Det danske Fredsakademi

Terp, Holger: Traktater om fred og krig / International Treaties on Peace and War

Det danske Fredsakademis traktatsamling over mellemfolkelige love i international politik indeholder til en begyndelse en liste over de vigtigste internationale traktater og aftaler på engelsk. Efterhånden som danske oversættelser findes vil der blive refereret til dem. Fra 1962 til 1980 kan danske tekster til traktater samt den politiske debat om traktaterne læses i de årlige beretninger til udenrigsministeren om Nedrustningsudvalgets virksomhed. Fra 1980 og fremefter kan debatten om dansk udenrigspolitik følges i Dansk udenrigspolitisk Årbog.

Der mangler oplysninger om hvilke lande som har ratificeret, underskrevet aftalerne, samt oplysninger om de lande som ikke overholder traktaterne. Nyeste oplysninger om udviklingen inden for internationale traktater skal findes i artikelbasen, bogbasen eller kronologien.

The Danish Peace Academy Treaty Series of laws between governments in international politics contains an initial list of key international treaties and agreements in English. As the Danish translations are obtained there will be referred to them. From 1962 to 1980, Danish texts of treaties and the political debate on treaties can be read in the annual reports to the Minister for Disarmament Committee. From 1980 onwards, the debate on Danish foreign policy can be followed in Danish Foreign Policy Yearbook.

There is no information on which countries have ratified, signed agreements, as well as information about the countries which do not respect the treaties. The latest information about changes in international treaties is to be found in the article base, the book base or the chronology

Indholdsfortegnelse

1. Ikke-anvendelse af magt og ikke-indblanding / None use of power

2. Væbnede konflikters lovgivning / Laws on Armed Conflicts (Wars)

3. Våbenkontrol og nedrustning / Arms Control and Disarmament
a. Nedrustning / Disarmament
b. Konventionelle våben / Conventional Weapons
c. Kernevåben / Nuclear Weapons
d. Kemiske og biologiske våben / Chemical and Biological Weapons

4. Fred, sikkerhed og samarbejde / Peace, Security and Cooperation
a. General
b. Regional
Afrika, Amerika, Europa, Mellemøsten / the Middle East

5. Krigsforbrydelser, forbrydelser mod menneskeheden og tortur / War Crimes, Crimes against Humanity and Torture

1. Ikke-anvendelse af magt og ikke-indblanding

A: Folkeforbundet / League of Nations:

Folkeforbundstraktaten
Forbundspagten for Folkenes Forbund af 28. juni 1919.

Pacte de la Société des Nations avec annexe / Covenant of the League of Nations with annex.


The League of Nations: Protocol for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes, 2 October 1920.
http://www.worldcourts.com/pcij/eng/documents/1924.10.02_protocol.htm


Briand-Kellogg-traktaten
International lov underskrevet i Paris 28. september 1928.

Artikel 1: “De høje kontraherende parter erklærer højtideligt i deres respektive folks navn, at de fordømmer tilflugt til krig til løsning af mellemfolkelige uoverensstemmelser - og giver i deres indbyrdes forhold afkald på krigen som et redskab for national politik.
Artikel 2: De høje kontraherende parter er enige om, at afgørelsen eller løsningen af alle uoverensstemmelser eller stridigheder, som måtte opstå dem imellem, af hvilken art eller oprindelse disse end måtte være, aldrig må søges ved andre end fredelige midler”. Traktaten stempler krig som en forbrydelse.

General Pact for the Renunciation of War - The Kellogg-Briand Pact

ARTICLE 1
The high contracting parties solemnly declare in the names of their respective peoples that they condemn recourse to war for the solution of international controversies, and renounce it as an instrument of national policy in their relations with one another.
ARTICLE 2
The high Contracting parties agree that the settlement or solution of all disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them, shall never be sought except by pacific means.
ARTICLE 3
The present treaty shall be ratified by the high contracting parties named in the preamble in accordance with their respective constitutional requirements, and shall take effect as between them as soon as all their several instruments of ratification shall have been deposited at Washington.
This treaty shall, when it has come into effect as prescribed in the preceding paragraph, remain open as long as may be necessary for adherence by all the other powers of the world. Every instrument evidencing the adherence of a power shall be deposited at Washington and the treaty shall immediately upon such deposit become effective as between the power thus adhering and the other powers parties hereto.
It shall be the duty of the Government of the United States to furnish each government named in the preamble and every government subsequently adhering to this treaty with a certified copy of the treaty and of every instrument of ratification or adherence. It shall also be the duty of the Government of the United States telegraphically to notify such governments
immediately upon the deposit with it of each instrument of ratification or adherence.
In faith whereof the respective plenipotentiaries have signed this treaty in the French and English languages, both texts having equal force, and hereunto affix their seals.
Done at Paris, the twenty-seventh day of August in the year one thousand nine hundred and twenty-eight.
[SEAL] GUSTAV STRESEMANN
[SEAL] FRANK B KELLOGG
[SEAL] PAUL HYMANS
[SEAL] ARI BRIAND
[SEAL] CUSHENDUN
[SEAL] W. L. MACKENZIE KING
[SEAL] A J MCLACHLAN
[SEAL] C. J. PARR
[SEAL] J S. SMIT
[SEAL] LIAM T.MACCOSGAIR
[SEAL] CUSHENDUN
[SEAL] G. MANZONI
[SEAL] UCHIDA
[SEAL] AUGUST ZALESKI
[SEAL] DR EDWARD BENES

Hague Convention (I) for the Pacific Settlement of International Conflicts, 1907.

Charter of the United Nations, June 26, 1945, 59 Stat. 1031, T.S. 993, 3 Bevans 1153, entered into force Oct. 24, 1945.

Declarations of acceptance of the obligations contained in the Charter of the United Nations

OAS Charter of the Organization of American States

Declaration on Fundamental Principles concerning the Contribution to the Mass Media to Strengthening Peace and International Understanding, to the Promotion of Human Rights and to Countering Racialism, Apartheid and Incitement to War, adopted by the UNESCO General Conference at its twentieth session, Paris, 22 November 1978, UNESCO's Standard-Setting Instruments, IV.C. (1994).

PREAMBLE

The General Conference,

Recalling that by virtue of its Constitution the purpose of UNESCO is to "contribute to peace and security by promoting collaboration among the nations through education, science and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, for the rule of law and for the human rights and fundamental freedoms" (Art. I, 1), and that to realize this purpose the Organization will strive "to promote the free flow of ideas by word and image" (Art. I, 2),

Further recalling that under the Constitution the Member States of UNESCO, "believing in full and equal opportunities for education for all, in the unrestricted pursuit of objective truth, and in the free exchange of ideas and knowledge, are agreed and determined to develop and to increase the means of communication between their peoples and to employ these means for the purposes of mutual understanding and a truer and more perfect knowledge of each other's lives" (sixth preambular paragraph),

Recalling the purposes and principles of the United Nations, as specified in its Charter,

Recalling the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1948 and particularly article 19 thereof, which provides that "everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers',; and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1966, article 19 of which proclaims the same principles and article 20 of which condemns incitement to war, the advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred and any form of discrimination, hostility or violence,

Recalling article 4 of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1965, and the International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1973, whereby the States acceding to these Conventions undertook to adopt immediate and positive measures designed to eradicate all incitement to, or acts of, racial discrimination, and agreed to prevent any encouragement of the crime of apartheid and similar segregationist policies or their manifestations,

Recalling the Declaration on the Promotion among Youth of the Ideals of Peace, Mutual Respect and Understanding between Peoples, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1965,

Recalling the declarations and resolutions adopted by the various organs of the United Nations concerning the establishment of a new international economic order and the role UNESCO is called upon to play in this respect,

Recalling the Declaration of the Principles of International Cultural Cooperation, adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO in 1966,

Recalling resolution 59(I) of the General Assembly of the United Nations, adopted in 1946 and declaring: Freedom of information is a fundamental human right and is the touchstone of all the freedoms to which the United Nations is consecrated;

[. . .]

Freedom of information requires as an indispensable element the willingness and capacity to employ its privileges without abuse. It requires as a basic discipline the moral obligation to seek the facts without prejudice and to spread knowledge without malicious intent;

[. . .]

Recalling resolution 110 (II) of the General Assembly of the United Nations, adopted in 1947, condemning all forms of propaganda which are designed or likely to provoke or encourage any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression,

Recalling resolution 127 (II), also adopted by the General Assembly in 1947, which invites Member States to take measures, within the limits of constitutional procedures, to combat the diffusion of false or distorted reports likely to injure friendly relations between States, as well as the other resolutions of the General Assembly concerning the mass media and their contribution to strengthening peace, trust and friendly relations among States,

Recalling resolution 9.12 adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO in 1968, reiterating UNESCO's objective to help to eradicate colonialism and racialism, and resolution 12.1 adopted by the General Conference in 1976, which proclaims that colonialism, neocolonialism and racialism in all its forms and manifestations are incompatible with the fundamental aims of UNESCO,

Recalling resolution 4.301 adopted in 1970 by the General Conference of UNESCO on the contribution of the information media to furthering international understanding and co-operation in the interests of peace and human welfare, and to countering propaganda on behalf of war, racialism, apartheid and hatred among nations, and aware of the fundamental contribution that mass media can make to the realizations of these objectives,

Recalling the Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO at its twentieth session,

Conscious of the complexity of the problems of information in modern society, of the diversity of solutions which have been offered to them, as evidenced in particular by the consideration given to them within UNESCO, and of the legitimate desire of all parties concerned that their aspirations, points of view and cultural identity be taken into due consideration,

Conscious of the aspirations of the developing countries for the establishment of a new, more just and more effective world information and communication order,

Proclaims on this twenty-eighth day of November 1978 this Declaration on Fundamental Principles concerning the Contribution of the Mass Media to Strengthening Peace and International Understanding, to the Promotion of Human Rights and to Countering Racialism, Apartheid and Incitement to War.

Article 1

The strengthening of peace and international understanding, the promotion of human rights and the countering of racialism, apartheid and incitement to war demand a free flow and a wider and better balanced dissemination of information. To this end, the mass media have a leading contribution to make. This contribution will be the more effective to the extent that the information reflects the different aspects of the subject dealt with. Article 11

1. The exercise of freedom of opinion, expression and information, recognized as an integral part of human rights and fundamental freedoms, is a vital factor in the strengthening of peace and international understanding.

2. Access by the public to information should be guaranteed by the diversity of the sources and means of information available to it, thus enabling each individual to check the accuracy of facts and to appraise events objectively. To this end, journalists must have freedom to report and the fullest possible facilities of access to information. Similarly, it is important that the mass media be responsive to concerns of peoples and individuals, thus promoting the participation of the public in the elaboration of information.

3. With a view to the strengthening of peace and international understanding, to promoting human rights and to countering racialism, apartheid and incitement to war, the mass media throughout the world, by reason of their role, contribute to promoting human rights, in particular by giving expression to oppressed peoples who struggle against colonialism, neocolonialism, foreign occupation and all forms of racial discrimination and oppression and who are unable to make their voices heard within their own territories.

4. If the mass media are to be in a position to promote the principles of this Declaration in their activities, it is essential that journalists and other agents of the mass media, in their own country or abroad, be assured of protection guaranteeing them the best conditions for the exercise of their profession.

Article 3

1. The mass media have an important contribution to make to the strengthening of peace and international understanding and in countering racialism, apartheid and incitement to war.

2. In countering aggressive war, racialism, apartheid and other violations of human rights which are inter alia spawned by prejudice and ignorance, the mass media, by disseminating information on the aims, aspirations, cultures and needs of all peoples, contribute to eliminate ignorance and misunderstanding between peoples, to make nationals of a country sensitive to the needs and desires of others, to ensure the respect of the rights and dignity of all nations, all peoples and all individuals without distinction of race, sex, language, religion or nationality and to draw attention to the great evils which afflict humanity, such as poverty, malnutrition and diseases, thereby promoting the formulation by States of the policies best able to promote the reduction of international tension and the peaceful and equitable settlement of international disputes.

Article 4

The mass media have an essential part to play in the education of young people in a spirit of peace, justice, freedom, mutual respect and understanding, in order to promote human rights, equality of rights as between all human beings and all nations, and economic and social progress. Equally, they have an important role to play in making known the views and aspirations of the younger generation.

Article 5

In order to respect freedom of opinion, expression and information and in order that information may reflect all points of view, it is important that the points of view presented by those who consider that the information published or disseminated about them has seriously prejudiced their effort to strengthen peace and international understanding, to promote human rights or to counter racialism, apartheid and incitement to war be disseminated.

Article 6

For the establishment of a new equilibrium and greater reciprocity in the flow of information, which will be conducive to the institution of a just and lasting peace and to the economic and political independence of the developing countries, it is necessary to correct the inequalities in the flow of information to and from developing countries, and between those countries. To this end, it is essential that their mass media should have conditions and resources enabling them to gain strength and expand, and to co-operate both among themselves and with the mass media in developed countries.

Article 7

By disseminating more widely all of the information concerning the universally accepted objectives and principles which are the bases of the resolutions adopted by the different organs of the United Nations, the mass media contribute effectively to the strengthening of peace and international understanding, to the promotion of human rights, and to the establishment of a more just and equitable international economic order.

Article 8

Professional organizations, and people who participate in the professional training of journalists and other agents of the mass media and who assist them in performing their functions in a responsible manner should attach special importance to the principles of this Declaration when drawing up and ensuring application of their codes of ethics.

Article 9

In the spirit of this Declaration, it is for the international community to contribute to the creation of the conditions for a free flow and wider and more balanced dissemination of information, and of the conditions for the protection, in the exercise of their functions, of journalists and other agents of the mass media. UNESCO is well placed to make a valuable contribution in this respect.

Article 10

1. With due respect for constitutional provisions designed to guarantee freedom of information and for the applicable international instruments and agreements, it is indispensable to create and maintain throughout the world the conditions which make it possible for the organizations and persons professionally involved in the dissemination of information to achieve the objectives of this Declaration.

2. It is important that a free flow and wider and better balanced dissemination of information be encouraged.

3. To this end, it is necessary that States facilitate the procurement by the mass media in the developing countries of adequate conditions and resources enabling them to gain strength and expand, and that they support co-operation by the latter both among them selves and with the mass media in developed countries.

4. Similarly, on a basis of equality of rights, mutual advantage and respect for the diversity of the cultures which go to make up the common heritage of mankind, it is essential that bilateral and multilateral exchanges of information among all States, and in particular between those which have different economic and social systems, be encouraged and developed.

Article 11

For this declaration to be fully effective it is necessary, with due respect for the legislative and administrative provisions and the other obligations of Member States, to guarantee the existence of favourable conditions for the operation of the mass media, in conformity with the provisions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and with the corresponding principles proclaimed in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1966.

Declaration on the Right of Peoples to Peace

G.A. res. 39/11, annex, 39 U.N.GAOR Supp. (No. 51) at 22, U.N. Doc. A/39/51 (1984).

Approved by General Assembly resolution 39/11 of 12 November 1984

The General Assembly ,

Reaffirming that the principal aim of the United Nations is the maintenance of international peace and security,

Bearing in mind the fundamental principles of international law set forth in the Charter of the United Nations,

Expressing the will and the aspirations of all peoples to eradicate war from the life of mankind and, above all, to avert a world-wide nuclear catastrophe,

Convinced that life without war serves as the primary international prerequisite for the material well-being, development and progress of countries, and for the full implementation of the rights and fundamental human freedoms proclaimed by the United Nations,

Aware that in the nuclear age the establishment of a lasting peace on Earth represents the primary condition for the preservation of human civilization and the survival of mankind,

Recognizing that the maintenance of a peaceful life for peoples is the sacred duty of each State,

  1. Solemnly proclaims that the peoples of our planet have a sacred right to peace;
  2. Solemnly declares that the preservation of the right of peoples to peace and the promotion of its implementation constitute a fundamental obligation of each State;
  3. Emphasizes that ensuring the exercise of the right of peoples to peace demands that the policies of States be directed towards the elimination of the threat of war, particularly nuclear war, the renunciation of the use of force in international relations and the settlement of international disputes by peaceful means on the basis of the Charter of the United Nations;
  4. Appeals to all States and international organizations to do their utmost to assist in implementing the right of peoples to peace through the adoption of appropriate measures at both the national and the international level.

Declaration on Social Progress and Development, G.A. res. 2542(XXIV), 24 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 30) at 49, U.N. Doc. A/7630 (1969).
http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/s1dspd.htm

OSCE Budapest Declaration, Towards A Genuine Partnership In A New Era, DOC.RC/1/95 (21 December 1994).
http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/osce/new/budapesttoc.html

2. Væbnede konflikters lovgivning / Laws on armed conflicts (Wars)

The Declaration of Paris 1856, Respecting Maritime Law, signed at the Conference at Paris, April 16, 1856.
Deklaration vedtaget i Paris den 16. april 1856 om kaperi, kontrabande og blokade.

The Plenipotentiaries who signed the Treaty of Paris of the thirtieth of March, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-six, assembled in Conference,

Considering:
That maritime law, in time of war, has long been the subject of deplorable disputes;
That the uncertainty of the law and of the duties in such a matter, gives rise to differences of opinion between neutrals and belligerents which may occasion serious difficulties, and even conflicts;
That it is consequently advantageous to establish a uniform doctrine on so important a point;
That the Plenipotentiaries assembled in Congress at Paris cannot better respond to the intentions by which their Governments are animated, than by seeking to introduce into international relations fixed principles in this respect;

The above-mentioned Plenipotentiaries, being duly authorized, resolved to concert among themselves as to the means of attaining this object; and, having come to an agreement, have adopted the following solemn Declaration:

  1. Privateering is, and remains, abolished;
  2. The neutral flag covers enemy's goods, with the exception of contraband of war;
  3. Neutral goods, with the exception of contraband of war, are not liable to capture under enemy's flag;
  4. Blockades, in order to be binding, must be effective, that is to say, maintained by a force sufficient really to prevent access to the coast of the enemy.

The Governments of the undersigned Plenipotentiaries engage to bring the present Declaration to the knowledge of the States which have not taken part in the Congress of Paris, and to invite them to accede to it.

Convinced that the maxims which they now proclaim cannot but be received with gratitude by the whole world, the undersigned Plenipotentiaries doubt not that the efforts of their Governments to obtain the general adoption thereof, will be crowned with full success.

The present Declaration is not and shall not be binding, except between those Powers who have acceded, or shall accede, to it.

Done at Paris, the sixteenth of April, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-six.

[Signatures]

Deklaration vedtaget i Paris den 16. april 1856 om kaperi, kontrabande og blokade.

De befuldmægtigede, som har undertegnet Parisertraktaten af 30te marts 1856, forsamlede til rådslagning erkender:

At retten på søen i krigstid igennem lange tider har været genstand for beklagelige stridigheder;

At sikkerheden angående rettigheder og pligter i så henseende mellem neutrale og krigsførende giver anledning til meningsforskel, som kan fremkalde alvorlige vanskeligheder, ja endog konflikter;

At det følgelig vil være fordelagtigt at fastslå en ensartet opfattelse i en så vigtig sag;

At de befuldmægtigede, der er forsamlede på kongressen i Paris, ikke på nogen bedre måde kan optræde i overensstemmelse med de hensigter, der besjæler deres regeringer, end ved i staternes indbyrdes samkvem at søge indført faste principper i denne henseende.

Vedbørligt autoriserede er de ovennævnte befuldmægtigede i fællesskab blevne enige om midlerne til at nå dette mål, og efter at have opnået enighed har de affattet følgende højtidelige erklæring:

  1. Kaperi er og skal forblive afskaffet
  2. Neutralt flag dækker fjendtlig ladning med undtagelse af krigs kontrabande.
  3. Neutral ladning, med undtagelse af krigskontrabande, må ikke beslaglægges under fjendtligt flag.
  4. Blokade skal, for at anerkendes, være effektiv, d.v.s. håndhæves af en styrke, der er tilstrækkelig til virkelig at hindre adgangen til en fjendtlige kyst.
  5. De undertegnede befuldmægtigedes regeringer påtager sig at bringe denne erklæring til de staters kundskab, der ikke har været opfordret til deltagelse i Pariserkongressen, og at opfordre dem til at tiltræde den.

Overbevist om, at de grundsætninger, som de her har givet udtryk, kun vil blive modtagne med taknemlighed over hele verden, er de befuldmægtigede ikke i tvivl om, at deres regeringer vil få held med deres anstrengelser for at få dem almindelig anerkendte.

Nærværende erklæring er og skal kun vær forbindende mellem de magter, som har tiltrådt den.

[underskrifter].


War Department: General Orders No. 100: Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field, April 24, 1863.


