William Edward Burghardt Du Bois

Du Bois, William Edward Burghardt

F. 1868 D. 1963
Amerikansk pacifistisk historiker, underviser og borgerrettighedsforkæmper. Modstander af fascisme, imperialisme og rascisme.
Uddannet på Harvard University. Doktor­afhandling: The Suppression of the African Slave Trade in America, 1896.
Fra 1897 to 1910, underviste Du Bois i økonomi og historie ved universitetet i Atlanta.
Stiftende medlem af the Niagara Movement 1906 som videreudvikles til NAACP i 1909.
Redaktør af NAACPs the Crisis magazine, 1909-1934.
Anbefaler i 1942 sorte at deltage i anden verdenskrig.
Efter anden verdenskrig bliver W.E.B Du Bois viceformand for the Council on African Affaires samt medlem af det socialistiske amerikanske arbejderparti.
Taler om Peace, Freedom's Road for Opressed Peoples i marts 1949.
Deltager i Den Videnskabelige og kulturelle konference for verdensfred i New York også marts 1949.
I 1950 bliver W.E.B Du Bois formand for the Peace Information Centre som indsamlede underskrifter til Verdensfredsrådets Stockholm-appel. Du Bois anklages af det amerikanske justitsministerium for at være udenlandsk agent: 'William Edward Burghardt DuBois, en 82-årig lærd neger og historiker, var formand for Fredsinformationscentret, der havde ansvaret for andragende om fred kampagnen. I denne egenskab blev han bedt om at registrere sig som fremmed agent af Justitsministeriet den 23. august 1950. Han nægtede at gøre det, og blev efterfølgende tiltalt for hans afvisning af en føderal grand jury den 9 februar 1951.
DuBois har været en tilhænger af bevægelser som støttede den sovjetiske udenrigspolitik i over 20 år fra den tid, han var medlem af det nationale udvalg for All-American Anti-imperialistiske League i 1928 sammen med sådanne erklærede kommunister som William Z. Foster og Harry Gannes, til i dag. I 1933 var han medlem af den amerikanske Komité for kampen mod krig / American Committee for Struggle Against War sammen med de samme William Z. Foster. I 1946 blev han medlem af New York udvalget for at vinde freden / the New York Committee to Win the Peace ...
Den bevægelse, som blomstrede frem under det kommunistiske inspiration og så som Verdensfredskongressen / World Peace Congress fandt i WEB DuBois en aktiv tilhænger fra starten. Han var en sponsor af den videnskabelige og kulturelle konference for verdensfred afholdt på Hotel Waldorf Astoria den 25-27 marts 1949, arrangeret af Det Nationale Råd for Kunst, videnskab og erhverv / National Council of the Arts, Sciences and Professions, som Mr. DuBois var næstformand for. He was a member of the sponsoring committee of the meeting of the World Peace Congress held in Paris April 20 to 23, 1949, and served as cochairman. He was a sponsor of the American Continental Congress for World Peace held in Mexico City, September 5 to 10, 1949, under the same Communist auspices. Again he was a special guest of the Soviet Peace Congress held in Moscow in the fall of 1949. He spent 10 days in Moscow, traveling thereafter to the Communist cities of Warsaw and Prague. At the close of February 1950, he was a member of a welcoming committee for a delegation from the World Peace Congress visiting the United States, members of which were excluded by direction of the State Department because of their Communist records. In September 1950 he was a speaker at the International Students Congress in Prague which cooperated with the World Peace Congress movement. Mr. DuBois has never to the knowledge of the Committee on Un-American Activities avowed membership in the Communist Party. In a speech before the House Foreign Aflairs Committee, he declared flatly, "I am a fellow traveler with Communists insofar as they believe the great ideals of socialism."', registreres det på s. 43 i det amerikanske senats kommittee for uamerikansk virksomhed i 1951.
Selv om W.E.B Du Bois frifindes ved en retssag i november 1951, dømmes han skyldig i den amerikanske offentlighed.
'The trial began on November 8, with Federal Judge Matthew F. McGuire presiding and with eight Negroes and four whites in the jury box. Vito Marcantonio served without fee as chief defense counsel. After five days in court, Judge McGuire entered a verdict of acquittal for all five defendants and for the Center. The prosecution disclaimed any intention of showing that the Soviet Union was operating behind the Paris committee, but it succeeded in establishing the parallels between the Center s activities and those of the World Council for Peace in Paris. Marcantonio insisted that parallelism did not establish agency, and on this crucial point Judge McGuire agreed. The court told the prosecution that it had to establish a "nexus" beyond a reasonable doubt. When it failed to establish a direct link between the Peace Center and the Paris committee, McGuire made his ruling without hear ing any of the defense. DuBois was free. Poorer, but free.' Broderick, Francis L.: W.E.B. Du Bois s. 218.
Størstedelen af de amerikanske medier nægter at publicere hans værker under den kolde krig. Overåget af FBI 1918-1921. Medlem af USAs kommunistparti 1961! Emigrerer til Ghana i oktober 1961.
Se også: Martin Luther King Jr. ; Paul Robeson ; the Universal Negro Improvement Association.

