is being collected and what authorities the NSA is acting under. This report clarifies the differences between the two programs and identifies potential issues that may help Members of Congress assess legislative proposals pertaining to NSA surveillance authorities. One program collects in bulk the phone records—specifically the number that was dialed from, the number that was dialed to, and the date and duration of the call—of customers of Verizon Wireless and possibly other U.S. telephone service providers. It does not collect the content of the calls or the identity of callers. The data are collected pursuant to Section 215 of the USA PATRIOT ACT, which amended the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978. Section 215 allows the FBI, in this case on behalf of the NSA, to apply to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC) for an order compelling a person to produce “any tangible thing,” including records held by a telecommunications provider concerning the number and length of communications, but not the contents of those communications. The FBI must provide a statement of facts showing that there are “reasonable grounds to believe” that the tangible things sought are “relevant to an authorized investigation.” Some commentators have expressed skepticism regarding how there could be “reasonable grounds to believe” that such a broad amount of data could be said to be “relevant to an authorized investigation,” as required by the statute.
The other program collects the electronic communications, including content, of foreign targets overseas whose communications flow through American networks. The Director of National Intelligence has acknowledged that data are collected pursuant to Section 702 of FISA. As described, the program may not intentionally target any person known at the time of acquisition to be located in the United States, which is prohibited by Section 702. Beyond that, the scope of the intelligence collection, the type of information collected and companies involved, and the way in which it is collected remain unclear. Section 702 was added by the FISA Amendments Act of 2008. Prior to the enactment of Section 702, FISA only permitted sustained domestic electronic surveillance or access to domestic electronically stored communications after the issuance of a FISC order that was specific to the target.'
Europa-Parlamentets Udvalg for Borgernes Rettigheder og Retslige og Indre Anliggende Udkast til betænkning om USA's NSA-overvågningsprogram, overvågningsorganer i forskellige medlemsstater og deres indvirkning på EU-borgeres grundlæggende rettigheder samt om det transatlantiske samarbejde inden for retlige og indre anliggender (2013/2188(INI)) Udvalget om Borgernes Rettigheder og Retlige og Indre Anliggender. Ordfører: Claude Moraes.
Foreign Relations of the United States, 1969–1976, Volume XXXVIII, Part 2, Organization and Management of Foreign Policy; Public Diplomacy, 1973–1976. / : Editors:M. Todd Bennett. Alexander R. Wieland. General Editor: Adam M. Howard. United States Government Printing Office, Washington, 2014.
- http://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1969-76v38p2
Greenwald, Glenn: Medlemmer af USA's kongres nægtes adgang til oplysninger om NSA. I: Information, 08/05/2013.
Heeger, Troels: Tysk Efterretningstjeneste udleverede data til NSA. I: Information, 08/07/2013.
National Security Archive: The National Security Agency Declassified, edited by Jeffrey T. Richelson assisted by Michael L. Evans. National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 24. January 13, 2000.
- http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB23/index.html
Maass, Peter: Vi var ved at gå bag over, da vi så, hvor ung han var. I: Information, 08/24/2003.
Nielsen, Jørgen Steen: Aflytningslækage er oprør mod politikere : Aflytning af FNs sikkerhedsråd. I: Information, 03/11/2003.
NSA-dokumenter afslører dyb splid om Grækenland i Europa. / : Mette Rodgers. I: Innformation, 3. juli 2015.
NSA vinder kampen mod kryptering. / : Sebastian Gjerding. I: Information, 09/07/2013.
Overvåget : en insiderberetning om Edward Snowden, NSA og den amerikanske overvågningsstat. / : Glenn Greenwald. Informations forlag, 2015.
'I maj 2013 rejser journalist Glenn Greenwald til Hongkong for at møde en anonym kilde, som hævder at ligge inde med beviser for, at USA´s efterretningstjeneste NSA ulovligt har masseovervåget egne og andre landes borgere. Kilden viser sig at være den 29-årige tidligere NSA-agent Edward Snowden, som har forladt sit job, sin kæreste og sit hjem og forskanset sig på et hotelværelse, uden nogen vej tilbage. Edward Snowden betror Greenwald sit enorme arkiv af tophemmelige dokumenter, som han ønsker offentliggjort for at afsløre USA´s systematiske overvågning og ikke mindst for at starte en principiel debat om national sikkerhed og privatlivets fred.'
Raben, Birgitte: Efterretningstjek af Windows Vista. I: Politiken, 01/07/2007.
Seidelin, Michael: USAs hemmelige ører. I: Politiken, 11/07/2001
Spionvæsen taber formue på lyttepost : Forsvarets Efterretningstjeneste har solgt en bornholmsk aflytningscentral, der burde være lukket for år tilbage, lyder kritikken. / : Hans Davidsen-Nielsen ; Jacob Svendsen. I: Politiken, 07/ 07/2013.
Tysk efterretningstjeneste i NSA skandale: En spionageaffære ruller over Tyskland, fordi landet ulovligt har sendt følsomme data til det amerikanske NSA. Det kan komme til at koste jobbet for efterretningstjenestens chef. / : Lasse Soll Sunde. I: Information, 04/25/2015
Deutsch-Geheimdienst NSA-Skandal
Globale Überwachungs- und Spionageaffäre
- http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globale_%C3%9Cberwachungs-_und_Spionageaff%C3%A4re
Udvider aflytningsmulighed. I: Ingeniøren,10/04/2002.

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