The Geneva Convention of August 22, 1864 for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Sick and Wounded of the Armies of the World.

Article 1. Ambulances and military hospitals shall be recognized as neutral, and as such, protected and respected by the belligerents as long as they accommodate wounded and sick.

Neutrality shall end if the said ambulances or hospitals should be held by a military force.

Art. 2. Hospital and ambulance personnel, including the quarter-master's staff, the medical, administrative and transport services, and the chaplains, shall have the benefit of the same neutrality when on duty, and while there remain any wounded to be brought in or assisted.

Art. 3. The persons designated in the preceding Article may, even after enemy occupation, continue to discharge their functions in the hospital or ambulance with which they serve, or may withdraw to rejoin the units to which they belong.

When in these circumstances they cease from their functions, such persons shall be delivered to the enemy outposts by the occupying forces.

Art. 4. The material of military hospitals being subject to the laws of war, the persons attached to such hospitals may take with them, on withdrawing, only the articles which are their own personal property.

Ambulances, on the contrary, under similar circumstances, shall retain their equipment.

Art. 5. Inhabitants of the country who bring help to the wounded shall be respected and shall remain free. Generals of the belligerent Powers shall make it their duty to notify the inhabitants of the appeal made to their humanity, and of the neutrality which humane conduct will confer. The presence of any wounded combatant receiving shelter and care in a house shall ensure its protection. An inhabitant who has given shelter to the wounded shall be exempted from billeting and from a portion of such war contributions as may be levied.

Art. 6. Wounded or sick combatants, to whatever nation they may belong, shall be collected and cared for.

Commanders-in-Chief may hand over immediately to the enemy outposts enemy combatants wounded during an engagement, when circumstances allow and subject to the agreement of both parties.

Those who, after their recovery, are recognized as being unfit for further service, shall be repatriated.

The others may likewise be sent back, on condition that they shall not again, for the duration of hostilities, take up arms.

Evacuation parties, and the personnel conducting them, shall be considered as being absolutely neutral.

Art. 7. A distinctive and uniform flag shall be adopted for hospitals, ambulances and evacuation parties. It should in all circumstances be accompanied by the national flag.

An armlet may also be worn by personnel enjoying neutrality but its issue shall be left to the military authorities.

Both flag and armlet shall bear a red cross on a white ground.

Art. 8. The implementing of the present Convention shall be arranged by the Commanders-in-Chief of the belligerent armies following the instructions of their respective Governments and in accordance with the general principles set forth in this Convention.

Art. 9. The High Contracting Parties have agreed to communicate the present Convention with an invitation to accede thereto to Governments unable to appoint Plenipotentiaries to the International Conference at Geneva. The Protocol has accordingly been left open.

Art. 10. The present Convention shall be ratified and the ratifications exchanged at Berne, within the next four months, or sooner if possible.

In faith whereof, the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the Convention and thereto affixed their seals.

Done at Geneva, this twenty-second day of August, in the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-four.

[signatures]


Additional Article of 1868 to the Geneva Convention of August 22, 1864 for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Sick and Wounded of the Armies of the World.

Erstattet af / Replaced with

Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field Adopted on 12 August 1949 by the Diplomatic Conference for the Establishment of International Conventions for the Protection of Victims of War, held in Geneva from 21 April to 12 August, 1949 entry into force 21 October 1950

The Declaration of St. Petersborg, 1868 Relative to the Prohibition of the Use of Explosive Bullets in Times of War, December 11, 1868.

Project of an International Decleration Conserning the Laws and Customs of War, Adobted by the Conference of Brusseles, August 27, 1874.

Laws of War on Land, Recommanded for adobtion by the Institute of International Law at its session on Oxford, September 9, 1880.

Declaration on the Use of Projectiles the Object of Which is the Diffusion of Asphyxiating or Deleterious Gases; July 29, 1899.


Convention Regarding Hospital Ships, in Time of War Signed at the Hague, December 21, 1904.

His Majesty the Emperor of Germany, King of Prussia; His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, etc., etc., and Apostolical King of Hungary; His Majesty the King of the Belgians; His Majesty the Emperor of China; His Majesty the Emperor of Corea; His Majesty the King of Denmark; His Majesty the King of Spain; the President of the United States of America; the President of the United Mexican States; the President of the French Republic; His Majesty the King of the Hellenes; His Majesty the King of Italy; His Majesty the Emperor of Japan; His Royal Highness the Grand Duke of Luxemburg, Duke of Nassau; His Highness the Prince of Montenegro; Her Majesty the Queen of the Netherlands; the President of the Peruvian Republic; His Imperial Majesty the Shah of Persia; His Majesty the King of Portugal and of the Algarves, etc.; His Majesty the King of Roumania; His Majesty the Emperor of All the Russias; His Majesty the King of Servia; His Majesty the King of Siam, and the Swiss Federal Council,

Taking into consideration that the Convention concluded at The Hague on July 29, 1899 for the adaptation to Maritime Warfare of the Principles of the Geneva Convention of August 22, 1864, has sanctioned the principle of the intervention of the Red Cross in naval wars by provisions in favor of hospital ships;

Desirous of concluding a convention to the end of facilitating by additional provisions the mission of such ships;

Have appointed as their Plenipotentiaries, to wit:

His Majesty the Emperor of Germany, King of Prussia: M. de Schlzer, His envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to The Hague;

His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, etc., etc., and Apostolical King of Hungary: M. Alexander Okolicsanyi d'Okolicsna, His envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary at The Hague;

His Majesty the King of the Belgians: Mr. Baron Guillaume, His envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary at The Hague;

His Majesty the Emperor of China: Hoo Wei-teh, His envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary at St. Petersburg;

His Majesty the Emperor of Corea: Young Chan Min, His envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary at Paris;

His Majesty the King of Denmark: M. W. de Grevenkop Castenskiold, charg d'affaires of the Kingdom at The Hague;

His Majesty the King of Spain: M. Arthur de Baguer, His envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary at The Hague;

The President of the United States of America: Mr. John W. Garrett, charge d'affaires ad interim of the Republic at The Hague;

The President of the United Mexican States: M. Zenil, envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of the Republic at Vienna;

The President of the French Republic: M. de Monbel, envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of the Republic at The Hague;

His Majesty the King of the Hellenes: M. D. G. Metaxas, His envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary at The Hague;

His Majesty the King of Italy: M. Tugini, His envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary at The Hague;

His Majesty the Emperor of Japan: M. Nobukata Mitsuhashi, His envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary at The Hague;

His Royal Highness the Grand Duke of Luxemburg, Duke of Nassau; M. Count H. de Villers, charg d'affaires of the Grand Duchy at Berlin;

His Highness the Prince of Montenegro: M.N. Tcharykow, envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of His Majesty the Emperor of All the Russias at The Hague;

Her Majesty the Queen of the Netherlands: M. Baron Melvil de Lynden, Her minister of foreign affairs, and M. T. M. C. Asser, Her minister of state, member of Her council of state;

The President of the Peruvian Republic: M. C. G. Candamo, envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of the Republic at Paris and at London;

His Imperial Majesty the Shah of Persia: Mirza Samad Khan, momtazos saltaneh, His envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary at The Hague;

His Majesty the King of Portugal and the Algarves, etc.: M. Count de Selir, His envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary at The Hague;

His Majesty the King of Roumania: M. Jean N. Papiniu, His envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary at The Hague;

His Majesty the Emperor of All the Russias: M. Martens, His privy councilor, permanent member of the council of the imperial ministry of foreign affairs;

His Majesty the King of Servia: M. M. Vesnitch, His envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary at Paris;

His Majesty the King of Siam: Phya Raja Nupraphandh, His envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary at The Hague;

The Swiss Federal Council: M. G. Carlin, envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary of the Confederation at The Hague:

Who, after communication of their full powers, found to be in good and due form, have agreed on the following provisions:

Article 1

Hospital ships, concerning which the conditions set forth in Articles 1, 2, and 3 of the Convention concluded at The Hague on July 29, 1899, for the adaptation to Maritime Warfare of the Principles of the Geneva Convention of August 22, 1864, are fulfilled shall be exempted, in time of war, from all dues and taxes imposed on vessels for the benefit of the State, in the ports of the Contracting Parties.

Article 2

The provision of the foregoing article does not prevent the application, by means of visitation or other formalities, of fiscal or other laws in force at said ports.

Article 3

The rule laid down in article first is binding only on the Contracting Powers in case of war between two or more of them.

The said rule shall cease to be binding from the time when a non-Contracting Power shall join one of the belligerents in a war between Contracting Powers.

Article 4

The present Convention which, bearing the date of this day, may be signed until the first of October 1905 by the Powers expressing their desire to do so, shall be ratified as soon as possible.

The ratifications shall be deposited at The Hague. A procs-verbal of the deposit of the ratifications shall be drawn up and a copy thereof, duly certified, shall be delivered through the diplomatic channel to all the Contracting Powers.

Article 5

The non-signatory Powers are permitted to adhere to the present Convention after October first 1905.

They shall, to that end, make their adhesion known to the Contracting Powers by means of a written notification addressed to the Government of the Netherlands and communicated by the latter to the other Contracting Powers.

Article 6

In the event of one of the High Contracting Powers denouncing the present Convention, such denunciation shall not take effect until one year after the notification made in writing to the Government of the Netherlands and immediately communicated by the latter to all the other Contracting Powers. This denunciation shall only affect the notifying Power.

In testimony whereof the Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Convention and affixed their seals thereto.

Done at The Hague the twenty-first of December one thousand nine hundred and four, in a single copy which shall remain filed in the archives of the Government of the Netherlands and copies of which, duly certified, shall be delivered through the diplomatic channel to the Contracting Powers.

[For Germany:] VON SCHER

(Under reservation of the declaration made at the meeting of the Conference held December 21, 1904.)

[For Austria-Hungary:] OKOLICSANYI d'OKOLICSNA

[For Belgium:] GUILLAUME

[For China:] HOO WEI-TEH

[For Korea:] YOUNG CHAN MIN

[For Denmark:] W. GREVENKOP CASTENSKIOLD

[For Spain:] A. de BAGUER

[For the United States:] JOHN W. GARRETT

[For Mexico:] J. ZENIL

[For France:] MONBEL

[For Greece:] D. G. METAXAS

[For Italy:] TUGINI

[For Japan:] NOBUKATA MITSUHASHI

[For Luxemburg:] CTE. de VILLERS

[For Montenegro:] TCHARYKOW

[For the Netherlands:] BN. MELVIL de LYNDEN, T. M. C. ASSER

[For Peru:] C. G. CANDAMO

[For Persia:] M. SAMAD

[For Portugal:] CONDE de SELIR

[For Romania:] J. N. PAPINIU

(Under reservation of reciprocity and of pilotage dues.)

[For Russia:] MARTENS

[For Serbia:] MIL. R. VESNITCH

[For Siam:] RAJA NUPRAPHANDH

[For Switzerland:] CARLIN

FINAL ACT

At the moment of proceeding to sign the Convention having for its object the exemption of hospital ships in time of war in the ports of the Contracting Parties from all dues and taxes imposed on vessels for the benefit of the State, the Plenipotentiaries signing the present Act express the wish that, in view of the highly humanitarian mission of these ships, the Contracting Governments may take the measures necessary in order to exempt these ships within a short time also from the payment of the dues and taxes collected in their ports for the benefit of others than the State, especially those collected for the benefit of municipalities or of private companies or persons.

In witness whereof the Plenipotentiaries have signed the present procs-verbal, which, bearing the date of this day, may be signed up to the first of October, 1905.

Done at The Hague, the twenty-first of December, nineteen hundred and four, in a single copy, which shall remain on file in the archives of the Government of the Netherlands, and of which certified copies shall be delivered through the diplomatic channel to the Powers signing the aforementioned Convention.

[signatures]

Hague Convention (II) concerning the limitation of the employment of force for the recovery of contract debts 1907.


Hague Convention (III) relating to the opening of hostilities 1907. Entered into Force: 26 January 1910

His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia; [etc.]

Considering that it is important, in order to ensure the maintenance of pacific relations, that hostilities should not commence without previous warning;

That it is equally important that the existence of a state of war should be notified without delay to neutral Powers;

Being desirous of concluding a Convention to this effect, have appointed the following as their Plenipotentiaries:

[List of Plenipotentiaries.]

Who, after depositing their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following provisions:

Article 1

The Contracting Powers recognize that hostilities between themselves must not commence without previous and explicit warning, in the form either of a reasoned declaration of war or of an ultimatum with conditional declaration of war.

Article 2

The existence of a state of war must be notified to the neutral Powers without delay, and shall not take effect in regard to them until after the receipt of a notification, which may, however, be given by telegraph. Neutral Powers, nevertheless, cannot rely on the absence of notification if it is clearly established that they were in fact aware of the existence of a state of war.

Article 3

Article 1 of the present Convention shall take effect in case of war between two or more of the Contracting Powers.

Article 2 is binding as between a belligerent Power which is a party to the Convention and neutral Powers which are also parties to the Convention.

Article 4

The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible.

The ratifications shall be deposited at The Hague.

The first deposit of ratification shall be recorded in a procès-verbal signed by the Representatives of the Powers which take part therein and by the Netherland Minister for Foreign Affairs.

The subsequent deposits of ratifications shall be made by means of a written notification addressed to the Netherland Government and accompanied by the instrument of ratification.

A duly certified copy of the procès-verbal relative to the first deposit of ratifications, of the notifications mentioned in the preceding paragraph, as well as of the instruments of ratification, shall be at once sent by the Netherland Government through the diplomatic channel to the Powers invited to the Second Peace Conference, as well as to the other Powers which have adhered to the Convention. In the cases contemplated in the preceding paragraph, the said Government shall at the same time inform them of the date on which it received the notification.

Article 5

Non-Signatory Powers may adhere to the present Convention.

The Power which wishes to adhere notifies in writing its intention to the Netherland Government, forwarding to it the act of adhesion, which shall be deposited in the archives of the said Government.

The said Government shall at once forward to all the other Powers a duly certified copy of the notification as well as of the act of adhesion, stating the date on which it received the notification.

Article 6

The present Convention shall come into force, in the case of the Powers which were a party to the first deposit of ratifications, sixty days after the date of the procès-verbal of that deposit, and, in the case of the Powers which ratify subsequently or which adhere, sixty days after the notification of their ratification or of their adhesion has been received by the Netherland Government.

Article 7

In the event of one of the High Contracting Parties wishing to denounce the present Convention, the denunciation shall be notified in writing to the Netherland Government, which shall at once communicate a duly certified copy of the notification to all the other Powers, informing them of the date on which it was received.

The denunciation shall only have effect in regard to the notifying Power, and one year after the notification has reached the Netherland Government.

Article 8

A register kept by the Netherland Ministry for Foreign Affairs shall give the date of the deposit of ratifications made in virtue of Article 4, paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the date on which the notifications of adhesion (Article 5, paragraph 2) or of denunciation (Article 7, paragraph 1) have been received.

Each Contracting Power is entitled to have access to this register and to be supplied with duly certified extracts from it.

In faith whereof the Plenipotentiaries have appended their signatures to the present Convention.

Done at The Hague, the 18th October, 1907, in a single copy, which shall remain deposited in the archives of the Netherland Government, and duly certified copies of which shall be sent, through the diplomatic channel, to the Powers which have been invited to the Second Peace Conference.

[signatures]


Hague Convention (IV) Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land, U.S.T.S. 539, 2 A.J.I.L. Supp. 90, entered into force January 26, 1910.

Hague Convention (V) Respecting the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers and Persons in Case of War on Land, U.S.T.S. 540, 2 A.J.I.L. Supp. 117, entered into force January 26, 1910.

Hague Convention (VI) Relative to the Status of Enemy Merchant Ships at the Outbreak of Hostilities, 2 A.J.I.L. Supp. 127, entered into forceJanuary 26, 1910.

Hague Convention (VII) Relative to the Conversion of Merchant Ships into War Ships, 2 A.J.I.L. Supp. 133, entered into force January 26,1910.

Hague Convention (VIII) Relative to the Laying of Automatic Submarine Contact Mines, U.S.T.S. 541, 2 A.J.I.L. Supp. 138, entered into force January 26, 1910.


Hague Convention (IX) Respecting Bombardment by Naval Forces in Time of War, U.S.T.S. 542, 2 A.J.I.L. Supp. 146, entered into force January 26, 1910.

(List of Contracting Parties)

Animated by the desire to realize the wish expressed by the first Peace Conference respecting the bombardment by naval forces of undefended ports, towns, and villages; Whereas it is expedient that bombardments by naval forces should be subject to rules of general application which would safeguard the rights of the inhabitants and assure the preservation of the more important buildings, by applying as far as Possible to this operation of war the principles of the Regulation of 1899 respecting the laws and customs of land war;

Actuated, accordingly, by the desire to serve the interests of humanity and to diminish the severity and disasters of war;

Have resolved to conclude a Convention to this effect, and have, for this purpose, appointed the following as their Plenipotentiaries:

(Here follow the names of Plenipotentiaries)

Who, after depositing their full powers, gound in good and due form, have agreed upon the following provisions:

CHAPTER I

THE BOMBARDMENT OF UNDEFENDED PORTS, TOWNS, VILLAGES, DWELLINGS, OR BUILDINGS

Article 1. The bombardment by naval forces of undefended ports, towns, villages, dwellings, or buildings is forbidden.

A place cannot be bombarded solely because automatic submarine contact mines are anchored off the harbour.

2. Military works, military or naval establishments, depots of arms or war ' matériel, ' workshops or plant which could be utilized for the needs of the hostile fleet or army, and the ships of war in the harbour, are not, however, included in this prohibition. The commander of a naval force may destroy them with artillery, after a summons followed by a reasonable time of waiting, if all other means are impossible, and when the local authorities have not themselves destroyed them within the time fixed. He incurs no responsibility for any unavoidable damage which may be caused by a bombardment under such circumstances.

If for military reasons immediate action is necessary, and no delay can be allowed the enemy, it is understood that the prohibition to bombard the undefended town holds good, as in the case given in paragraph l, and that the commander shall take all due measures in order that the town may suffer as little harm as possible.

Art. 3. After due notice has been given, the bombardment of undefended ports, towns, villages, dwellings, or buildings may be commenced, if the local authorities, after a formal summons has been made to them, decline to comply with requisitions for provisions or supplies necessary for the immediate use of the naval force before the place in question.

These requisitions shall be in proportion to the resources of the place. They shall only be demanded in the name of the commander of the said naval force, and they shall, as far as possible, be paid for in cash; if not, they shall be evidenced by receipts.

Art. 4. Undefended ports, towns, villages, dwellings, or buildings may not be bombarded on account of failure to pay money contributions.

CHAPTER II

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Art. 5. In bombardments by naval forces all the necessary measures must be taken by the commander to spare as far as possible sacred edifices, buildings used for artistic, scientific, or charitable purposes, historic monuments, hospitals, and places where the sick or wounded are collected, on the understanding that they are not used at the same time for military purposes.

It is the duty of the inhabitants to indicate such monuments, edifices, or places by visible signs, which shall consist of large, stiff rectangular panels divided diagonally into two coloured triangular portions, the upper portion black, the lower portion white.

Art. 6. If the military situation permits, the commander of the attacking naval force, before commencing the bombardment, must do his utmost to warn the authorities.

Art. 7. A town or place, even when taken by storm, may not be pillaged.

CHAPTER III

FINAL PROVISIONS

Art. 8. The provisions of the present Convention do not apply except between Contracting Powers, and then only if all the belligerents are parties to the Convention.

Art. 9. The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible.

The ratifications shall be deposited at The Hague. The first deposit of ratifications shall be recorded in a ' procès-verbal ' signed by the representatives of the Powers which take part therein and by the Netherlands Minister of foreign Affairs.

The subsequent deposits of ratifications shall be made by means of a written notification addressed to the Netherlands Government and accompanied by the instrument of ratification.

A duly certified copy of the ' procès-verbal ' relative to the first deposit of ratifications, of the notifications mentioned in the preceding paragraph, as well as of the instruments of ratification, shall be at once sent by the Netherlands Government, through the diplomatic channel, to the Powers invited to the Second Peace Conference, as well as to the other Powers which have adhered to the Convention. In the cases contemplated in the preceding paragraph, the said Government shall inform them at the same time of the date on which it received the notification.

Art. 10. Non-Signatory Powers may adhere to the present Convention.

The Power which desires to adhere shall notify its intention to the Netherlands Government, forwarding to it the act of adhesion, which shall be deposited in the archives of the said Government.

This Government shall immediately forward to all the other Powers a duly certified copy of the notification, as well as of the act of adhesion, mentioning the date on which it received the notification.