Litteratur

Crisis (1912), Editor: Nov. 1910-July 1934, W.E.B. Du Bois, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People,
http://www.archive.org/details/crisis0506dubo
Crisis (1921), - http://www.archive.org/details/crisis2324dubo
Crisis (1922) - http://www.archive.org/details/crisis2526dubo
Du Bois, W. E. B.: Autobiography of W.E.B Du Bois : A Soliloquy on Viewing My Life from the Last Decade of Its First Century.
- New York : Internatonal Publishers, 1968. - 448 s. [Haves: Frederiksberg Kommunes Biblioteker].
Du Bois, W. E. B.: Black Reconstruction, 1935.
The correspondence of W. E. B. Du Bois; volume 3, Selections, 1944 -1963.
Amherst University of Massachusetts Press 1978.
Du Bois, W. E. B.: The college-bred negro; report of a social study made under the direction of Atlanta University; together with the proceedings of the fifth Conference for the Study of the Negro Problems, held at Atlanta University, May 29-30, 1900 (1900).
http://www.archive.org/details/collegebrednegror00dubo
Du Bois, W. E. B.: Dusk of Dawn, 1940.
Du Bois, W. E. B.: Economic co-operation among Negro Americans. Report of a social study made by Atlanta University under the patronage of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. together with the proceedings of the 12th Conference for the Study of the Negro Problems, held at Atlanta University, on Tuesday, May the 28th, 1907 (1907).
http://www.archive.org/details/economiccooper00duborich
Du Bois, W. E. B.: The health and physique of the Negro American : report of a social study made under the direction of Atlanta University : together with the Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference for the Study of the Negro Problems, held at Atlanta university, on May the 29th, 1906 (1906).
http://www.archive.org/details/healthphysiqueof00dubo
Du Bois, W. E. B.: In Battle for Peace : The Story of My 83rd Birthday. - New York: Kraus-Thomson Organization Limited, 1976 ; 1987. 198 s. ; Oxford University Press, 2007.
- ISBN 0-527-25265-4 [Haves: Statsbiblioteket].
Du Bois, W. E. B.: John Brown 1909 - http://www.archive.org/details/johnbrown00dubo
Du Bois, W. E. B.: The negro artisan. Report of a social study made under the direction of Atlanta University; together with the Proceedings of the Seventh Conference for the Study of the Negro Problems, held at Atlanta University, on May 27th, 1902 (1902).
http://www.archive.org/details/negroartisanrepo07dubo
Du Bois, W. E. B.: The negro church; report of a social study made under the direction of Atlanta University; together with the Proceedings of the eighth Conference for the Study of Negro Problems, held at Atlanta University, May 26th, 1903 (1903). http://www.archive.org/details/negrochurchrepor00dubo
Du Bois, W. E. B.: The negro in business; a report of a social study made under the direction of Atlanta university; together with the proceedings of the fourth Conference for the study of the Negro problems, held at Atlanta university, May 30-31, 1899 (1899).
http://www.archive.org/details/negroinbusiness00boisgoog
Du Bois, W. E. B.: The Negro in the South; his economic progress in relation to his moral and religious development. Being the William Levi Bull lectures for the year 1907 (1970).
http://www.archive.org/details/negroinsouthhis00boisgoog
Du Bois, W. E. B.: A Negro schoolmaster in the new South, 1899. - http://www.archive.org/details/negroschoolmaste00dubo Du Bois, W. E. B.: The Philadelphia Negro, 1896 ; 1899. - http://www.archive.org/details/philadelphianeg05eatogoog
Du Bois, W. E. B.: The Souls of Black Folks, 1903. - http://www.archive.org/details/thesoulsofblackf00408gut
Du Bois, W. E. B.: The Suppression of the African Slave Trade to the United States of America, 1638-1870.
- http://www.archive.org/details/thesuppressionof17700gut
Du Bois, W. E. B.: The World and Africa, 1946.
Du Bois, W. E. B.: Worlds of color (1961) - http://www.archive.org/details/worldsofcolor00dubo
Broderick, Francis L.: W.E.B. Du Bois : Negro leader in a time of crisis.
- Stanford : Stanford University Press, 1959. 259 s.
Hynes, Gerald C.: A Biographical Sketch of W.E.B. DuBois.
Marable, Manning: Peace and Black Liberation : The Contributions of W.E.B Du Bois. I: Scence & Society, 1983-1984 s. 385-405.


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