Art. 11. The present Convention shall come into force, in the case of the Powers which were a party to the first deposit of ratifications, sixty days after the date of the ' procès-verbal ' of that deposit, and, in the case of the Powers which ratify subsequently or which adhere, sixty days after the notification of their ratification or of their adhesion has been received by the Netherlands Government.

Art. 12. In the event of one of the Contracting Powers wishing to denounce the present Convention, the denunciation shall be notified in writing to the Netherlands Government, which shall at once communicate a duly certified copy of the notification to all the other Powers informing them of the date on which it was received.

The denunciation shall only have effect in regard to the notifying Power, and one year after the notification has reached the Netherlands Government.

Art. 13. A register kept by the Netherlands Minister for foreign Affairs shall give the date of the deposit of ratifications made in virtue of Article 9, paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the date on which the notifications of adhesion (Article 10, paragraph 2) or of denunciation (Article 12, paragraph I) have been received.

Each Contracting Power is entitled to have access to this register and to be supplied with duly certified extracts from it.

In faith whereof the Plenipotentiaries have appended their signatures to the present Convention.

Done at The Hague, 18 October 1907, in a single copy, which shall remain deposited in the archives of the Netherlands Government, and duly certified copies of which shall be sent, through the diplomatic channel, to the Powers which have been invited to the Second Peace Conference.

(Here follow signatures)


Hague Convention (XI) Relative to Certain Restrictions on the Exercise of the Right of Capture in Maritime War, U.S.T.S. 544, 2 A.J.I.L. Supp. 167, entered into force January 26, 1910.

Hague Convention (XII)

Hague Convention (XIII)

Hague Convention (XIV)

Hague Convention (XV) The Final Act.

Hague Convention (XIII) Respecting the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in Naval War, U.S.T.S. 545, 2 A.J.I.L. Supp. 207, entered into force January 26, 1910.
Bekendtgørelse angaaende den paa den 2den internationale Fredskonference i Haag den 18de Oktober 1907 afsluttede Konvention om neutrale Magters Rettigheder og Pligter under Søkrig. BKI nr 45 af 20/01/1910 (Gældende).

Genève-Konvention, om Forbedring af saaredes og Syges Vilkaar ved Hære i Krig.
Convnetion for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field, signed at Geneva, July 6, 1906.

Geneva Conventions of August 12, 1949 and Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977, ratifications, accessions and successions / Genevèkonvention af 12.august 1949 om beskyttelse af civile personer i krigstid; Tillægsprotokol til Genève-konventionerne af 1949 vedrørende beskyttelsen af ofre i internationale væbnede konflikter (Protokol I) og Tillægsprotokol til Genève-konventionerne fra 1949 vedrørende beskyttelsen af ofre i ikke-internationale væbnede konflikter (Protokol II).

Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field, 75 U.N.T.S. 31, entered into force Oct. 21, 1950.

Bekendtgørelse om andre landes tiltrædelse af konventionerne af 12. august 1949 om såredes og syges vilkår under krig, om krigsfanger og om beskyttelse af civile personer i krigstid. BKI nr 24 af 08/03/1967 (Gældende) .
Foruden de i udenrigsministeriets bekendtgørelse nr. 26 af 26. juli 1951 og efterfølgende bekendtgørelser, senest nr. 85 af 27. august 1965, Lovtidende C, angivne lande har … stater tiltrådt de på den diplomatiske konference i Geneve den 12. august 1949 undertegnede fire konventioner henholdsvis til forbedring af såredes og syges vilkår i de væbnede styrker i felten, til forbedring af såredes, syges og skibbrudnes vilkår i de væbnede styrker på søen, om behandling af krigsfanger og om beskyttelse af civile personer i krigstid.

Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, 75 U.N.T.S. 85, entered into force Oct. 21, 1950.

Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, 75 U.N.T.S. 135, entered into force Oct. 21, 1950.

Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, 75 U.N.T.S. 287, entered into force Oct. 21, 1950.

Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 1125 U.N.T.S. 3, entered into force Dec. 7, 1978.
Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II), 1125 U.N.T.S. 609, entered into force Dec. 7, 1978.

Agreement Between the United States of America and the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Prevention of Incidents on and Over the High Seas, 852 U.N.T.S. 151, entered into force May 25, 1972.

Convention on the Prohibition of Military or any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques, 1108 U.N.T.S. 151, entered into force Oct. 5, 1978.
Konventionen om forbud mod militær eller enhver anden voldelig anvendelse af miljøændrende teknikker.

UN Child Soldiers Treaty : Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict.

Protocol on Explosive Remnants of War (Protocol V to the 1980 Convention), 28 November 2003.

International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries
http://www.ohchr.org/english/law/mercenaries.htm
Adopted and opened for signature and ratification by General Assembly resolution 44/34 of 4 December 1989
Entry into force: 20 October 2001, in accordance with article 19.

3. Våbenkontrol og nedrustning / Arms control and disarmament

a. Nedrustning

b. Konventionelle våben

Conference on the Limitation of Armament, Washington, November 12 1921-February 6, 1922:
Treaty Between the United States of America, the British Empire, France, Italy, and Japan, Signed at Washington, February 6, 1922. Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: 1922, Vol. 1, pp. 247-266
http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/pre-war/1922/nav_lim.html


Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which may be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to have Indiscriminate Effects and Protocols. U.N. Doc. A/Conf.95/15, Annex I (1980), entered into force Dec. 2, 1983. Konventionen om forbud mod eller begrænsninger i anvendelsen af visse konventionelle våben, som må anses for at være unødigt skadevoldende eller for at ramme i flæng.

Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects. Geneva, 10 October 1980.
The High Contracting Parties,
' Recalling ' that every State has the duty, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations, to refrain in its international relations from the threat or use of force against the sovereignty, territorial integrity or political independence of any State, or in any other manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations.
' Further recalling ' the general principle of the protection of the civilian population against the effects of hostilities,
' Basing themselves ' on the principle of international law that the right of the parties to an armed conflict to choose methods or means of warfare is not unlimited, and on the principle that prohibits the employment in armed conflicts of weapons, projectiles and material and methods of warfare of a nature to cause superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering,
' Also recalling ' that it is prohibited to employ methods or means of warfare which are intended, or may be expected, to cause widespread, long-term and severe damage to the natural environment,
' Confirming their determination ' that in cases not covered by this Convention and its annexed Protocols or by other international agreements, the civilian population and the combatants shall at all times remain under the protection and authority of the principles of international law derived from established custom, from the principles of humanity and from the dictates of public conscience,
' Desiring ' to contribute to international détente, the ending of the arms race and the building of confidence among States, and hence to the realization of the aspiration of all peoples to live in peace,
' Recognizing ' the importance of pursuing every effort which may contribute to progress towards general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control,
' Reaffirming ' the need to continue the codification and progressive development of the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict,
' Wishing ' to prohibit or restrict further the use of certain conventional weapons and believing that the positive results achieved in this area may facilitate the main talks on disarmament with a view to putting an end to the production, stockpiling and proliferation of such weapons,
' Emphasizing ' the desirability that all States become parties to this Convention and its annexed Protocols, especially the militarily significant States,
' Bearing in mind ' that the General Assembly of the United Nations and the United Nations Disarmament Commission may decide to examine the question of a possible broadening of the scope of the prohibitions and restrictions contained in this Convention and its annexed Protocols,
' Further bearing in mind ' that the Committee on Disarmament may decide to consider the question of adopting further measures to prohibit or restrict the use of certain conventional weapons,
Have agreed as follows:
Article 1
Scope of application
This Convention and its annexed Protocols shall apply in the situations referred to in Article 2 common to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Protection of War Victims, including any situation described in paragraph 4 of Article 1 of Additional Protocol I to these Conventions.
Article 2
Relations with other international agreements
Nothing in this Convention or its annexed Protocols shall be interpreted as detracting from other obligations imposed upon the High Contracting Parties by international humanitarian law applicable in armed conflict.
Article 3
Signature
This Convention shall be open for signature by all States at United Nations Headquarters in New York for a period of twelve months from 10 April 1981.
Article 4
Ratification, acceptance, approval or accession
1. This Convention is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by the Signatories. Any State which has not signed this Convention may accede to it.
2. The instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Depositary.
3. Expressions of consent to be bound by any of the Protocols annexed to this Convention shall be optional for each State, provided that at the time of the deposit of its instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of this Convention or of accession thereto, that State shall notify the Depositary of its consent to be bound by any two or more of these Protocols.
4. At any time after the deposit of its instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of this Convention or of accession thereto, a State may notify the Depositary of its consent to be bound by any annexed Protocol by which it is not already bound.
5. Any Protocol by which a High Contracting Party is bound shall for that Party form an integral part of this Convention.
Article 5
Entry into force
1. This Convention shall enter into force six months after the date of deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
2. For any State which deposits its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession after the date of the deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, this Convention shall enter into force six months after the date on which that State has deposited its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
3. Each of the Protocols annexed to this Convention shall enter into force six months after the date by which twenty States have notified their consent to be bound by it in accordance with paragraph 3 or 4 of Article 4 of this Convention.
4. For any State which notifies its consent to be bound by a Protocol annexed to this Convention after the date by which twenty States have notified their consent to be bound by it, the Protocol shall enter into force six months after the date on which that State has notified its consent so to be bound.
Article 6
Dissemination
The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace as in time of armed conflict, to disseminate this Convention and those of its annexed Protocols by which they are bound as widely as possible in their respective countries and, in particular, to include the study thereof in their programmes of military instruction, so that those instruments may become known to their armed forces.
Article 7 Treaty relations upon entry into force of this Convention
1. When one of the parties to a conflict is not bound by an annexed Protocol, the parties bound by this Convention and that annexed Protocol shall remain bound by them in their mutual relations.
2. Any High Contracting Party shall be bound by this Convention and any Protocol annexed thereto which is in force for it, in any situation contemplated by Article 1, in relation to any State which is not a party to this Convention or bound by the relevant annexed Protocol, if the latter accepts and applies this Convention or the relevant Protocol, and so notifies the Depositary.
3. The Depositary shall immediately inform the High Contracting Parties concerned of any notification received under paragraph 2 of this Article.
4. This Convention, and the annexed Protocols by which a High Contracting Party is bound, shall apply with respect to an armed conflict against that High Contracting Party of the type referred to in Article 1, paragraph 4, of Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the Protection of War Victims: (a) where the High Contracting Party is also a party to Additional Protocol I and an authority referred to in Article 96, paragraph 3, of that Protocol has undertaken to apply the Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocol I in accordance with Article 96, paragraph 3, of the said Protocol, and undertakes to apply this Convention and the relevant annexed Protocols in relation to that conflict; or (b) where the High Contracting Party is not a party to Additional Protocol I and an authority of the type referred to in subparagraph (a) above accepts and applies the obligations of the Geneva Conventions and of this Convention and the relevant annexed Protocols in relation to that conflict. Such an acceptance and application shall have in relation to that conflict the following effects:
(i) the Geneva Conventions and this Convention and its relevant annexed Protocols are brought into force for the parties to the conflict with immediate effect;
(ii) the said authority assumes the same rights and obligations as those which have been assumed by a High Contracting Party to the Geneva Conventions, this Convention and its relevant annexed Protocols; and
(iii) the Geneva Conventions, this Convention and its relevant annexed Protocols are equally binding upon all parties to the conflict.
The High Contracting Party and the authority may also agree to accept and apply the obligations of Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions on a reciprocal basis.
Article 8
Review and amendments
1. (a) At any time after the entry into force of this Convention any High Contracting Party may propose amendments to this Convention or any annexed Protocol by which it is bound. Any proposal for an amendment shall be communicated to the Depositary, who shall notify it to all the High Contracting Parties and shall seek their views on whether a conference should be convened to consider the proposal. If a majority, that shall not be less than eighteen of the High Contracting Parties so agree, he shall promptly convene a conference to which all High Contracting Parties shall be invited. States not parties to this Convention shall be invited to the conference as observers. (b) Such a conference may agree upon amendments which shall be adopted and shall enter into force in the same manner as this Convention and the annexed Protocols, provided that amendments to this Convention may be adopted only by the High Contracting Parties and that amendments to a specific annexed Protocol may be adopted only by the High Contracting Parties which are bound by that Protocol.
2. (a) At any time after the entry into force of this Convention any High Contracting Party may propose additional protocols relating to other categories of conventional weapons not covered by the existing annexed Protocols. Any such proposal for an additional protocol shall be communicated to the Depositary, who shall notify it to all the High Contracting Parties in accordance with subparagraph 1 (a) of this Article. If a majority, that shall not be less than eighteen of the High Contracting Parties so agree, the Depositary shall promptly convene a conference to which all States shall be invited. (b) Such a conference may agree, with the full participation of all States represented at the conference, upon additional protocols which shall be adopted in the same manner as this Convention, shall be annexed thereto and shall enter into force as provided in paragraphs 3 and 4 of Article 5 of this Convention.
3. (a) If, after a period of ten years following the entry into force of this Convention, no conference has been convened in accordance with subparagraph 1 (a) or 2 (a) of this Article, any High Contracting Party may request the Depositary to convene a conference to which all High Contracting Parties shall be invited to review the scope and operation of this Convention and the Protocols annexed thereto and to consider any proposal for amendments of this Convention or of the existing Protocols. States not parties to this Convention shall be invited as observers to the conference. The conference may agree upon amendments which shall be adopted and enter into force in accordance with subparagraph 1 (b) above. (b) At such conference consideration may also be given to any proposal for additional protocols relating to other categories of conventional weapons not covered by the existing annexed Protocols. All States represented at the conference may participate fully in such consideration. Any additional protocols shall be adopted in the same manner as this Convention, shall be annexed thereto and shall enter into force as provided in paragraphs 3 and 4 of Article 5 of this Convention. (c) Such a conference may consider whether provision should be made for the convening of a further conference at the request of any High Contracting Party if, after a similar period to that referred to in subparagraph 3 (a) of this Article, no conference has been convened in accordance with subparagraph 1 (a) or 2 (a) of this Article.
Article 9
Denunciation
1. Any High Contracting Party may denounce this Convention or any of its annexed Protocols by so notifying the Depositary.
2. Any such denunciation shall only take effect one year after receipt by the Depositary of the notification of denunciation. If, however, on the expiry of that year the denouncing High Contracting Party is engaged in one of the situations referred to in Article 1, the Party shall continue to be bound by the obligations of this Convention and of the relevant annexed Protocols until the end of the armed conflict or occupation and, in any case, until the termination of operations connected with the final release, repatriation or re-establishment of the person protected by the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict, and in the case of any annexed Protocol containing provisions concerning situations in which peace-keeping, observation or similar functions are performed by United Nations forces or missions in the area concerned, until the termination of those functions.
3. Any denunciation of this Convention shall be considered as also applying to all annexed Protocols by which the denouncing High Contracting Party is bound.
4. Any denunciation shall have effect only in respect of the denouncing High Contracting Party.
5. Any denunciation shall not affect the obligations already incurred, by reason of an armed conflict, under this Convention and its annexed Protocols by such denouncing High Contracting Party in respect of any act committed before this denunciation becomes effective.
Article 10
Depositary
1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be the Depositary of this Convention and of its annexed Protocols.
2. In addition to his usual functions, the Depositary
shall inform all States of: (a) signatures affixed to this Convention under Article 3; (b) deposits of instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval of or accession to this Convention deposited under Article 4; (c) notifications of consent to be bound by annexed Protocols under Article 4; (d) the dates of entry into force of this Convention and of each of its annexed Protocols under Article 5; and (e) notifications of denunciation received under article 9, and their effective date.
Article 11
Authentic texts
The original of this Convention with the annexed Protocols, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Depositary, who shall transmit certified true copies thereof to all States.
(Here follow signatures)


Ottawa-traktaten mod landminer
Konvention af 18. september 1997 om forbud mod brug, oplagring, produktion og overførsel af personelminer samt om deres destruktion.

PRÆAMBEL

De kontraherende stater, der

er besluttede på at gøre ende på de lidelser og ulykker, der forårsages af personelminer, der dræber eller lemlæster hundreder af mennesker hver uge, hovedsagelig uskyldige og forsvarsløse civile og børn, hindrer økonomisk udvikling og genopbygning, umuliggør hjemsendelse af flygtninge og hjemstavnsfordrevne personer, og som i årevis efter deres udlægning har andre alvorlige følger,

anser det for nødvendigt at gøre deres yderste for at bidrage på effektiv og koordineret vis til at møde den udfordring at rydde personelminer udlagt verden over, og sikre deres destruktion,

ønsker at gøre deres yderste for at yde bistand til omsorg for og rehabilitering, inklusive social og økonomisk reintegration, af mineofre,

anerkender at et totalforbud mod personelminer også er en vigtig tillidsskabende foranstaltning,

hilser velkommen vedtagelsen af protokollen om forbud mod eller begrænsninger i anvendelsen af miner, lureminer og andre mekanismer som ændret den 3. maj 1996 tilknyttet konventionen om forbud mod eller begrænsninger i anvendelsen af visse konventionelle våben, som må anses for at være unødigt skadevoldende eller for at ramme i flæng, og opfordrer de stater, der endnu ikke har ratificeret, til snarest at gøre dette,

hilser tillige velkommen De Forenede Nationers Generalforsamlingsresolution 51/45 S af 10. december 1996, der opfordrer alle stater til energisk at arbejde for en effektivt, juridisk bindende international aftale om et forbud mod brug, oplagring, produktion og overførsel af personelminer,

hilser yderligere velkommen de forholdsregler, der de seneste år er taget, både unilateralt og multilateralt, med sigte på at forbyde, begrænse eller suspendere brug, oplagring, produktion og overførsel af personelminer,

understreger betydningen af offentlighedens samvittighed til fremme af humane principper, således som den kom til udtryk i kravet om et totalforbud mod personelminer, og anerkender den indsats for at opnå dette mål, der er gjort af Den Internationale Røde Kors og Røde Halvmåne Bevægelse og Den Internationale Kampagne for at forbyde landminer og talrige andre ikke-statslige organisationer verden over,

erindrer om Ottawa-erklæringen af 5. oktober 1996 og Bryssel-erklæringen af 27. juni 1997, der opfordrer det internationale samfund til at forhandle en international, juridisk bindende aftale om forbud mod brug, oplagring, produktion og overførsel af personelminer,

understreger det ønskelige i at opnå tilslutning fra alle stater til denne konvention og er besluttede på at arbejde ihærdigt for dens universalitet i alle relevante fora, således blandt andre De Forenede Nationer, Nedrustningskonferencen, regionale organisationer og grupperinger samt gennemgangskonferencer vedrørende konventionen om forbud mod eller begrænsninger i anvendelsen af visse konventionelle våben, som må anses for at være unødigt skadevoldende eller for at ramme i flæng,

lægger til grund det princip i international humanitær folkeret, at retten for de stridende Parter i en væbnet konflikt til at vælge metoder og midler i krigsførelsen ikke er ubegrænset, og princippet om forbud mod anvendelse i væbnede konflikter af våben, projektiler og materiel og metoder i krigsførelse af en art, som forårsager overflødig skade eller unødige lidelser, samt princippet om, at der skal skelnes mellem civile og kombattanter,

er blevet enige om følgende:

Artikel 1

Almindelige forpligtelser

1. Hver kontraherende stat forpligter sig til aldrig under nogen omstændigheder:

at bruge personelminer;
at udvikle, fremstille, på anden måde anskaffe, oplagre, bibeholde personelminer eller overføre personelminer til nogen, direkte eller indirekte;
at bistå, opmuntre eller tilskynde, på nogen måde, nogen til handlinger, der under denne konvention er forbudt de kontraherende stater.

2. Hver kontraherende stat påtager sig at destruere eller sikre destruktionen af alle personelminer i overensstemmelse med denne konventions bestemmelser.

Artikel 2

Definitioner

I denne konvention betyder:

1. »Personelmine« en mine, som er bestemt til at eksplodere ved en persons tilstedeværelse, nærhed eller berøring, og som vil ukampdygtiggøre, såre eller dræbe én eller flere personer. Miner bestemt til at detonere ved tilstedeværelse, nærhed eller berøring af et køretøj i modsætning til en person, der er udstyret med en mekanisme, der sikrer minen mod optagning, anses ikke som personelminer som følge af at være således udstyret.

2. »Mine« en sprængladning, som er bestemt til at blive anbragt under, på eller nær jordoverfladen eller en anden overflade og til at eksplodere ved en persons eller et køretøjs tilstedeværelse, nærhed eller berøring.

3. »Mekanisme, der sikrer minen mod optagning«, en mekanisme, som er bestemt til at beskytte en mine, og som er en del af, forbundet med, fastgjort til eller anbragt under minen, og som udløses, hvis der gøres forsøg på at optage eller på anden måde med vilje forstyrre minen.

4. »Overførsel«, foruden den fysiske flytning af personelminer til eller fra nationalt territorium, overførsel af ejendomsret til og kontrol med minerne, men omfatter ikke overførselen af et territorium indeholdende udlagte personelminer.

5. »Mineret område« et område, som er farligt på grund af tilstedeværelsen eller mistanken om tilstedeværelsen af miner.

Artikel 3

Undtagelser

1. Uanset de almindelige forpligtelser i henhold til artikel 1, er det tilladt at bibeholde eller overføre et antal personelminer til udvikling af og træning i minesporing, minerydning eller minedestruktionsteknik. Antallet af sådanne miner skal ikke overstige det absolut nødvendige minimum til de ovenfor anførte formål.

2. Overførsel af personelminer til destruktion er tilladt.

Artikel 4

Destruktion af oplagrede personelminer

Med undtagelse af bestemmelserne i artikel 3, forpligter hver kontraherende stat sig til at destruere eller sikre destruktion af alle oplagrede miner, den ejer eller besidder, eller som er under dens jurisdiktion eller kontrol så snart som muligt, men ikke senere end fire år efter denne konventions ikrafttrædelse.

Artikel 5

Destruktion af personelminer i minerede områder

1. Hver kontraherende stat forpligter sig til at destruere eller sikre destruktionen af alle personelminer i minerede områder under dens jurisdiktion eller kontrol så snart som muligt, og ikke senere end ti år efter denne konventions ikrafttrædelse for pågældende kontraherende stat.

2. Hver kontraherende stat skal gøre sig alle anstrengelser for at identificere alle områder under dens jurisdiktion eller kontrol, hvor der er kendskab til eller mistanke om, at personelminer er udlagt, og skal så snart som muligt sikre, at alle personelminer i minerede områder er perimeterafmærket og overvåget samt er beskyttet ved hjælp af hegn eller ved andre midler for at sikre, at civile personer effektivt holdes ude fra området, indtil alle personelminer i området er blevet destrueret. Denne afgrænsning skal som et minimum leve op til de standarder, der er anført i protokollen om forbud mod eller begrænsninger i anvendelsen af miner, lureminer og andre mekanismer som ændret den 3. maj 1996 tilknyttet konventionen om forbud mod eller begrænsninger i anvendelsen af visse konventionelle våben, som må anses for at være unødigt skadevoldende eller for at ramme i flæng.

3. Såfremt en kontraherende stat anser, at den ikke vil være i stand til at destruere eller sikre destruktion af alle i stk. 1 omhandlede personelminer inden for den deri fastsatte tidsfrist, kan den til et møde mellem de kontraherende stater eller en gennemgangskonference fremsætte en anmodning om en udsættelse af tidsfristen for destruktion af sådanne personelminer, for en periode af op til ti år.

4. Hver anmodning skal indeholde:

Angivelse af varigheden af den foreslåede forlængelse
En detaljeret forklaring på årsagerne til den foreslåede forlængelse, herunder oplysning om:
Forberedelser af og status i arbejde udført under nationale minerydningsprogrammer;
De finansielle og tekniske midler, den kontraherende stat har til rådighed til destruktionen af alle personelminerne; og om
Omstændigheder, der er til hinder for at den kontraherende stat kan destruere alle personelminerne i minerede områder;
Oplysning om de humanitære, sociale, økonomiske og miljømæssige implikationer af forlængelsen; og
Alle andre oplysninger af relevans i forbindelse med den foreslåede forlængelse.

5. Mødet mellem de kontraherende stater eller gennemgangskonferencen skal, under hensyntagen til de i stk. 4 angivne faktorer, vurdere anmodningen og med et flertal af de tilstedeværende kontraherende stater, der deltager i afstemningen, træffe beslutning om hvorvidt anmodningen om en forlængelse af perioden skal imødekommes.

6. En sådan forlængelse kan blive gentaget efter fremsættelse af en ny anmodning i overensstemmelse med denne artikels stk. 3, 4 og 5. I anmodningen om en yderligere forlængelsesperiode skal den kontraherende stat opgive yderligere relevante oplysninger i henhold til denne artikel om, hvad der er foretaget i den tidligere forlængelsesperiode.

Artikel 6

Internationalt samarbejde og bistand

1. Til opfyldelse af forpligtelserne i henhold til denne konvention har hver kontraherende stat ret til at søge og til at modtage bistand hvor det er muligt fra andre kontraherende stater i muligt omfang.

2. Hver kontraherende stat forpligter sig til at lette udveksling af udstyr, materiale og videnskabelige og teknologiske oplysninger, der vedrører gennemførelsen af denne konvention, og har ret til i videst muligt omfang at deltage i sådan udveksling. De kontraherende stater skal ikke pålægge anskaffelsen af minerydningsudstyr og dertil hørende teknologisk information med humanitære formål uberettigede restriktioner.

3. Hver kontraherende stat, der har mulighed for det, skal yde bistand til omsorgen for og rehabiliteringen og den sociale og økonomiske reintegration af mineofre samt til mineoplysningsprogrammer. Sådan bistand kan blandt andre ydes gennem De Forenede Nationers system, internationale, regionale eller nationale organisationer eller institutioner, den Internationale Røde Kors Komité, nationale Røde Kors- og Røde Halvmåne organisationer og deres Internationale Forbund, ikke-governmentale organisationer eller på bilateral basis.

4. Hver kontraherende stat, der har mulighed for det, skal yde bistand til minerydning og dermed forbunden virksomhed. Sådan bistand kan bl.a. ydes gennem Forenede Nationers system, internationale, regionale eller nationale organisationer eller institutioner, bilateralt eller ved bidrag til De Forenede Nationers frivillige fond til minerydning eller andre regionale fonde, der har med minerydning at gøre.

5. Hver kontraherende stat, der har mulighed for det, skal yde bistand til destruktionen af oplagrede personelminer.

6. Hver kontraherende stat påtager sig at levere oplysninger til den minerydningsdatabase, der er oprettet inden for De Forenede Nationers system, navnlig oplysninger angående diverse midler og teknologi til minerydning samt lister over eksperter, ekspertinstitutioner eller nationale kontaktpunkter inden for minerydning.

7. Kontraherende stater kan anmode De Forenede Nationer, regionale organisationer, andre kontraherende stater eller andre kompetente interstatslige eller ikke-statslige fora om at bistå deres myndigheder med udarbejdelsen af et nationalt minerydningsprogram for at fastslå bl.a.:

Omfanget og rækkevidden af personelmineproblemet;
De finansielle, teknologiske og menneskelige ressourcer, der kræves for at gennemføre programmet;
Det antal år, der skønnes nødvendigt for at destruere alle personelminer i minerede områder under den pågældende kontraherende stats jurisdiktion eller kontrol;
Mineoplysningsvirksomhed med det formål at nedbringe antallet af kvæstelser eller dødsfald i forbindelse med miner;
Bistand til mineofre;
Forholdet mellem vedkommende kontraherende stats regering og de relevante statslige, interstatslige eller ikke-statslige organer, der skal medvirke i gennemførelsen af programmet.

8. Hver kontraherende stat, der yder og modtager bistand i henhold til denne artikels bestemmelser, skal samarbejde med henblik på at sikre, at vedtagne bistandsprogrammer gennemføres omgående og fuldt ud.

Artikel 7

Gennemsigtighedsforanstaltninger

1. Hver kontraherende stat skal så hurtigt som praktisk muligt, og ikke senere end 180 dage efter denne konvention er trådt i kraft, for den kontraherende stat til de Forende Nationers generalsekretær aflægge beretning om:

De nationale gennemførelsesforanstaltninger, der henvises til i artikel 9;
Det samlede antal oplagrede personelminer, som ejes eller besiddes af staten, eller som er under dens jurisdiktion eller kontrol, fordelt på typer, antal og med om muligt serienummer for hver enkelt type af oplagrede personelminer;
Så vidt muligt, beliggenheden af minerede områder under dens jurisdiktion eller kontrol, der indeholder eller mistænkes for at indeholde personelminer, med angivelse af så detaljerede oplysninger som muligt om typer og antal af hver enkelt type personelmine i hvert enkelt mineret område, og om tidspunktet for udlæggelsen.
Typen, mængden og, om muligt, serienummeret på alle personelminer, der er bibeholdt eller overført til brug ved udvikling af og træning i minesporing, minerydning eller minedestruktionsteknik, eller overført med henblik på destruktion såvel som de institutioner, der af en kontraherende stat er bemyndiget til at opbevare eller overføre personelminer i overensstemmelse med artikel 3.
Status i programmer til omstilling eller nedlæggelse af faciliteter til fremstilling af personelminer;
Status i programmer for destruktion af personelminer i overensstemmelse med artikler 4 og 5, inklusive detaljerede oplysninger om de destruktionsmetoder, der vil blive brugt, oplysning om placeringen af alle destruktionspladserne og om de obligatoriske sikkerheds- og miljøstandarder, der vil finde anvendelse;
Typer og samlede antal personelminer, der er destrueret af vedkommende kontraherende stat efter konventionens ikrafttrædelse for staten inklusive en opdeling på typer af det antal personelminer, der er destrueret i henhold til henholdsvis artikel 4 og artikel 5 og om muligt tillige med angivelse af numre for hver type personelminer destrueret i henhold til artikel 4;
De tekniske karakteristika for hver enkelt type produceret personelmine i det omfang de kendes, samt for dem, der for nærværende ejes eller besiddes af en kontraherende stat, samt hvor det er ikke uforholdsmæssigt besværligt, oplysninger, der kan lette identifikation og rydning af personelminer; som et minimum skal sådanne oplysninger omfatte dimensioner, tændsats, sprængstofindhold, metalindhold, farvefotografier og anden information, der kan lette minerydningen; og
De forholdsregler der er taget for at sikre at befolkningen straks og effektivt advares mod alle områder identificeret i henhold til artikel 5, stk. 2.

2. De kontraherende Parter skal en gang om året på grundlag af seneste kalenderår opdatere de oplysninger, de har givet i medfør af denne artikel.
De opdaterede oplysninger skal meddeles De Forenede Nationers generalsekretær senest den 30. april hvert år.3. De Forenede Nationers generalsekretær skal tilsende de kontraherende stater alle således modtagne oplysninger.

Artikel 8

Lettelse og afklaring af overholdelse

1. De kontraherende stater er enige om at konsultere og samarbejde med hinanden angående gennemførelsen af denne konventions bestemmelser og i samarbejdets ånd virke sammen for at lette de kontraherende staters overholdelse af deres forpligtelser i henhold til denne konvention.

2. Hvis en eller flere kontraherende stater ønsker at afklare eller løse spørgsmål vedrørende en anden kontraherende stats overholdelse af bestemmelserne i denne konvention, kan den gennem De Forende Nationers generalsekretær til den pågældende kontraherende stat fremsætte en anmodning om afklaring af spørgsmålet. En sådan anmodning skal ledsages af alle fornødne oplysninger. Fremsættelse af ubegrundede anmodninger om afklaring skal undlades og misbrug undgås. En kontraherende stat, der modtager en anmodning om afklaring skal gennem De Forenede Nationers generalsekretær inden 28 dage, forsyne den kontraherende stat, der har anmodet herom, med alle oplysninger, der kan bidrage til at afklare sagen.

3. Hvis den kontraherende stat, der har fremsat anmodningen, ikke gennem De Forenede Nationers generalsekretær modtager et svar inden fristens udløb eller skønner svaret på anmodningen om afklaring utilfredsstillende, kan den forelægge sagen via De Forende Nationers generalsekretær på næste møde mellem de kontraherende stater. De Forende Nationers generalsekretær skal til alle kontraherende stater videregive forelæggelsen bilagt alle egnede oplysninger vedrørende anmodningen om afklaring. Alle sådanne oplysninger skal fremlægges for den kontraherende stat, til hvilken anmodningen er rettet. Denne kontraherende stat har ret til at afgive et svar herpå.

4. Indtil et møde mellem de kontraherende stater træder sammen, kan enhver berørt Part anmode De Forenede Nationers generalsekretær om ved venskabelig mellemkomst at lette den udbedte afklaring.

5. Den kontraherende stat, der har fremsat anmodningen, kan gennem De Forenede Nationers generalsekretær foreslå indkaldelse af et særligt møde mellem de kontraherende Parter til at overveje sagen. De Forenede Nationers generalsekretær skal derpå underrette alle kontraherende stater om forslaget og tilsende dem alle de oplysninger, der meddelt af de pågældende kontraherende stater, med anmodning om at tilkendegive om de støtter afholdelse af et særligt møde med det formål at overveje sagen. Såfremt mindst en tredjedel af de kontraherende stater inden 14 dage efter sådan anmodning tilkendegiver, at de støtter afholdelse af et sådant særligt møde, skal De Forenede Nationers generalsekretær indkalde et sådant særligt møde mellem de kontraherende stater, der skal træde sammen inden yderligere 14 dage. Et flertal af de kontraherende stater danner quorum på dette møde.

6. Mødet mellem de kontraherende stater henholdsvis det særlige møde mellem de kontraherende stater skal først beslutte om sagen, i betragtning af samtlige oplysninger fremlagt af de pågældende kontraherende stater, skal tages under yderligere overvejelse. Mødet mellem de kontraherende stater skal gøre alle anstrengelser for at opnå en afgørelse ved konsensus. Såfremt der trods alle anstrengelser ikke er opnået enighed træffes beslutning af et flertal af kontraherende stater, der er til stede og stemmer.

7. Alle kontraherende stater skal samarbejde fuldt ud med mødet mellem de kontraherende stater eller det særlige møde mellem de kontraherende stater samt med undersøgelsesmissioner bemyndiget i henhold til paragraf 8 om at fuldføre gennemgangen af sagen.

8. Såfremt yderligere afklaring er påkrævet, skal mødet mellem de kontraherende stater eller det særlige møde mellem de kontraherende stater med et flertal af de kontraherende stater, der er tilstede og deltager i afstemningen, træffe beslutning om en undersøgelsesmission og fastlægge dens mandat. Den stat, som anmodningen er rettet til, kan når som helst indbyde en undersøgelsesmission til sit territorium. En sådan mission finder sted uden at et møde mellem de kontraherende stater eller et særligt møde mellem de kontraherende stater har truffet beslutning om at give en sådan mission bemyndigelse. Missionen, omfattende indtil 9 eksperter udpeget og godkendt i henhold til stk. 9 og 10, kan indsamle yderligere oplysninger på stedet eller andre steder i direkte tilknytning til det rejste spørgsmål om overholdelse under den stats jurisdiktion eller kontrol, som anmodningen er rettet til.

9. FN's generalsekretær skal opstille en ajourført fortegnelse indeholdende navne, nationalitet og andre relevante oplysninger om kvalificerede eksperter, som de kontraherende stater har tilvejebragt, og underrette alle kontraherende stater om fortegnelsen. Enhver ekspert optaget på fortegnelsen skal anses som udpeget til deltagelse i alle undersøgelsesmissioner, medmindre han skriftligt afvises af en kontraherende stat. I tilfælde af afvisning skal eksperten ikke deltage i undersøgelsesmissioner på territorium eller andre områder under den afvisende stats kontrol eller jurisdiktion, forudsat at erklæring om afvisning er afgivet forud for udpegningen af eksperten til sådanne missioner.

10. Efter modtagelsen af en anmodning fra mødet mellem de kontraherende stater eller et særligt møde mellem de kontraherende stater skal FN's generalsekretær, efter konsultationer med den kontraherende stat, til hvilken anmodningen er rettet, udpege medlemmerne af missionen, herunder dens leder. Statsborgere fra kontraherende stater, der anmoder om undersøgelsesmissionen eller er direkte berørt af den, skal ikke udpeges som deltagere i missionen. Medlemmerne af undersøgelsesmissionen skal nyde privilegier og immuniteter i henhold til artikel VI i den af de Forenede Nationers Plenarforsamling den 13. februar 1946 godkendte almindelige Konvention om de Forenede Nationers Rettigheder og Immuniteter.

11. Medlemmerne af undersøgelsesmissionen skal ankomme til den anmodede kontraherende stats territorium, så tidligt som muligt med et varsel på ikke under 72 timer. Den kontraherende stat, til hvilken anmodningen er rettet, skal tage de nødvendige administrative forholdsregler for at modtage, transportere og være missionen behjælpelig. Den er ansvarlig for missionens sikkerhed i videst muligt omfang, mens den befinder sig på territorium under modtagerstatens kontrol.

12. Uden præjudice for den stats suverænitet, til hvilken anmodningen er rettet, kan undersøgelsesmissionen til denne stats territorium medbringe nødvendigt udstyr, der udelukkende skal anvendes til indsamling af oplysninger angående spørgsmålet om overholdelse. Forud for sin ankomst adviserer missionen den kontraherende stat, til hvilken anmodningen er rettet, om det udstyr, den har til hensigt at anvende i forbindelse med sin undersøgelsesopgave.

13. Den kontraherende stat, til hvilken anmodningen er rettet, skal gøre sig alle anstrengelser for at sikre, at undersøgelsesmissionen får mulighed for at tale med alle relevante personer, som måtte være i stand til at give oplysninger angående spørgsmålet om overholdelse.

14. Den kontraherende stat, til hvilken anmodningen er rettet, skal give undersøgelsesmissionen adgang til alle områder og installationer under dens kontrol, hvor materiale, der er relevant for spørgsmålet om overholdelse, kunne forventes at kunne indsamles. Dette skal være med forbehold for alle foranstaltninger som den kontraherende stat anser nødvendige for:

Beskyttelse af følsomt udstyr, oplysninger og områder;
Beskyttelse af forfatningsmæssige forpligtelser, den kontraherende stat måtte have angående ejendomsrettigheder, ransagning og beslaglæggelser eller andre forfatningsmæssige rettigheder; eller
Den fysiske beskyttelse af og sikkerhed for medlemmerne af undersøgelsesmissionen.
Såfremt den kontraherende stat foretager sådanne foranstaltninger, skal den gøre sig alle anstrengelser for på anden måde at bevise, at den overholder denne konvention.

15. Undersøgelsesmissionen kan forblive på den pågældende kontraherende stats territorium i op til i alt 14 dage, og på samme sted i op til 7 dage, medmindre der er truffet anden aftale.

16. Enhver information som er givet i fortrolighed og ikke angår det spørgsmål, som behandles af undersøgelsesmissionen, skal behandles fortroligt.

17. Undersøgelsesmissionen skal, gennem De Forenede Nationers generalsekretær, aflægge beretning til mødet mellem de kontraherende stater eller det særlige møde mellem de kontraherende stater om resultatet af sine undersøgelser.

18. Mødet mellem de kontraherende stater eller det særlige møde mellem de kontraherende stater skal behandle alle relevante oplysninger, inklusive den beretning der er udarbejdet af undersøgelsesmissionen, og kan anmode den kontraherende stat, til hvilken anmodningen er rettet, om at tage skridt til at bringe spørgsmålet angående overholdelse i orden inden udløbet af en bestemt frist. Den kontraherende stat, til hvilken anmodningen er rettet, skal aflægge beretning om alle skridt, der tages som følge af denne anmodning.

19. Mødet mellem de kontraherende stater eller det særlige møde mellem de kontraherende stater kan foreslå de berørte kontraherende stater veje og midler til yderligere at belyse eller løse spørgsmålet, herunder relevante folkeretlige procedurer. I tilfælde, hvor spørgsmålet findes at skyldes omstændigheder, som den kontraherende stat, til hvilken anmodningen er rettet, ikke er herre over, kan mødet mellem de kontraherende stater, eller det særlige møde mellem de kontraherende stater anbefale passende foranstaltninger, inklusive samarbejde som omtalt i artikel 6.

20. Mødet mellem de kontraherende stater eller det særlige møde mellem de kontraherende stater skal i videst muligt omfang træffe de i stk. 18 og stk. 19 nævnte beslutninger ved konsensus, ellers ved to-tredjedels flertal af de kontraherende stater, der er tilstede og deltager i afstemningen.

Artikel 9

National gennemførelse

Hver kontraherende stat skal tage alle passende retlige, administrative og andre forholdsregler, herunder indførelse af straffesanktioner, for at forebygge og bringe til ophør enhver virksomhed, der er forbudt en kontraherende stat i henhold til denne konvention, foretaget af personer eller i områder under dens jurisdiktion eller kontrol.

Artikel 10

Bilæggelse af tvister

1. De kontraherende stater skal konsultere og samarbejde med hinanden for at bilægge enhver tvist vedrørende anvendelsen eller fortolkningen af denne konvention. Enhver kontraherende stat kan forelægge en sådan tvist på et møde mellem de kontraherende stater.

2. Mødet mellem de kontraherende stater kan yde sit bidrag til bilæggelse af konflikten på en hvilken som helst måde, det finder passende, herunder ved at tilbyde sin venskabelige mellemkomst eller opfordre de kontraherende stater, der er Parter i konflikten, til at indlede en bilæggelsesprocedure efter eget valg og anbefale en tidsfrist for enhver aftalt procedure.

3. Denne artikel er uden præjudice for bestemmelserne i denne konvention angående lettelse og afklaring af overholdelse.

Artikel 11

Møder mellem de kontraherende stater

1. De kontraherende stater mødes regelmæssigt for at overveje ethvert spørgsmål vedrørende anvendelsen eller gennemførelsen af denne konvention, inklusive:

Denne konventions virkemåde og status;
Spørgsmål hidrørende fra beretninger afgivet i henhold til denne konventions bestemmelser;
Internationalt samarbejde og bistand i overensstemmelse med artikel 6;
Udviklingen af teknologi angående rydning af personelminer;
Anmodninger fra stater i henhold til artikel 8 og
Beslutninger angående anmodninger fra de kontraherende stater som hjemlet i artikel 5.

2. Det første møde mellem de kontraherende stater indkaldes af De Forenede Nationers generalsekretær inden ét år efter denne konventions ikrafttrædelse. De efterfølgende møder indkaldes af De Forenede Nationers generalsekretær årligt indtil den første gennemgangskonference.

3. Under de i artikel 8 anførte betingelser indkalder De Forenede Nationers generalsekretær et særligt møde mellem de kontraherende stater.

4. Stater der ikke er deltagere i denne konvention, samt De Forenede Nationer, andre relevante internationale organisationer eller institutioner, regionale organisationer, Den Internationale Røde Kors Komité og relevante ikke-statslige organisationer, kan indbydes til at deltage i disse møder som observatører i overensstemmelse med de vedtagne procedureregler.

Artikel 12

Gennemgangskonferencer

1. En gennemgangskonference indkaldes af De Forenede Nationers generalsekretær fem år efter ikrafttrædelsen af denne konvention. Yderligere gennemgangskonferencer indkaldes af De Forenede Nationers generalsekretær, såfremt dette begæres af en eller flere kontraherende stater, idet der dog i alle tilfælde skal forløbe mindst fem år mellem hver gennemgangskonference. Alle kontraherende stater indbydes til hver gennemgangskonference.

2. Formålet med gennemgangskonferencen er at:

Gennemgå denne konventions virkemåde og status;
Overveje behovet for og intervallet mellem yderligere møder mellem de kontraherende stater, jf. artikel 11, stk. 2;
Træffe beslutninger om anmodninger fra de kontraherende stater som hjemlet i artikel 5; og
I forbindelse med den afsluttende beretning om nødvendigt vedtage konklusioner angående gennemførelsen af denne konvention.

3. Stater, der ikke er deltagere i denne konvention, såvel som De Forenede Nationer, andre relevante internationale organisationer eller institutioner, regionale organisationer, Den Internationale Røde Kors Komité og relevante ikke-statslige organisationer kan indbydes til at deltage i gennemgangskonferencerne som observatører i overensstemmelse med de vedtagne procedureregler.

Artikel 13

Ændringer

1. Enhver kontraherende stat kan når som helst efter ikrafttrædelsen af denne konvention stille ændringsforslag til konventionen. Ethvert ændringsforslag fremsendes til depositaren, som rundsender det til alle kontraherende stater og søger deres mening, om hvorvidt en ændringskonference bør indkaldes for at tage stilling til spørgsmålet. Hvis et flertal af de kontraherende stater inden 30 dage efter forslagets rundsendelse notificerer depositaren om, at de støtter yderligere overvejelser af forslaget, indkalder depositaren en ændringskonference, hvortil alle kontraherende stater indbydes.

2. Stater, der ikke er deltagere i denne konvention, såvel som De Forenede Nationer, andre relevante internationale organisationer eller institutioner, regionale organisationer, Den Internationale Røde Kors Komité og relevante ikke-statslige organisationer, kan indbydes til at deltage i alle ændringskonferencer som observatører i overensstemmelse med de vedtagne procedureregler.

3. Ændringskonferencen afholdes umiddelbart efter et møde mellem de kontraherende stater eller en gennemgangskonference, medmindre et flertal af de kontraherende stater anmoder om, at den afholdes tidligere.

4. Enhver ændring af denne konvention vedtages med to-tredjedels flertal af de kontraherende stater, der er til stede, og deltager i afstemningen. Depositaren underretter de kontraherende stater om enhver sådan vedtagen ændring.

5. En ændring af denne konvention træder i kraft for alle de i konventionen deltagende stater, der har accepteret ændringen, når et flertal af de kontraherende stater har deponeret deres acceptinstrument. Derefter træder ændringen i kraft for hver enkelt kontraherende stat i øvrigt på dagen for deponeringen af dens acceptinstrument.

Artikel 14

Omkostninger

1. Omkostningerne ved møder mellem de kontraherende stater, særlige møder mellem de kontraherende stater, gennemgangskonferencer og ændringskonferencer dækkes af de kontraherende stater og af ikke-kontraherende stater, der deltager deri, i overensstemmelse med De Forenede Nationers påligningsskala, forholdsmæssigt justeret.

2. De Forenede Nationers generalsekretærs omkostninger i forbindelse med artikel 7 og 8 samt omkostningerne i forbindelse med undersøgelsesmissioner dækkes af de kontraherende stater i overensstemmelse med De Forenede Nationers påligningsskema, forholdsmæssigt justeret.

Artikel 15

Undertegnelse

Denne konvention, der er vedtaget i Oslo i Norge den 18. september 1997, er åben for undertegnelse i Ottawa i Canada af alle stater fra 3. december 1997 til 4. december 1997 og i De Forenede Nationers hovedsæde i New York fra den 5. december 1997 til dens ikrafttrædelse.

Artikel 16

Ratifikation, accept, godkendelse, eller tiltrædelse

1. Denne konvention ratificeres, accepteres eller godkendes af signatarerne.

2. Den er åben for tiltrædelse af enhver stat, der ikke har undertegnet konventionen.

3. Ratifikations-, accept-, godkendelses-, eller tiltrædelsesinstrumenterne deponeres hos depositaren.

Artikel 17

Ikrafttrædelse

1. Denne konvention træder i kraft den første dag i den sjette måned efter den måned i hvilken det fyrretyvende ratifikations-, accept-, godkendelses-, eller tiltrædelsesinstrument er blevet deponeret.

2. For enhver stat, som deponerer sit ratifikations-, accept-, godkendelses-, eller tiltrædelsesinstrument efter deponeringen af det fyrretyvende ratifikations-, accept-, godkendelses-, eller tiltrædelsesinstrument, træder denne konvention i kraft den første dag i den sjette måned efter den dag, hvor staten deponerer sit ratifikations-, accept-, godkendelses-, eller tiltrædelsesinstrument.

Artikel 18

Midlertidig anvendelse

Enhver stat kan på tidspunktet for sin ratifikation, accept, godkendelse eller tiltrædelse erklære, at den midlertidigt vil anvende artikel 1, stk. 1 i denne konvention, i perioden frem til dens ikrafttrædelse.

Artikel 19

Forbehold

Denne konventions bestemmelser skal ikke være genstand for forbehold.

Artikel 20

Varighed og tilbagetrædelse

1. Denne konvention er af ubegrænset varighed.

2. Enhver kontraherende stat er, i udøvelsen af sin nationale suverænitet, berettiget til at træde tilbage fra denne konvention. Staten notificerer alle andre kontraherende stater, depositaren og De Forenede Nationers Sikkerhedsråd om tilbagetrædelsen. Denne notifikation skal indeholde en fuldstændig redegørelse for årsagerne til tilbagetrædelsen.

3. Enhver sådan tilbagetrædelse har virkning seks måneder efter, at depositaren har modtaget notifikationen om tilbagetrædelse. Hvis imidlertid den tilbagetrædende stat ved udgangen af seks-måneders perioden er deltager i en væbnet konflikt, får tilbagetrædelsen ikke virkning før afslutningen af den væbnede konflikt.

4. En stats tilbagetrædelse fra denne konvention påvirker ikke på nogen måde staternes pligt til fortsat at opfylde forpligtelser i henhold til enhver relevant folkeretlig regel.

Artikel 21

Depositar

Denne konventions depositar er De Forenede Nationers generalsekretær.

Artikel 22

Autentiske tekster

Originalteksten til denne konvention, hvis arabiske, kinesiske, engelske, franske, russiske og spanske tekster har samme gyldighed, skal deponeres hos De Forenede Nationers generalsekretær.


Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, 30 I.L.M. 1 (1991), entered into force Nov. 9, 1992. Traktat om konventionelle væbnede styrker i Europa.

Addendum to Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe and Related Documents.

States which have adhered to the Convention on Prohibition of Conventional Weapons

Treaty on Open Skies, done at Helsinki March 24, 1992, S. Treaty Doc. 102.37, not in force.

The Convention on Cluster Munitions.
Signing Conference Text, Oslo. As of December 3, 2008.
http://www.osloccm.no/hjem.cfm

c. Kernevåben / Nuclear weapons

CRS: Arms Control and Nonproliferation: A Catalog of Treaties and Agreements. / : Amy F. Woolf et al. 2013. - 72 s.

Traktat om et altomfattende forbud mod atomprøvesprængninger vedaget 24. september 1996.


The Antarctic Treaty, 402 U.N.T.S. 71, entered into force June 23, 1961.

The Governments of Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, the French Republic, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, the Union of South Africa, The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America,

Recognizing that it is in the interest of all mankind that Antarctica shall continue forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and shall not become the scene or object of international discord;

Acknowledging the substantial contributions to scientific knowledge resulting from international cooperation in scientific investigation in Antarctica;

Convinced that the establishment of a firm foundation for the continuation and development of such cooperation on the basis of freedom of scientific investigation in Antarctica as applied during the International Geophysical Year accords with the interests of science and the progress of all mankind;

Convinced also that a treaty ensuring the use of Antarctica for peaceful purposes only and the continuance of international harmony in Antarctica will further the purposes and principles embodied in the Charter of the United Nations;

Have agreed as follows:

Article I

1. Antarctica shall be used for peaceful purposes only. There shall be prohibited, inter alia, any measures of a military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, as well as the testing of any type of weapons.

2. The present Treaty shall not prevent the use of military personnel or equipment for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes.

Article II

Freedom of scientific investigation in Antarctica and cooperation toward that end, as applied during the International Geophysical Year, shall continue, subject to the provisions of the present Treaty.

Article III

1. In order to promote international cooperation in scientific investigation in Antarctica, as provided for in Article II of the present Treaty, the Contracting Parties agree that, to the greatest extent feasible and practicable:

(a) information regarding plans for scientific programs in Antarctica shall be exchanged to permit maximum economy and efficiency of operations;

(b) scientific personnel shall be exchanged in Antarctica between expeditions and stations;

(c) scientific observations and results from Antarctica shall be exchanged and made freely available.

2. In implementing this Article, every encouragement shall be given to the establishment of cooperative working relations with those Specialized Agencies of the United Nations and other international organizations having a scientific or technical interest in Antarctica.

Article IV

1. Nothing contained in the present Treaty shall be interpreted as:

(a) a renunciation by any Contracting Party of previously asserted rights of or claims to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica;

(b) a renunciation or diminution by any Contracting Party of any basis of claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica which it may have whether as a result of its activities or those of its nationals in Antarctica, or otherwise;

(c) prejudicing the position of any Contracting Party as regards its recognition or nonrecognition of any other State's right of or claim or basis of claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica.

2. No acts or activities taking place while the present Treaty is in force shall constitute a basis for asserting, supporting or denying a claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica. No new claim, or enlargement of an existing claim, to territorial sovereignty shall be asserted while the present Treaty is in force.

Article V

1. Any nuclear explosions in Antarctica and the disposal there of radioactive waste material shall be prohibited.

2. In the event of the conclusion of international agreements concerning the use of nuclear energy, including nuclear explosions and the disposal of radioactive waste material, to which all of the Contracting Parties whose representatives are entitled to participate in the meetings provided for under Article IX are parties, the rules established under such agreements shall apply in Antarctica.

Article VI

The provisions of the present Treaty shall apply to the area south of 60o South latitude, including all ice shelves, but nothing in the present Treaty shall prejudice or in any way affect the rights, or the exercise of the rights, of any State under international law with regard to the high seas within that area.

Article VII

1. In order to promote the objectives and ensure the observation of the provisions of the present Treaty, each Contracting Party whose representatives are entitled to participate in the meetings referred to in Article IX of the Treaty shall have the right to designate observers to carry out any inspection provided for by the present Article. Observers shall be nationals of the Contracting Parties which designate them. The names of the observers shall be communicated to every other Contracting Party having the right to designate observers, and like notice shall be given of the termination of their appointment.

2. Each observer designated in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article shall have complete freedom of access at any time to any or all areas of Antarctica.

3. All areas of Antarctica, including all stations, installations and equipment within those areas, and all ships and aircraft at points of discharging or embarking cargoes or personnel in Antarctica, shall be open at all times to inspection by any observers designated in accordance with paragraph 1 of this Article.

4. Aerial observation may be carried out at any time over any or all areas of Antarctica by any of the Contracting Parties having the right to designate observers.

5. Each Contracting Party shall, at the time when the present Treaty enters into force for it, inform the other Contracting Parties, and thereafter shall give them notice in advance, of

(a) all expeditions to and within Antarctica, on the part of its ships of nationals, and all expeditions to Antarctica organized in or proceeding from its territory;

(b) all stations in Antarctica occupied by its nationals; and

(c) any military personnel or equipment intended to be introduced by it into Antarctica subject to the conditions prescribed in paragraph 2 of Article I of the present Treaty.

Article VIII

1. In order to facilitate the exercise of their functions under the present Treaty, and without prejudice to the respective positions of the Contracting Parties relating to jurisdiction over all other persons in Antarctica, observers designated under paragraph 1 of Article VII and scientific personnel exchanged under subparagraph 1(b) of Article III of the Treaty, and members of the staffs accompanying any such persons, shall be subject only to the jurisdiction of the Contracting Party of which they are nationals in respect to all acts or omissions occurring while they are in Antarctica for the purpose of exercising their functions.

2. Without prejudice to the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article, and pending the adoption of measures in pursuance of subparagraph 1(e) of Article IX, the Contracting Parties concerned in any case of dispute with regard to the exercise of jurisdiction in Antarctica shall immediately consult together with a view to reaching a mutually acceptable solution.

Article IX

1. Representatives of the Contracting Parties named in the preamble to the present Treaty shall meet at the City of Canberra within two months after date of entry into force of the Treaty, and thereafter at suitable intervals and places, for the purpose of exchanging information, consulting together on matters of common interest pertaining to Antarctica, and formulating and considering, and recommending to their Governments, measures in furtherance of the principles and objectives of the Treaty including measures regarding:

(a) use of Antarctica for peaceful purposes only;

(b) facilitation of scientific research in Antarctica;

(c) facilitation of international scientific cooperation in Antarctica;

(d) facilitation of the exercise of the rights of inspection provided for in Article VII of the Treaty;

(e) questions relating to the exercise of jurisdiction in Antarctica;

(f) preservation and conservation of living resources in Antarctica.

2. Each Contracting Party which has become a party to the present Treaty by accession under Article XIII shall be entitled to appoint representatives to participate in the meetings referred to in paragraph 1 of the present Article, during such time as the Contracting Party demonstrates its interest in Antarctica by conducting substantial scientific research activity there, such as the establishment of a scientific station or the dispatch of a scientific expedition.

3. Reports from the observers referred to in Article VII of the present Treaty shall be transmitted to the representatives of the Contracting Parties participating in the meetings referred to in paragraph 1 of the present Article.

4. The measures referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article shall become effective when approved by all the Contracting Parties whose representatives were entitled to participate in the meetings held to consider those measures.

5. Any or all of the rights established in the present Treaty may be exercised as from the date of entry into force of the Treaty whether or not any measures facilitating the exercise of such rights have been proposed, considered or approved as provided in this Article.

Article X

Each of the Contracting Parties undertakes to exert appropriate efforts, consistent with the Charter of the United Nations, to the end that no one engages in any activity in Antarctica contrary to the principles or purposes of the present Treaty.

Article XI

1. If any dispute arises between two or more of the Contracting Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the present Treaty, those Contracting Parties shall consult among themselves with a view to having the dispute resolved by negotiation, inquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement or other peaceful means of their own choice.

2. Any dispute of this character not so resolved shall, with the consent, in each case, of all parties to the dispute, be referred to the International Court of Justice for settlement; but failure to reach agreement on reference to the International Court shall not absolve parties to the dispute from the responsibility of continuing to seek to resolve it by any of the various peaceful means referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article.

Article XII

1. (a) The present Treaty may be modified or amended at any time by unanimous agreement of the Contracting Parties whose representatives are entitled to participate in the meetings provided for under Article IX. Any such modification or amendment shall enter into force when the depositary Government has received notice from all such Contracting Parties that they have ratified it.

(b) Such modification or amendment shall thereafter enter into force as to any other Contracting Party when notice of ratification by it has been received by the depositary Government. Any such Contracting Party from which no notice of ratification is received within a period of two years from the date of entry into force of the modification or amendment in accordance with the provisions of subparagraph 1(a) of this Article shall be deemed to have withdrawn from the present Treaty on the date of the expiration of such period.

2. (a) If after the expiration of thirty years from the date of entry into force of the present Treaty, any of the Contracting Parties whose representatives are entitled to participate in the meetings provided for under Article IX so requests by a communication addressed to the depositary Government, a Conference of all the Contracting Parties shall be held as soon as practicable to review the operation of the Treaty.

(b) Any modification or amendment to the present Treaty which is approved at such a Conference by a majority of the Contracting Parties there represented, including a majority of those whose representatives are entitled to participate in the meetings provided for under Article IX, shall be communicated by the depositary Government to all the Contracting Parties immediately after the termination of the Conference and shall enter into force in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1 of the present Article.

(c) If any such modification or amendment has not entered into force in accordance with the provisions of subparagraph 1(a) of this Article within a period of two years after the date of its communication to all the Contracting Parties, any Contracting Party may at any time after the expiration of that period give notice to the depositary Government of its withdrawal from the present Treaty; and such withdrawal shall take effect two years after the receipt of the notice by the depositary Government.

Article XIII

1. The present Treaty shall be subject to ratification by the signatory States. It shall be open for accession by any State which is a Member of the United Nations, or by any other State which may be invited to accede to the Treaty with the consent of all the Contracting Parties whose representatives are entitled to participate in the meetings provided for under Article IX of the Treaty.

2. Ratification of or accession to the present Treaty shall be effected by each State in accordance with its constitutional processes.

3. Instruments of ratification and instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Government of the United States of America, hereby designated as the depositary Government.

4. The depositary Government shall inform all signatory and acceding States of the date of each deposit of an instrument of ratification or accession, and the date of entry into force of the Treaty and of any modification or amendment thereto.

5. Upon the deposit of instruments of ratification by all the signatory States, the present Treaty shall enter into force for those States and for States which have deposited instruments of accession. Thereafter the Treaty shall enter into force for any acceding State upon the deposit of its instrument of accession.

6. The present Treaty shall be registered by the depositary Government pursuant to Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.

Article XIV

[United States is repository]

The present Treaty, done in the English, French, Russian, and Spanish languages, each version being equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Government of the United States of America, which shall transmit duly certified copies thereof to the Governments of the signatory and acceding States.

In witness whereof, the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, duly authorized, have signed the present Treaty.

Done at Washington the first day of December, one thousand nine hundred and fifty-nine.

[signatures]

Antarktis-traktaten. Kilde: Beretning til udenrigsministeren, 1964 s. 44-50.


Memorandum of Understanding Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Regarding the Establishment of a Direct Communications Link, 472 U.N.T.S. 163, entered into force June 20, 1963.

Memorandum mellem Amerikas Forenede Stater og Unionen af Socialistiske Sovjet Republikker om oprettelse af en direkte kommunikations linje.

'For use in time of emergency the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics have agreed to establish as soon as technically feasible a direct communications link between the two Governments.
Each Government shall be responsible for the arrangements for the link on its own territory. Each Government shall take the necessary steps to ensure continuous functioning of the link and prompt delivery to its head of government of any communications received by means of the link from the head of government of the other party.
Arrangements for establishing and operating the link are set forth in the Annex which is attached hereto and forms an integral part hereof.
DONE in duplicate in the English and Russian languages at Geneva, Switzerland, this 20th day of June, 1963.'

Agreement Between The United States of America and The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Measures To Improve the U.S.A.-USSR Direct Communications Link (With Annex, Supplementing and Modifying the Memorandum of Understanding With Annex, of June 20, 1963). Signed at Washington September 30, 1971. Entered into force September 30, 1971.


Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, 480 U.N.T.S. 43, entered into force Oct. 10, 1963.
Traktat om forbud kernevåbenforsøg i atmosfæren, det ydre rum og under vandet.
Bekendtgørelse om andre landes tiltrædelse af traktaten af 5. august 1963 om forbud mod kernevåbenforsøg i atmosfæren, det ydre rum og under vandet. Udenrigsministeriets bekendtgørelse nr. 116 af 20. oktober 1994.

Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water

Signed at Moscow August 5, 1963
Ratification advised by U.S. Senate September 24, 1963
Ratified by U.S. President October 7, 1963
U.S. ratification deposited at Washington, London, and Moscow October 10, 1963
Proclaimed by U.S. President October 10, 1963
Entered into force October 10, 1963

The Governments of the United States of America, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, hereinafter referred to as the "Original Parties,"

Proclaiming as their principal aim the speediest possible achievement of an agreement on general and complete disarmament under strict international control in accordance with the objectives of the United Nations which would put an end to the armaments race and eliminate the incentive to the production and testing of all kinds of weapons, including nuclear weapons,

Seeking to achieve the discontinuance of all test explosions of nuclear weapons for all time, determined to continue negotiations to this end, and desiring to put an end to the contamination of mans environment by radioactive substances,

Have agreed as follows:

Article I

1. Each of the Parties to this Treaty undertakes to prohibit, to prevent, and not to carry out any nuclear weapon test explosion, or any other nuclear explosion, at any place under its jurisdiction or control:

(a) in the atmosphere; beyond its limits, including outer space; or under water, including territorial waters or high seas; or

(b) in any other environment if such explosion causes radioactive debris to be present outside the territorial limits of the State under whose jurisdiction or control such explosion is conducted. It is understood in this connection that the provisions of this subparagraph are without prejudice to the conclusion of a Treaty resulting in the permanent banning of all nuclear test explosions, including all such explosions underground, the conclusion of which, as the Parties have stated in the Preamble to this Treaty, they seek to achieve.

2. Each of the Parties to this Treaty undertakes furthermore to refrain from causing, encouraging, or in any way participating in, the carrying out of any nuclear weapon test explosion, or any other nuclear explosion, anywhere which would take place in any of the environments described, or have the effect referred to, in paragraph 1 of this Article.

Article II

1. Any Party may propose amendments to this Treaty. The text of any proposed amendment shall be submitted to the Depositary Governments which shall circulate it to all Parties to this Treaty. Thereafter, if requested to do so by one-third or more of the Parties, the Depositary Governments shall convene a conference, to which they shall invite all the Parties, to consider such amendment.

2. Any amendment to this Treaty must be approved by a majority of the votes of all the Parties to this Treaty, including the votes of all of the Original Parties. The amendment shall enter into force for all Parties upon the deposit of instruments of ratification by a majority of all the Parties, including the instruments of ratification of all of the Original Parties.

Article III

1. This Treaty shall be open to all States for signature. Any State which does not sign this Treaty before its entry into force in accordance with paragraph 3 of this Article may accede to it at any time.

2. This Treaty shall be subject to ratification by signatory States. Instruments of ratification and instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Governments of the Original Parties -- the United States of America, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics -- which are hereby designated the Depositary Governments.

3. This Treaty shall enter into force after its ratification by all the Original Parties and the deposit of their instruments of ratification.

4. For States whose instruments of ratification or accession are deposited subsequent to the entry into force of this Treaty, it shall enter into force on the date of the deposit of their instruments of ratification or accession.

5. The Depositary Governments shall promptly inform all signatory and acceding States of the date of each signature, the date of deposit of each instrument of ratification of and accession to this Treaty, the date of its entry into force, and the date of receipt of any requests for conferences or other notices.

6. This Treaty shall be registered by the Depositary Governments pursuant to Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.

Article IV

This Treaty shall be of unlimited duration.

Each Party shall in exercising its national sovereignty have the right to withdraw from the Treaty if it decides that extraordinary events, related to the subject matter of this Treaty, have jeopardized the supreme interests of its country. It shall give notice of such withdrawal to all other Parties to the Treaty three months in advance.

Article V

This Treaty, of which the English and Russian texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Depositary Governments. Duly certified copies of this Treaty shall be transmitted by the Depositary Governments to the Governments of the signatory and acceding States.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, duly authorized, have signed this Treaty.

DONE in triplicate at the city of Moscow the fifth day of August, one thousand nine hundred and sixty-three.

For the Government of the United States of America
DEAN RUSK

For the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
SIR DOUGLAS HOME For the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
A. GROMYKO


START I

START II

START III


Agreement Govering the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 2222 (XXI)), opened for signature on 27 January 1967, entered into force 10 October 1967.

Traktat om principper for staters virksomhed ved udforskning og udnyttelse af det ydre rum, herunder månen og andre himmellegemer (Rumaftalen). Bilag 23 i Beretning til udenrigsministeren 1966 s. 95-100.

“Der opnåedes under FN's 21. generalforsamling enighed om den såkaldte rumaftale. En detailleret gennemgang af aftalen indeholdes i udvalgets årsberetning for 1966, hvortil der henvises. Ud fra et nedrustningssynspunkt er den mest interessante bestemmelse indeholdt i art. IV, der forpligter staterne til ikke at sætte kernevåben i kredsløb omkring jorden eller anbringe sådanne våben i det ydre rum eller på himmellegemer. Endvidere forbydes enhver militær aktivitet, herunder oprettelse af militære baser, installationer og befæstede anlæg, afprøvning af alle våbentyper og afholdelse af militære manøvrer på himmellegemerne, der alene må udnyttes til fredelige formål.
Traktaten åbnedes for undertegnelse i London, Moskva og Washington den 27. januar 1967. Ved årets udgang havde ca. 60 lande underskrevet. Traktaten trådte i kraft ved de tre signatarstaters deponering af deres ratifikationsinstrumenter den 10. oktober 1967. Ved udgangen af året havde ca. 15 lande deponeret deres ratifikationsinstrumenter.
Danmark undertegnede traktaten den 27. januar 1967. Efter at Folketinget den 20. april 1967 havde meddelt sit samtykke, ratificerede Hans Majestæt Kongen ved resolution af 2. maj 1967 traktaten. Danmarks ratifikationsinstrumenter deponeredes den 10. oktober 1967 hos de tre signatarmagter”
. Kilde: Beretning til udenrigsministeren 1968 s. 27.

FN-resolutionen af 19. december 1966 vedrørende fredelig udnyttelse af det ydre rum

Generalforsamlingen, som
har behandlet den beretning, som udvalget vedrørende fredelig udnyttelse af det ydre rum (AJ6431) har aflagt om sit arbejde i 1966 og navnlig om det arbejde, som det juridiske underudvalg har udrettet på dets 5. samling, der afholdtes i Geneve fra 12. juli til og med 4. august og i New York fra 12. september til og med 16. september,
yderligere har bemærket sig de gennem de efterfølgende rådslagninger mellem medlemmer af FN opnåede fremskridt,
bekræfter på ny betydningen af internationalt samarbejde, for så vidt angår virksomhed med hensyn til den fredelige udforskning og udnyttelse af det ydre rum, herunder månen og andre himmellegemer, og betydningen af, at der udvikles lovregler på dette nye område for menneskelig stræben,

  1. anbefaler traktaten om principper for staters virksomhed ved udforskning og udnyttelse af det ydre rum, herunder månen og andre himmellegemer, hvis tekst er vedlagt denne resolution,
  2. anmoder depositarregeringerne om at åbne traktaten for underskrivelse og ratifikation på den tidligst mulige dato,
  3. udtrykker håb om, at traktaten må opnå videst mulig tilslutning,
  4. anmoder udvalget vedrørende den fredelige udnyttelse af det ydre rum om:

a. at fortsætte sit arbejde med udarbejdelsen af en aftale om erstatningsansvar for skader opstået ved opsendelsen af genstande i det ydre rum samt en aftale om bistand til og hjemsendelse af astronauter og rumfartøjer, hvilke spørgsmål er på udvalgets dagsorden,
b. samtidig hermed at påbegynde undersøgelsen af spørgsmål i forbindelse med definitionen af det ydre rum og udnyttelsen af det ydre rum og himmellegemer, herunder rumkommunikationens forskellige implikationer,
c. at aflægge en standpunktsberetning om sit arbejde til 22. generalforsamling.”

Traktat om principper for staters virksomhed ved udforskning og udnyttelse af det ydre rum, herunder månen og andre himmellegemer

De i denne traktat deltagende stater, som

er inspireret af de store muligheder, der åbner sig for menneskeheden som følge af menneskets indtrængen i det ydre rum,
erkender hele menneskehedens fælles interesse i fremskridt i udforskningen og ud. nyttelsen af det ydre rum til fredelige formål,
mener, at udforskning og udnyttelse af det ydre rum bør ske til gavn for alle folk uden hensyn til graden af deres økonomiske og videnskabelige udvikling,
ønsker at bidrage til et bredt internationalt samarbejde om såvel de videnskabelige som de juridiske aspekter af det ydre rums udforskning og udnyttelse til fredelige formål,
mener, at et sådant samarbejde vil medvirke til at fremme gensidig forståelse og til at styrke venskabelige forbindelser mellem stater og folk,
erindrer resolution 1962 (XVIII) med overskriften »Deklaration om de juridiske principper for staters virksomhed ved udforskning og udnyttelse af det ydre rum« som vedtoges enstemmigt af De forenede Nationers generalforsamling den 13. december 1963,
erindrer resolution 1884 (XVIII), som opfordrer staterne til at afstå fra at sætte genstande, der medfører kernevåben eller andre former for masseødelæggelsesvåben, i kredsløb omkring Jorden og fra at anbringe sådanne våben på himmellegemer, og som vedtoges enstemmigt af De forenede Nationers generalforsamling den 17. oktober 1963,
tager i betragtning De forenede Nationers generalforsamlings resolution 1'10 (II) af 3. november 1947, som fordømmer propaganda, der tilsigter eller må antages at fremkalde eller opildne til nogen trussel mod freden, brud på freden eller aggressionshandling, og som finder, at denne resolution er anvendelig på det ydre rum, er overbevist om, at en traktat om principper for staters virksomhed ved udforskning og udnyttelse af det ydre rum, herunder månen og andre himmellegemer, vil fremme De forenede Nationers Pagts formål og principper

er blevet enige om følgende:

Artikel l

Udforskning og udnyttelse af det ydre rum, herunder månen og andre himmellegemer, skal ske til gavn for og i alle landes interesse uden hensyn til graden af deres økonomiske eller videnskabelige udvikling og skal være hele menneskehedens virkefelt.
Det ydre rum, herunder månen og andre himmellegemer, skal være åbent for udforskning og udnyttelse af alle stater uden diskrimination af nogen art på grundlag af lighed og i overensstemmelse med folkeretten, og der skal være fri adgang til alle områder af himmellegemer.
Der skal være frihed til videnskabelig forskning i det ydre rum, herunder månen og andre himmellegemer, og staterne skal lette og fremme internationalt samarbejde om sådan forskning.

Artikel II

Det ydre rum, herunder månen og andre himmellegemer, kan ikke gøres til genstand for national tilegnelse ved suverænitetskrav, ved udnyttelse, okkupation eller på anden måde.

Artikel III

De i denne traktat deltagende stater skal under deres virksomhed i forbindelse med udforskning og udnyttelse af det ydre rum, herunder månen og andre himmellegemer, handle i overensstemmelse med folkeretten, herunder De forenede Nationers Pagt, til bevarelse af den internationale fred og sikkerhed og til fremme af internationalt samarbejde og international forståelse.

Artikel IV

De i denne traktat deltagende stater forpligter sig til ikke at sætte nogen genstand, der medfører kernevåben eller andre former for masseødelæggelsesvåben, i kredsløb omkring Jorden, ikke at anbringe sådanne våben på himmellegemer eller på anden måde placere sådanne våben i det ydre rum.
Månen og andre himmellegemer skal af alle i denne traktat deltagende stater udnyttes udelukkende til fredelige formål. Oprettelse af militære baser, installationer og befæstede anlæg, afprøvning af alle våbentyper og afholdelse af militære ma. nøvrer på himmellegemerne er forbudt. Anvendelse af militært personel til videnskabelig forskning eller andre fredelige formål er ikke forbudt. Det er heller ikke forbudt at benytte enhver art af udstyr eller indretninger, der er nødvendig til fredelig udforskning af månen og andre himmellegemer.

Artikel V

De i denne traktat deltagende stater skal betragte astronauter som menneskehedens udsendinge i det ydre rum og skal yde dem al mulig bistand i tilfælde af uheld, i nødstilfælde eller ved nødlanding på en anden deltagende stats territorium eller på det åbne hav. Når astronauter foretager en sådan landing, skal de sikkert og hurtigt sendes tilbage til den stat, hvor deres rumfartøj er registreret.

Under udøvelse af virksomhed i det ydre rum og på himmellegemer skal en i denne traktat deltagende stats astronauter yde andre i denne traktat deltagende staters astronauter enhver mulig bistand.

De i denne traktat deltagende stater skal ufortøvet underrette de øvrige i traktaten deltagende stater eller De forenede Nationers generalsekretær om alle af dem i det ydre rum, herunder månen og andre himmellegemer, opdagede fænomener, som vil kunne udgøre en fare for astronauters liv eller helbred.

Artikel VI

De i denne traktat deltagende stater bærer det folkeretlige ansvar for deres eget lands virksomhed i det ydre rum, herunder månen og andre himmellegemer, uanset om en sådan virksomhed udøves af regeringsorganer eller af private enheder, og skal sikre sig, at deres eget lands virksomhed sker i overensstemmelse med de i denne traktat indeholdte bestemmelser. Til private enheders virksomhed i det ydre rum, herunder månen og andre himmellegemer, kræves bemyndigelse og stadigt tilsyn fra den pågældende stats side. Hvis en international organisation udøver virksomhed i det ydre rum, herunder månen og andre himmellegemer, påhviler ansvaret for denne traktats overholdelse såvel organisationen som de i denne traktat deltagende stater, der er medlemmer af den pågældende organisation.

Artikel VII

Enhver af de i denne traktat deltagende stater, som opsender eller foranlediger opsendelse af en genstand i det ydre rum, herunder månen og andre himmellegemer, eller fra hvis territorium eller anlæg en genstand opsendes, er folkeretligt an. svarlig for skade, som en sådan genstand eller dens bestanddele påfører en anden i denne traktat deltagende stat eller fysiske eller juridiske personer tilhørende denne stat på Jorden, i luftrummet eller i det ydre rum, herunder månen og andre himmellegemer.

Artikel VIII

En i denne traktat deltagende stat, hvori en i det ydre rum opsendt genstand er registreret, bevarer jurisdiktion og kontrol over denne genstand og dens eventuelle personel, medens den befinder sig i det ydre rum eller på et himmellegeme. Ejendomsretten til genstande og til bestanddele af genstande, der er opsendt i det ydre rum, herunder genstande, der er landet eller opført på et himmellegeme, berøres ikke af disses tilstedeværelse i det ydre rum eller på et himmellegeme eller af deres tilbagevenden til Jorden. Sådanne genstande eller bestanddele, der findes uden for grænserne af den i traktaten deltagende stat, hvori de er registrerede, skal sendes tilbage til denne stat, som på forlangende skal give oplysninger til brug ved identifikation, før de sendes tilbage.

Artikel IX

Ved udforskningen og udnyttelsen af det ydre rum, herunder månen og andre himmellegemer, skal de i traktaten deltagende stater lade sig lede af princippet om samarbejde og gensidig bistand og udøve al virksomhed i det ydre rum, herunder månen og andre himmellegemer, under tilbørlig hensyntagen til alle andre i traktaten deltagende staters tilsvarende interesser. De i traktaten deltagende stater skal foretage deres undersøgelser af det ydre rum, herunder månen og andre himmellegemer, og gennemføre deres udforskning heraf på en sådan måde, at disse ikke udsættes for skadelig inficering, og at Jordens omgivelser ikke udsættes for ugunstige forandringer som følge af indførelse af ekstra-terrestrisk stof, og om fornødent tage passende forholdsregler i dette øjemed. Hvis en i traktaten deltagende stat har grund til at antage, at virksomhed eller forsøg, som er planlagt af den selv eller af dens statsborgere i det ydre rum, herunder månen og andre himmellegemer, vil kunne forårsage skadelige forstyrrelser i andre i denne traktat deltagende staters virksomhed i forbindelse med fredelig udforskning og udnyttelse af det ydre rum, herunder månen og andre himmellegemer, skal den indlede passende internationale rådslagninger, før den iværksætter en sådan virksomhed eller et sådant forsøg. En traktaten deltagende stat, som har grund til at antage, at virksomhed eller forsøg, som er planlagt af en anden i traktaten deltagende stat i det ydre rum, herunder månen og andre himmellegemer, vil kunne forårsage skadelige forstyrrelser i virksomhed i forbindelse med fredelig udforskning og udnyttelse af det ydre rum, herunder månen og andre himmellegemer, kan anmode om rådslagning angående virksomheden eller forsøget.

Artikel X

Til fremme af internationalt samarbejde om udforskning og udnyttelse af det ydre rum, herunder månen og andre himmellegemer, i overensstemmelse med denne traktats formål, skal de i denne traktat deltagende stater på lige fod behandle eventuelle anmodninger fra andre i traktaten deltagende stater om adgang til at iagttage de af sidstnævnte stater opsendte rumgenstandes flyvning.
Karakteren af en sådan adgang til iagttagelse og de vilkår, på hvilke den vil kunne indrømmes, skal fastlægges ved aftale mellem de pågældende stater.

Artikel XI

Til fremme af internationalt samarbejde om den fredelige udforskning og udnyttelse af det ydre rum er de i traktaten deltagende stater, som udøver virksomhed i det ydre rum, herunder månen og andre himmellegemer, enige om i det størst mulige og praktisk gennemførlige omfang at give såvel De forenede Nationers generalsekretær som offentligheden og den internationale videnskab underretning om en sådan virksomheds beskaffenhed og udøvelse samt om, hvor den finder sted, og om dens resultater. Ved modtagelsen af sådanne oplysninger bør De forenede Nationers generalsekretær være rede til omgående og effektiv udbredelse af disse.

Artikel XII

Alle stationer, installationer, udstyr og rumfartøjer på månen og andre himmellegemer skal stå åbne for repræsentanter for andre i traktaten deltagende stater pil grundlag af gensidighed. Sådanne repræsentanter skal give rimeligt varsel forud for et planlagt besøg, således at passende rådslagninger kan finde sted, og de videst mulige foranstaltninger kan træffes for at garantere sikkerheden og undgå! forstyrrelser i den normale drift af det anlæg, som ønskes besøgt.

Artikel XIII

Denne traktats bestemmelser skal finde anvendelse på virksomhed, som udøves af de i traktaten deltagende stater i forbindelse med udforskning og udnyttelse af det ydre rum, herunder månen og andre himmellegemer, uanset om virksomheden udøves af en enkelt i traktaten deltagende stat eller sammen med andre stater, herunder også, når virksomheden udøves inden for internationale mellemstatlige organisationers rammer.
Alle praktiske spørgsmål, der måtte opstå i forbindelse med virksomhed, der udøves af internationale mellemstatlige organisationer i forbindelse med udforskning og udnyttelse af det ydre rum, herunder månen og andre himmellegemer, skal løses af de i traktaten deltagende stater sammen med den pågældende internationale organisation eller sammen med en eller flere af den internationale organisations medlemsstater, som er deltagere i denne traktat.

Artikel XIV
  1. Denne traktat skal stå åben for undertegnelse af alle stater. Alle stater, der ikke underskriver denne traktat, før den træder i kraft i henhold til denne artikels stk. 3, kan tiltræde den på et hvilket som helst tidspunkt.
  2. Denne traktat skal ratificeres af signatarstaterne. Ratifikations- og tiltrædelsesinstrumenter skal deponeres hos regeringerne i Amerikas forenede Stater, De socialistiske Sovjetrepublikkers Union og Det forenede Kongerige Storbritannien og Nordirland, der herved udpeges som depositarmagter.
  3. Denne traktat træder i kraft, når fem regeringer, heriblandt de regeringer, der er udpeget som depositarmagter for denne traktat, har deponeret deres ratifikationsinstrumenter.
  4. For stater hvis ratifikations- eller tiltrædelsesinstrumenter deponeres efter denne traktats ikrafttræden, træder traktaten i kraft på datoen for deponeringen af deres ratifikations- eller tiltrædelsesinstrument.
  5. Depositarmagterne skal omgående underrette alle undertegnende og tiltrædende stater om datoen for hver underskrift, datoen for deponeringen af hvert ratikations- og tiltrædelsesinstrument vedrørende denne traktat, datoen for dens ikrafttræden og om andre meddelelser.
  6. Denne traktat skal registreres af depositarmagteme i henhold til artikel 102 i De forenede Nationers Pagt.
Artikel XV

Enhver af de i traktaten deltagende stater kan foreslå ændringer i denne traktat. Ændringer træder i kraft for hver af de i traktaten deltagende stater, der godkender ændringerne, efter at disse er godkendt af et flertal af de i traktaten deltagende stater og derefter, for hver af de øvrige i traktaten deltagende stater, på datoen for deres godkendelse af ændringerne.

Artikel XVI

Enhver af de i traktaten deltagende stater kan ved skriftligt varsel til depositarmagterne opsige sin deltagelse i traktaten et år efter dens ikrafttræden: En sådan opsigelse træder i kraft et år efter datoen for opsigelsens modtagelse.

Artikel XVII

Denne traktat, hvis engelske, franske, kinesiske, russiske og spanske tekst har samme gyldighed, skal deponeres i depositarmagternes arkiver. Behørigt bekræftede eksemplarer af denne. traktat skal af depositarmagterne tilstilles de undertegnede og tiltrædende staters regeringer.

TIL BEKRÆFTELSE HERAF har undertegnede behørigt befuldmægtigede undertegnet denne traktat.

UDFÆRDIGET i tre eksemplarer i London, Moskva og Washington den 27. januar et tusinde ni hundrede og syvogtres.“


The Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space (the "Rescue Agreement", adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 2345 (XXII)), opened for signature on 22 April 1968, entered into force 3 December 1968.

The Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects (the "Liability Convention", adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 2777 (XXVI)), opened for signature on 29 March 1972, entered into force 1 September 1972

Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, 610 U.N.T.S. 205, entered into force, Oct. 10, 1967.

The Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space (the "Registration Convention", adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 3235 (XXIX)), opened for signature on 14 January 1975, entered into force 15 September 1976.

The Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (the "Moon Agreement", adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 34/68), opened for signature on 18 December 1979, entered into force 11 July 1984.

The Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Uses of Outer Space (General Assembly resolution 1962 (XVIII) of 13 December 1963).

The Principles Governing the Use by States of Artificial Earth Satellites for International Direct Television Broadcasting (resolution 37/92 of 10 December 1982).

The Principles Relating to Remote Sensing of the Earth from Outer Space (resolution 41/65 of 3 December 1986).

The Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space (resolution 47/68 of 14 December 1992).

The Declaration on International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for the Benefit and in the Interest of All States, Taking into Particular Account the Needs of Developing Countries (resolution 51/122 of 13 December 1996).

See also: International Space Law: Office for Outer Space Affaires, United Nations Office at Vienna - Legal Subcommittee of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.

CTBT-traktaten Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Traktat om fuldstændig prøvestop.

Treaty for the Prohibtion of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America, 634 U.N.T.S. 326, entered into force April 22, 1968.
Traktat om forbud mod kernevåben i Latinamerika.


Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, 729 U.N.T.S. 161, entered into force March 5, 1970.
Traktat om ikke-spredning af kernevåben (ikkespredningstraktaten). Beretning til udenrigsministeren, 1968 s. 134-140. Se også: Bekendtgørelse af traktat af 1. juli 1968 om ikke-spredning af kernevåben.
https://www.retsinformation.dk/Forms/R0710.aspx?id=70557
og og Ikke-spredningstraktat. Europa-Parlamentets beslutning af 10. marts 2010 om traktaten om ikke-spredning af kernevåben.

The States concluding this Treaty, hereinafter referred to as the Parties to the Treaty,

Considering the devastation that would be visited upon all mankind by a nuclear war and the consequent need to make every effort to avert the danger of such a war and to take measures to safeguard the security of peoples,

Believing that the proliferation of nuclear weapons would seriously enhance the danger of nuclear war,

In conformity with resolutions of the United Nations General Assembly calling for the conclusion of an agreement on the prevention of wider dissemination of nuclear weapons,

Undertaking to co-operate in facilitating the application of International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards on peaceful nuclear activities,

Expressing their support for research, development and other efforts to further the application, within the framework of the International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards system, of the principle of safeguarding effectively the flow of source and special fissionable materials by use of instruments and other techniques at certain strategic points,

Affirming the principle that the benefits of peaceful applications of nuclear technology, including any technological by-products which may be derived by nuclear-weapon States from the development of nuclear explosive devices, should be available for peaceful purposes to all Parties to the Treaty, whether nuclear-weapon or non-nuclear-weapon States,

Convinced that, in furtherance of this principle, all Parties to the Treaty are entitled to participate in the fullest possible exchange of scientific information for, and to contribute alone or in co-operation with other States to, the further development of the applications of atomic energy for peaceful purposes,

Declaring their intention to achieve at the earliest possible date the cessation of the nuclear arms race and to undertake effective measures in the direction of nuclear disarmament,

Urging the co-operation of all States in the attainment of this objective,

Recalling the determination expressed by the Parties to the 1963 Treaty banning nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water in its Preamble to seek to achieve the discontinuance of all test explosions of nuclear weapons for all time and to continue negotiations to this end,

Desiring to further the easing of international tension and the strengthening of trust between States in order to facilitate the cessation of the manufacture of nuclear weapons, the liquidation of all their existing stockpiles, and the elimination from national arsenals of nuclear weapons and the means of their delivery pursuant to a Treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control,

Recalling that, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, States must refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations, and that the establishment and maintenance of international peace and security are to be promoted with the least diversion for armaments of the world’s human and economic resources,

Have agreed as follows:

Article I

Each nuclear-weapon State Party to the Treaty undertakes not to transfer to any recipient whatsoever nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices or control over such weapons or explosive devices directly, or indirectly; and not in any way to assist, encourage, or induce any non-nuclear-weapon State to manufacture or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices, or control over such weapons or explosive devices.

Article II

Each non-nuclear-weapon State Party to the Treaty undertakes not to receive the transfer from any transferor whatsoever of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices or of control over such weapons or explosive devices directly, or indirectly; not to manufacture or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices; and not to seek or receive any assistance in the manufacture of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices.

Article III

1. Each non-nuclear-weapon State Party to the Treaty undertakes to accept safeguards, as set forth in an agreement to be negotiated and concluded with the International Atomic Energy Agency in accordance with the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Agency’s safeguards system, for the exclusive purpose of verification of the fulfilment of its obligations assumed under this Treaty with a view to preventing diversion of nuclear energy from peaceful uses to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. Procedures for the safeguards required by this Article shall be followed with respect to source or special fissionable material whether it is being produced, processed or used in any principal nuclear facility or is outside any such facility. The safeguards required by this Article shall be applied on all source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within the territory of such State, under its jurisdiction, or carried out under its control anywhere.

2. Each State Party to the Treaty undertakes not to provide: (a) source or special fissionable material, or (b) equipment or material especially designed or prepared for the processing, use or production of special fissionable material, to any non-nuclear-weapon State for peaceful purposes, unless the source or special fissionable material shall be subject to the safeguards required by this Article.

3. The safeguards required by this Article shall be implemented in a manner designed to comply with Article IV of this Treaty, and to avoid hampering the economic or technological development of the Parties or international co-operation in the field of peaceful nuclear activities, including the international exchange of nuclear material and equipment for the processing, use or production of nuclear material for peaceful purposes in accordance with the provisions of this Article and the principle of safeguarding set forth in the Preamble of the Treaty.

4. Non-nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty shall conclude agreements with the International Atomic Energy Agency to meet the requirements of this Article either individually or together with other States in accordance with the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Negotiation of such agreements shall commence within 180 days from the original entry into force of this Treaty. For States depositing their instruments of ratification or accession after the 180-day period, negotiation of such agreements shall commence not later than the date of such deposit. Such agreements shall enter into force not later than eighteen months after the date of initiation of negotiations.

Article IV

1. Nothing in this Treaty shall be interpreted as affecting the inalienable right of all the Parties to the Treaty to develop research, production and use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes without discrimination and in conformity with Articles I and II of this Treaty.

2. All the Parties to the Treaty undertake to facilitate, and have the right to participate in, the fullest possible exchange of equipment, materials and scientific and technological information for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Parties to the Treaty in a position to do so shall also co-operate in contributing alone or together with other States or international organizations to the further development of the applications of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, especially in the territories of non-nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty, with due consideration for the needs of the developing areas of the world.

Article V

Each Party to the Treaty undertakes to take appropriate measures to ensure that, in accordance with this Treaty, under appropriate international observation and through appropriate international procedures, potential benefits from any peaceful applications of nuclear explosions will be made available to non-nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty on a non-discriminatory basis and that the charge to such Parties for the explosive devices used will be as low as possible and exclude any charge for research and development. Non-nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty shall be able to obtain such benefits, pursuant to a special international agreement or agreements, through an appropriate international body with adequate representation of non-nuclear-weapon States. Negotiations on this subject shall commence as soon as possible after the Treaty enters into force. Non-nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty so desiring may also obtain such benefits pursuant to bilateral agreements.

Article VI

Each of the Parties to the Treaty undertakes to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear disarmament, and on a treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control.

Article VII

Nothing in this Treaty affects the right of any group of States to conclude regional treaties in order to assure the total absence of nuclear weapons in their respective territories.

Article VIII

1. Any Party to the Treaty may propose amendments to this Treaty. The text of any proposed amendment shall be submitted to the Depositary Governments which shall circulate it to all Parties to the Treaty. Thereupon, if requested to do so by one-third or more of the Parties to the Treaty, the Depositary Governments shall convene a conference, to which they shall invite all the Parties to the Treaty, to consider such an amendment.

2. Any amendment to this Treaty must be approved by a majority of the votes of all the Parties to the Treaty, including the votes of all nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty and all other Parties which, on the date the amendment is circulated, are members of the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The amendment shall enter into force for each Party that deposits its instrument of ratification of the amendment upon the deposit of such instruments of ratification by a majority of all the Parties, including the instruments of ratification of all nuclear-weapon States Party to the Treaty and all other Parties which, on the date the amendment is circulated, are members of the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Thereafter, it shall enter into force for any other Party upon the deposit of its instrument of ratification of the amendment.

3. Five years after the entry into force of this Treaty, a conference of Parties to the Treaty shall be held in Geneva, Switzerland, in order to review the operation of this Treaty with a view to assuring that the purposes of the Preamble and the provisions of the Treaty are being realised. At intervals of five years thereafter, a majority of the Parties to the Treaty may obtain, by submitting a proposal to this effect to the Depositary Governments, the convening of further conferences with the same objective of reviewing the operation of the Treaty.

Article IX

1. This Treaty shall be open to all States for signature. Any State which does not sign the Treaty before its entry into force in accordance with paragraph 3 of this Article may accede to it at any time.

2. This Treaty shall be subject to ratification by signatory States. Instruments of ratification and instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Governments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of America, which are hereby designated the Depositary Governments.

3. This Treaty shall enter into force after its ratification by the States, the Governments of which are designated Depositaries of the Treaty, and forty other States signatory to this Treaty and the deposit of their instruments of ratification. For the purposes of this Treaty, a nuclear-weapon State is one which has manufactured and exploded a nuclear weapon or other nuclear explosive device prior to 1 January 1967.

4. For States whose instruments of ratification or accession are deposited subsequent to the entry into force of this Treaty, it shall enter into force on the date of the deposit of their instruments of ratification or accession.

5. The Depositary Governments shall promptly inform all signatory and acceding States of the date of each signature, the date of deposit of each instrument of ratification or of accession, the date of the entry into force of this Treaty, and the date of receipt of any requests for convening a conference or other notices.

6. This Treaty shall be registered by the Depositary Governments pursuant to Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.

Article X

1. Each Party shall in exercising its national sovereignty have the right to withdraw from the Treaty if it decides that extraordinary events, related to the subject matter of this Treaty, have jeopardized the supreme interests of its country. It shall give notice of such withdrawal to all other Parties to the Treaty and to the United Nations Security Council three months in advance. Such notice shall include a statement of the extraordinary events it regards as having jeopardized its supreme interests.

2. Twenty-five years after the entry into force of the Treaty, a conference shall be convened to decide whether the Treaty shall continue in force indefinitely, or shall be extended for an additional fixed period or periods. This decision shall be taken by a majority of the Parties to the Treaty.1

Article XI

This Treaty, the English, Russian, French, Spanish and Chinese texts of which are equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Depositary Governments. Duly certified copies of this Treaty shall be transmitted by the Depositary Governments to the Governments of the signatory and acceding States.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, duly authorized, have signed this Treaty.

DONE in triplicate, at the cities of London, Moscow and Washington, the first day of July, one thousand nine hundred and sixty-eight.

Traktat om ikke-spredning af kernevåben (ikkespredningstraktaten)

De stater, som afslutter denne traktat - i det følgende betegnet »deltagerne i traktaten« - og som tager i betragtning den ødelæggelse, som en kernevåbenkrig ville påføre hele menneskeheden, og den deraf følgende nødvendighed af at udfolde enhver mulig anstrengelse for at afvende faren for en sådan krig og for at tage forholdsregler til beskyttelse af folkenes sikkerhed, mener, at en spredning af kernevåben alvorligt ville øge faren for en kernevåbenkrig,

handler i overensstemmelse med De forenede Nationers generalforsamlings resolutioner, som opfordrer til indgåelse af en overenskomst om forebyggelse af en yderligere spredning af kernevåben,

forpligter sig til at samarbejde med henblik på at lette anvendelsen af Den Internationale Atomenergiorganisations kontrolforanstaltninger på fredelig nuklear virksomhed,

giver udtryk for deres støtte til forskning, udvikling og andre bestræbelser på inden for rammerne af Den Internationale Atomenergikontrolforanstaltninger at fremme anvendelsen af princippet om en effektiv kontrol med forsyningen af udgangsmaterialer og særlige spaltelige materialer ved hjælp af instrumenter og andre tekniske hjælpemidler på visse strategiske punkter,

bekræfter princippet om, at fordelene ved fredelig anvendelse af nuklear teknologi, herunder alle teknologiske biprodukter, som kernevåbenstater måtte skaffe sig ved udvikling af nukleare sprænglegemer, bør stå til rådighed til fredelige formål for alle deltagere i traktaten, uanset om disse besidder kernevåben eller ej,

er overbevist om, at alle deltagere i traktaten til fremme af dette princip er berettiget til at deltage i den størst mulige udveksling af videnskabelige oplysninger om og - hver for sig eller i samarbejde med andre stater - at bidrage til den videre udvikling af atomenergiens anvendelse til fredelige formål,

erklærer, at de har til hensigt på det tidligst mulige tidspunkt at nå frem til en standsning af kernevåbenkapløbet og at tage effektive forholdsregler i retning af kernevåbennedrustning,

indtrængende opfordrer alle stater til at samarbejde om at nå dette mål,

erindrer om den beslutning, som deltagerne i traktaten af 1963 om forbud mod kernevåbenforsøg i atmosfæren, det ydre rum og under vandet gav udtryk for i dennes præambel, om at søge at nå frem til en standsning af alle forsøgseksplosioner med kernevåben for bestandig og at videreføre forhandlinger i dette øjemed,

ønsker at fremme den internationale afspænding og at styrke tilliden mellem staterne for derigennem at lette muligheden for en standsning af kernevåbenfremstillingen, afvikling af alle bestående lagre af disse og en fjernelse fra nationale våbenarsenaler af kernevåben og deres fremføringsmidler i henhold til en traktat om almindelig og fuldstændig nedrustning under streng og effektiv international kontrol,

erindrer om, at staterne i henhold til De forenede Nationers Pagt skal afstå fra i deres internationale forbindelser at true med eller at anvende magt imod nogen stats territoriale integritet eller politiske uafhængighed eller på nogen anden måde, som er uforenelig med De forenede Nationers målsætning, samt at tilvejebringelse og opretholdelse af international fred og sikkerhed bør fremmes med mindst mulig anvendelse af verdens menneskelige og økonomiske ressourcer til rustninger,

er blevet enige om følgende:

Artikel I

Enhver i denne traktat deltagende kernevåbenstat forpligter sig til hverken direkte eller indirekte til nogen som helst modtager at overføre kernevåben eller andre nukleare sprænglegemer eller kontrol over sådanne våben eller sprænglegemer og ikke på nogen måde at bistå, opmuntre eller bevæge nogen stat, som ikke besidder kernevåben, til at fremstille eller på anden måde erhverve sådanne kernevåben eller andre nukleare sprænglegemer eller kontrol over sådanne våben eller sprænglegemer.

Artikel II

Enhver i denne traktat deltagende stat, som ikke besidder kernevåben, forpligter sig til hverken direkte eller indirekte fra nogen som helst leverandør at modtage overførsel af kernevåben eller andre nukleare sprænglegemer eller at modtage kontrol over sådanne våben eller sprænglegemer og ejheller at fremstille eller på anden måde erhverve kernevåben eller andre nukleare sprænglegemer eller at søge eller modtage nogen bistand til fremstilling af kernevåben eller andre nukleare sprænglegemer.

Artikel III

1. Enhver i denne traktat deltagende stat, som ikke besidder kernevåben, forpligter sig til at godtage sådanne kontrolforanstaltninger, som måtte blive foreskrevet i en overenskomst, som skal forhandles og afsluttes med Den Internationale Atomenergiorganisation i overensstemmelse med Den Internationale Atomenergiorganisations statutter og Organisationens kontrolsystem med det ene formål at kontrollere opfyldelsen af de forpligtelser, den har påtaget sig i medfør af denne traktat med henblik på at forhindre, at kerneenergi til fredelige formål anvendes til kernevåben eller andre nukleare sprænglegemer. Fremgangsmåden ved anvendelsen af de kontrolforanstaltninger, som kræves i medfør af denne artikel, skal følges for så vidt angår udgangsmateriale og særligt spalteligt materiale, uanset om dette fremstilles, forarbejdes eller anvendes i et egentligt nukleart anlæg eller befinder sig uden for et sådant anlæg. De kontrolforanstaltninger, som kræves i medfør af denne artikel skal anvendes på alle udgangsmaterialer eller særlige spaltelige materialer ved al fredelig kernefysisk virksomhed, som udøves inden for den pågældende stats territorium, under dens jurisdiktion eller på et hvilket som helst sted under dens kontrol.

2. Enhver i denne traktat deltagende stat forpligter sig til ikke at forsyne nogen ikke-kernevåbenstat med a) udgangsmateriale eller særligt spalteligt materiale eller b) udstyr eller materiale, som er særligt beregnet eller behandlet til forarbejdning, anvendelse eller fremstilling af særligt spalteligt materiale til fredelige formål, medmindre udgangsmaterialet eller det særligt spaltelige materiale underkastes de kontrolforanstaltninger, som kræves i medfør af denne artikel.

3. De kontrolforanstaltninger, som kræves i medfør af denne artikel, skal iværksættes på en måde, som er i overensstemmelse med denne traktats artikel IV, og som ikke hæmmer deltagernes økonomiske eller tekniske udvikling eller det internationale samarbejde om fredelig nuklear virksomhed, herunder den internationale udveksling af nukleart materiale og udstyr til forarbejdning, anvendelse eller fremstilling af nukleart materiale til fredelige formål i overensstemmelse med bestemmelserne i denne artikel og med de i præamblen anførte kontrolprincipper.

4. De i denne traktat deltagende stater, som ikke besidder kernevåben, skal til opfyldelse af kravene i denne artikel indgå overenskomster med Den Internationale Atomenergiorganisation enten hver for sig eller sammen med andre stater i overensstemmelse med Den Internationale Atomenergiorganisations statutter. Forhandlinger om sådanne overenskomster skal påbegyndes inden 180 dage fra denne traktats oprindelige ikrafttræden. Stater, som deponerer deres ratifikations- eller tiltrædelsesinstrumenter efter udløbet af 180-dages perioden, skal senest på deponeringsdatoen påbegynde forhandlinger om sådanne overenskomster. Sådanne overenskomster skal træde i kraft senest 18 måneder efter den dato, da forhandlingerne påbegyndtes.

Artikel IV

1. Intet i denne traktat skal fortolkes som noget indgreb i den umistelige ret, som tilkommer alle i traktaten deltagende stater, til uden forskelsbehandling og i overensstemmelse med artikel I og II i denne traktat at udvikle forskning, fremstilling og anvendelse af kerneenergi til fredelige formål.

2. Alle deltagere i denne traktat forpligter sig til at lette og har ret til at deltage i den størst mulige udveksling af udstyr, materialer til samt videnskabelige og teknologiske oplysninger vedrørende fredelig anvendelse af kerneenergi. De deltagere i traktaten, som er i stand dertil, skal også samarbejde om at bidrage, enkeltvis eller sammen med andre stater eller internationale organisationer, til den videre udvikling af kerneenergiens anvendelse til fredelige formål, særlig på territorier tilhørende deltagere, som er ikke-kernevåbenstater, med tilbørlig hensyntagen til behovene i de områder af verden, som er under udvikling.

Artikel V

Enhver deltager i denne traktat forpligter sig til at tage passende skridt til sikring af, at det mulige udbytte af en hvilken som helst fredelig anvendelse af nukleare eksplosioner i overensstemmelse med denne traktat, under passende internationalt opsyn og gennem egnede internationale fremgangsmåder, uden forskelsbehandling gøres tilgængeligt for de i traktaten deltagende stater, som ikke besidder kernevåben, og at den betaling, som afkræves sådanne deltagere for de anvendte sprænglegemer, bliver så lav som muligt og ikke omfatter nogen betaling for forskning og udvikling. De i traktaten deltagende stater, som ikke besidder kernevåben, skal i medfør af særlig international overenskomst eller overenskomster kunne opnå et sådant udbytte gennem et egnet internationalt organ med rimelig repræsentation af stater, som ikke besidder kernevåben. Forhandlinger herom skal påbegyndes snarest muligt efter traktatens ikrafttræden. De i traktaten deltagende stater, som ikke besidder kernevåben, skal, såfremt de måtte ønske det, også kunne opnå et sådant udbytte i medfør af tosidede aftaler.

Artikel VI

Enhver deltager i denne traktat forpligter sig til i god tro at fortsætte forhandlingerne om effektive foranstaltninger til en snarlig standsning af kernevåbenkapløbet og til kernevåbennedrustning samt om en traktat om almindelig og fuldstændig nedrustning under streng og effektiv international kontrol.

Artikel VII

Intet i denne traktat berører nogen gruppe af staters ret til at afslutte regionale traktater med henblik på at skabe fuld sikkerhed for, at der ikke findes kernevåben på deres respektive territorier.

Artikel VIII

1. Enhver deltager i denne traktat kan foreslå ændringer i denne. Teksten til ethvert ændringsforslag skal forelægges depositarmagternes regeringer, som skal rundsende den til alle deltagere i traktaten. Derpå skal depositarmagternes regeringer på begæring af mindst en tredjedel af deltagerne i traktaten sammenkalde en konference til behandling af ændringsforslaget, hvortil alle deltagere i traktaten skal indbydes.

2. Enhver ændring i denne traktat skal godkendes af et flertal af samtlige deltageres stemmer, herunder af alle de i traktaten deltagende kernevåbenstater, og af alle andre deltagere, som er medlemmer af styrelsesrådet for Den Internationale Atomenergiorganisation på den dato, da ændringsforslaget rundsendes. Ændringen skal træde i kraft for enhver deltager, som deponerer sit ratifikationsinstrument vedrørende ændringen, når et flertal af deltagerne, herunder alle de i traktaten deltagende kernevåbenstater og alle andre deltagere, som på datoen for ændringsforslagets rundsendelse er medlemmer af styrelsesrådet for Den Internationale Atomenergiorganisation, har deponeret deres ratifikationsinstrumenter. Derefter træder den i kraft for enhver anden deltager ved deponeringen af dennes ratifikationsinstrument vedrørende ændringen.

3. Fem år efter denne traktats ikrafttræden skal deltagerne i traktaten afholde en konference i Geneeve, Schweiz, for at gennemgå hvordan traktaten virker med henblik på at sikre, at præamblens målsætning og traktatens bestemmelser virkeliggøres. Derefter kan et flertal af deltagerne i traktaten med fem års mellemrum ved at fremsætte forslag herom til depositarmagternes regeringer opnå indkaldelse til yderligere konferencer med det tilsvarende formål at gennemgå. hvordan traktaten virker.

Artikel IX

1. Denne traktat skal stå åben for undertegnelse af alle stater. Enhver stat, som ikke undertegner traktaten før dens ikrafttræden i medfør af denne artikels stk. 3, kan tiltræde den på et hvilket som helst tidspunkt.

2. Denne traktat skal ratificeres af signatarmagterne. Ratifikationsinstrumenter og tiltrædelsesinstrumenter skal deponeres hos regeringerne i Amerikas forenede Stater, De socialistiske Sovjetrepublikkers Union og Det forenede Kongerige Storbritannien og Nordirland, som herved udpeges som depositarmagter.

3. Denne traktat træder i kraft, når depositarmagterne og 40 andre af traktatens signatarmagter har ratificeret den og deponeret deres ratifikationsinstrumenter. I denne traktat skal en kernevåbenstat forstås som en stat, som inden 1. januar 1967 har fremstillet og bragt et kernevåben eller et andet nukleart sprænglegeme til eksplosion.

4. For stater, hvis ratifikations- eller tiltrædelsesinstrumenter deponeres efter denne traktats ikrafttræden, træder den i kraft på datoen for deponeringen af deres ratifikations- eller tiltrædelsesinstrumenter.

5. Depositarmagterne skal omgående underrette alle undertegnende og tiltrædende stater om datoen for hver undertegnelse, datoen for deponering af hvert ratifikations- eller tiltrædelsesinstrument, datoen for denne traktats ikrafttræden og datoen for modtagelsen af enhver begæring om indkaldelse af en konference eller af andre meddelelser.

6. Denne traktat skal af depositarmagterne registreres i henhold til artikel 102 i De forenede Nationers Pagt.

Artikel X

1. Enhver deltager skal under udøvelsen af sin nationale suverænitet have ret til at opsige traktaten, hvis den fastslår, at ekstraordinære begivenheder, der står i forbindelse med denne traktats indhold, har bragt dens eget lands højeste interesser i fare. Den pågældende deltager skal med tre måneders varsel give alle de øvrige deltagere i traktaten samt De forenede Nationers Sikkerhedsråd meddelelse om en sådan opsigelse. Meddelelsen skal indeholde en redegørelse for de ekstraordinære begivenheder, som den anser for at have bragt dens højeste interesser i fare.

2. 25 år efter traktatens ikrafttræden skal der indkaldes til en konference, der skal afgøre, om traktaten skal forblive i kraft på ubestemt tid, eller om den skal forlænges for yderligere en bestemt periode eller bestemte perioder. Denne afgørelse skal træffes af et flertal af deltaerne i traktaten.

Artikel XI

Denne traktat, hvis engelske, russiske, franske, spanske og kinesiske tekster har samme gyldighed, skal deponeres depositarmagternes arkiver. Behørigt bekræftede kopier af denne traktat skal af depositarmagternes regeringer tilstilles de undertegnende og tiltrædende staters regeringer.

Til bekræftelse heraf har undertegnede behørigt befuldmægtigede undertegnet denne traktat.

Udfærdiget i tre eksemplarer i London, Moskva og Washington den første juli nitten hundrede og otteogtreds.


Agreement Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Measures to Improve the U.S.A.-USSR Direct Communications Link, 806 U.N.T.S. 402, entered into force Sept. 30, 1971.

Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Seabed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof, 955 U.N.T.S. 115, entered into force May 18, 1972.
Traktat om forbud mod anbringelse af kernevåben og andre masseødelæggelsesvåben på havbunden og i dens undergrund. Beretning til udenrigsministeren, 19671, s. 129-133 og Bekendtgørelse af traktat af 11 februar 1971 om forbud mod anbringelse af kernevåben og andre masseødelæggelsesvåben på havbunden og i dens undergrund, 1976.
Manual on Technical Aspects of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. / Manuel sur les aspects techniques de la Convention des Nations Unies sur le droit de la mer. 2006. - 215 s. - http://www.iho.int/iho_pubs/CB/C-51_Ed4-EN.pdf

See also: OSPAR : Convention for the Protection of the Marine environment of the North-East Atlantic, London: May 16-17, 2000.

Bekendtgørelse om andre landes tiltrædelse af traktaten af 11. februar 1971 om forbud mod anbringelse af kernevåben og andre masseødelæggelsesvåben på havbunden og i dens undergrund
- https://www.retsinformation.dk/Forms/R0710.aspx?id=70458
'I tilslutning til udenrigsministeriets bekendtgørelser nr. 77 af 3. september 1976 og nr. 11 af 23. februar 1981, Lovtidende C, meddeles det, at nedennævnte lande med virkning fra de anførte datoer har ratificeret traktaten af 11. februar 1971 om forbud mod anbringelse af kernevåben og andre masseødelæggelsesvåben på havbunden og i dens undergrund.
Den centralafrikanske Republik .................. 9. juli 1981
Luxembourg ...................................... 11. november 1982
Desuden har Salomon-øerne den 17. juni 1981 afgivet en erklæring om sin succession i traktaten.
Udenrigsministeriet, den 4. marts 1983

Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems, 944 U.N.T.S. 13, entered into force Oct. 3, 1972.

Memorandum Of Understanding Relating To The Treaty Between The United States Of America And The Union Of Soviet Socialist Republics On The Limitation Of Anti Ballistic Missile Systems of May 26, 1972

First Agreed Statement Relating To The Treaty Between The United States Of America And The Union Of Soviet Socialist Republics On The Limitation Of Anti Ballistic Missile Systems of May 26, 1972

Common Understandings Related To The First Agreed Statement Of September 26, 1997, Relating To The Treaty Between The United States Of America And The Union Of Soviet Socialist Republics On The Limitation Of Anti Ballistic Missile Systems of May 26, 1972.
- http://www.armscontrol.org/ACT/sept97/docsept.htm#doc5

Second Agreed Statement Relating To The Treaty Between The United States Of America And The Union Of Soviet Socialist Republics On The Limitation Of Anti Ballistic Missile Systems of May 26, 1972.
- http://www.armscontrol.org/ACT/sept97/docsept.htm#doc6

Common Understandings Related To The Second Agreed Statement Of  September 26, 1997, Relating To The Treaty Between The United States Of America And The Union Of Soviet Socialist Republics On The Limitation Of Anti Ballistic Missile Systems Of May 26, 1972. - http://www.armscontrol.org/ACT/sept97/docsept.htm#doc7

Agreement On Confidence Building Measures Related To Systems To Counter Ballistic Missiles Other Than Strategic Ballistic Missiles. - http://www.armscontrol.org/ACT/sept97/docsept.htm#doc8

Joint Statement On The Annual Exchange Of Information On The Status Of Plans And Programs With Respect To Systems To Counter Ballistic Missiles Other Than Strategic Ballistic Missiles. - http://www.armscontrol.org/ACT/sept97/docsept.htm#doc9

Statement by the United States of America On Plans With Respect To Systems To Counter Ballistic Missiles Other Than Strategic Ballistic Missiles. - http://www.armscontrol.org/ACT/sept97/docsept.htm#doc10

Agreement Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Prevention of Nuclear War, 24 U.S.T. 1478, entered into force June 22, 1973.

Protocol to the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems, 27 U.S.T. 1645, entered into force May 24, 1976.

Agreement Between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the United States, 32 U.S.T., 3059, entered into force Dec. 9, 1980.

Agreement Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics to Expand the U.S.-USSR Direct Communications Link, T.I.A.S. 11428, entered into force July 17, 1984. Agreement Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Notifications of Launches of Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles and Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missiles, 27 I.L.M. 1200 (1988), entered into force May 31, 1988.

Protocol on Procedures Governing the Elimination of the Missile Systems Subject to the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Elimination of their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles, 27 I.L.M. 183 (1988).

Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Elimination of their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles, 27 I.L.M. 84 (1988), entered into force June 1, 1988.

The Intermediate-range Nuclear Force Treaty (IMF). Signed December 8, 1988.

Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests, 13 I.L.M. 906, entered into force Dec. 11, 1990.

Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes, 15 I.L.M. 891, entered into force Dec. 11, 1990.

Protocol To The Treaty Between The United States Of America And The Russian Federation On Further Reduction And Limitation Of Strategic Offensive Arms of January 3, 1993

Letter From Foreign Minister Yevgeniy Primakov To Secretary of State Madeleine Albright On Early Deactivation

South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty, 24 I.L.M. 1442, entered into force Dec. 11, 1986.

Human Rights Committee, General Comment 6, Article 6 (Sixteenth session, 1982), Compilation of General Comments and General Recommendations Adopted by Human Rights Treaty Bodies, U.N. Doc. HRI/GEN/1/Rev.1 at 6 (1994).

Legality of the Use by a State of Nuclear Weapons in Armed Conflict, International Court of Justice, Advisory Opinion of 8 July 1996

Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, T.I.A.S. 11080, entered into force Feb. 8, 1997.

d. Kemiske og biologiske våben

Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, 94 L.N.T.S. 65, entered into force Feb. 8, 1928.
(Genève)-Protokollen af 17. juni 1925 mod anvendelsen til krigsbrug af kvælende, giftige eller lignende gasarter samt af baktiologiske krigsmidler. Kilde. Beretning til udenrigsministeren, 1968 s. 174-175.

Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction, 1015 U.N.T.S. 163, entered into force March 26, 1975.
Konventionen om forbud mod udvikling, fremstilling og oplagring af baktiologiske (biologiske) toksinvåben samt om disse våbens tilintetgørelse.


Convention on the Prohibitions of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, 32 I.L.M. 800 (1993).


The Chemical Weapons Convention. Entry into force: 29 April 1997
http://www.un.org/Depts/dda/WMD/cwc/

Guided tour of the Convention on the Prohibitions of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction.

4. Fred, sikkerhed og samarbejde

a. Generelt

Final Act of the Conference on Security and Co-Operation in Europe, Helsinki 1975.

Concluding Document of the Madrid Meeting 1980 of Representatives of the Participating States of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe, Held on the Basis of the Provisions of the Final Act Relating to the Follow-up to the Conference, Madrid 1983.

Document of the Stockholm Conference on Confidence and Security Building Measures and Disarmament in Europe Convened in Accordance with the Relevant Provisions of the Concluding Document of the Madrid Meeting of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, signed at Stockholm Sept. 19, 1986, , 26 I.L.M. 190 (1987).

Document of the Stockholm Conference on Confidence and Security Building Measures and Disarmament in Europe Convened in Accordance with the Relevant Provisions of the Concluding Document of the Madrid Meeting of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, 26 I.L.M. 195 (1987). Annex I.

Concluding Document of the Vienna Meeting 1986 of Representatives of the Participating States of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe, Held on the Basis of the Provisions of the Final Act Relating to the Follow-Up Conference, Vienna 1989.

Helsinki Summit Declaration, The Challenges of Change, 1992.

Budapest Document, Towards A Genuine Partnership In A New Era, DOC.RC/1/95 Corrected version 21 December 1994.

b. Regional

Afrika

The African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty
Traktat om Afrika som atomvåbenfri zone trådt i kraft 12. august 2009.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 733 (Implementing an Arms Embargo on Somalia), S.C. res. 733, 47 U.N. SCOR at 55, U.N. Doc. S/RES/733 (1992).

United Nations Security Council Resolution 794 (Granting the Secretary-General Discretion in the Further Employment of Personnel of the United Nations Operation in Somalia), S.C. res 794, 47 U.N. SCOR at 63, U.N. Doc. S/RES/794 (1992).

Amerika

The Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance

Europa

The North Atlantic Treaty, 34 U.N.T.S. 243, entered into force Aug. 24, 1949.

NATO-traktaten, kommenteret udgave.

European Convention for the Peaceful Settlement of Disputes, Strasbourg, 29.IV.1957.

Concluding Document of the Madrid Meeting 1980 of Representatives of the Participating States of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe, Held on the Basis of the Provisions of the Final Act Relating to the Follow-up to the Conference, Madrid 1983.

Concluding Document of the Vienna Meeting 1986 of Representatives of the Participating States of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe, Held on the Basis of the Provisions of the Final Act Relating to the Follow-Up Conference, Vienna 1989.

Charter of Paris for a New Europe (1990).

United Nations Security Council Resolution 712 (Implementing an Arms Embargo on Yugoslavia), S.C. res 712, U.N. Doc. S/RES/712 (1991).

United Nations Security Council Resolution 743 (Establishing a United Nations Protection Force "Unprofor", S.C. res. 743, 47 U.N. SCOR at 42, U.N. Doc. S/RES/743 (1992).

United Nations Security Council Resolution 757 (Implementing Trade Embargo on Yugoslavia), S.C. res. 757, 47 U.N. SCOR at 13, U.N. Doc S/RES/757 (1992).

Mellemøsten

United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 (Concerning Principles for a Just and Lasting Peace in the Middle East), S.C. res. 242, U.N. Doc. S/RES/242 (1967).

United Nations Security Resolution 338 (Concerning the October War), S.C. res. 338, U.N. Doc. S/RES/338 (1973).

A Framework for Peace in the Middle East Agreed at Camp David, 17 I.L.M. 1466 (1978).

United Nations Security Council Resolution 660 (Condemning the Invasion of Kuwait by Iraq), S.C. res. 660, 45 U.N. SCOR at 19, U.N. Doc. S/RES/660 (1990).

United Nations Security Council Resolution 678 (Concerning the Implementation of Security Council Resolution 660), S.C. res. 678, 45 U.N. SCOR at 27, U.N. Doc. S/RES/678 (1991).

United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 (Concerning the Restoration of Peace and Security in Iraq and Kuwait), S.C. res. 687, 46 U.N. SCOR at _, U.N. Doc. S/RES/687 (1991).

5. Krigsforbrydelser, forbrydelser mod menneskeheden og tortur

"Charter of the International Military Tribunal (IMT)", in Agreement for the Prosecution and Punishment of the Major War Criminals of the European Axis (London Agreement), August 8, 1945, 58 Stat. 1544, E.A.S. No. 472, 82 U.N.T.S. 280.
AGREEMENT by the Government of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, the Provisional Government of the FRENCH REPUBLIC, the Government of the UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND and the Government of the UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS for the Prosecution and Punishment of the MAJOR WAR CRIMINALS of the EUROPEAN AXIS.

Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 78 U.N.T.S. 277, entered into force Jan. 12, 1951.

Convention on the Non-Applicability of Statutory Limitations to War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity, G.A. res. 2391 (XXIII), annex, 23 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 18) at 40, U.N. Doc. A/7218 (1968).

Optional Protocol to the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations.

Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, G.A. res. 39/46, [annex, 39 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 51) at 197, U.N. Doc. A/39/51 (1984)], entered into force June 26, 1987.
http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/h2catoc.htm

Principles of International Co-Operation in the Detection, Arrest, Extradition and Punishment of Persons Guilty of War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity, G.A. res. 3074 (XXVIII), 28 U.N. GAOR Supp. (30A) at 78, U.N. Doc. A/9030/Add.1 (1973).

United Nations Security Council Resolution 771 (Concerning Information on Violations of International Humanitarian Law in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia), S.C. res. 771, 47 U.N. SCOR at 25, U.N. Doc. S/RES/771 (1992). United Nations Security Council Resolution 780 (Establishing a Commission of Experts to Examine and Analyze Information Submitted Pursuant to Resolution 771), S.C. res. 780, 47 U.N. SCOR at 36, U.N. Doc. S/RES/780 (1992).Ê

Statute of the International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, U.N. Doc. S/25704 at 36, annex (1993) and S/25704/Add.1 (1993), adopted by Security Council on 25 May 1993, U.N. Doc. S/RES/827 (1993).

United Nations Security Council Resolution 827 on Establishing an International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia, S.C. res. 827, 48 U.N. SCOR at _, U.N. Doc. S/RES/827 (1992).

United Nations Security Council Resolution 955 Establishing the International Tribunal for Rwanda (with Annexed Statute), S.C. res. 955, 49 U.N. SCOR at _, U.N. Doc. S/RES/955 (1994).

FNs torturkonvention / Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.

Den internationale kriminaldomstol i Haag

Grundlæggende dokumenter / Basic documents

Dayton Peace Accords on Bosnia (1996).
http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/icty/dayton/daytonaccord.html

Statute of the International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, U.N. Doc. S/25704 at 36, annex (1993) and S/25704/Add.1 (1993), adopted by Security Council on 25 May 1993, U.N. Doc. S/RES/827 (1993).
http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/icty/statute.html

Statute of the Tribunal, Resolution 827, adopted by the Security Council at its 3217th meeting on 25 May 1993, U.N. Doc. S/RES/827 (1993).
http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/icty/resolution28.html

Rules of Procedure and Evidence, U.N. Doc. IT/32/Rev.7 (1996), entered into force 14 March 1994, amendments adopted 8 January 1996.
http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/icty/ct-rules7.html

Rules of Detention (1995).
http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/icty/detention-rules.html

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