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Japans våbenhandel

Japanske våbenfabrikker, våbenhandel og våbentransporter: / Weapon Factories, arms trade and -transport / Les fabriques d'armes, le commerce des armes et de transport / Las fábricas de armas, tráfico de armas y -transporte / Waffenfabriken, Waffenhandel und Verkehr:
Militærudgifter / Military, expenditure
Trends in World Military Expenditure, 2014. / : Sam Perlo-Freeman, et al. SIPRI Fact Sheet, 2015
Rustningskontrol:
The Arms Trade Treaty, 2013.
- http://www.un.org/disarmament/ATT/
/ Bekendtgørelse af traktat af 2. april 2013 om våbenhandel.
'Den 3. juni 2013 undertegnede Danmark De Forenede Nationers våbenhandelstraktat, som vedtaget i New York den 2. april 2013.'
Overview of Japan’s Export Controls (Third Edition) CISTEC 2012
Japan, a responsible member of the international community, exercises robust export controls contributing to the maintenance of world peace and security. Under the Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Act, it implements list control and catch-all control for the purpose of preventing proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, destabilizing accumulation of conventional arms, and terrorism.
In addition, Japan strictly prohibits arms exports, making the country unique in its control policy. As proclaimed in its Constitution, Japan as a peace-loving nation maintains a national credo to avoid intensifying international disputes in any way. Such a credo led to the policy guideline of the “Three Principles on Arms Exports,” based on which the government has since been prohibiting exports of arms (see Article 4-1-2). (Note, however, that the Japanese government, on 27 December 2011, announced its ground-breaking decision to lift this long-standing national policy.)
The country's export controls date back to 1952 when it joined COCOM, the first multilateral export control regime. The genesis of the current Japanese system, however, is the so-called “Toshiba Machinery Incident” of 1987 that created an international uproar. Dealt with this incident, the government drastically enhanced the controls, ordering exporting companies to establish an appropriate system based on Internal Compliance Program (ICP). Since then Japan has been implementing rigorous controls in consistent with the international standard and norms....
4-1-2. The Three Principles on Arms Exports and the Policy of Arms Export Ban As mentioned at the beginning, the Japanese government has been taking a tough stance against arms exports. So far, arms exports have been totally prohibited with limited exceptions.
This policy is based on the “Three Principles on Arms Exports,” a resolution the Japanese government declared in 1967. The government, with that resolution, prohibited arms exports to the following three categories of countries:
(1) Communist bloc countries,
(2) Countries subject to arms embargo under UN Security Council Resolutions, and
(3) Countries involving in or likely to involve in international conflicts.
Fabrikker:
Kawasaki Heavy Industries
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Toshiba Machinery Corporation
Den japanske våbenindustri kan inddeles i tre perioder: Før og efter anden verdenskrig. Efter japanernes tabte deltagelse i anden verdenskrig, lå størstedelen af våbenindustrien i ruiner. I perioden 1967-2014 praksiserede Japan et eksportforbud mod
(1) kommunistblokkens lande,
(2) Lande omfattet af våbenembargoer i henhold til Sikkerhedsrådets resolutioner, og
(3) Lande, der involverer i eller sandsynligvis vil blive inddraget i internationale konflikter
'Emergence of Modern Japan:Kyushu, Yamaguchi', 2009
- http://www.kyuyama.jp/action/teigensyoE.pdf
Sample: Area 2. Shuseikan pioneer factory complex Kagoshima Prefecture, Kyûshû region
Handel:
Composite table of Member States that reported in 2011 to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms. / : United Nations Disarmament Yearbook 2011: Part II. Annex I.
Ulovlig eksport af våben til Sovjetunionen.
Toshiba-Kongsberg skandalen / The Toshiba-Kongsberg scandal
Overview of Japan’s Export Controls (Third Edition) CISTEC 2012
6-5. Violation Cases
(1) Case ‘A’ (Toshiba Machinery Case)
The so-called “Toshiba Machinery Incident” disclosed by the U.S. in 1987 is a symbolic case that triggered drastic changes in Japan’s export controls. From 1982 to 1984 the Toshiba Machinery Corporation, a subsidiary of a well-known electronics giant, exported to the Soviet Union nine-axis computer controlled milling machines, applying for a license describing the products in disguise of a less sophisticated type of the products. It was illegal and a COCOM violation as well because in those days exports of such high-performance machines to the communist bloc countries were prohibited by the multilateral agreement. These high-tech machine tools were delivered and installed at the country’s Baltic Naval Shipyard with software packages developed and supplied by a Norwegian company.
Norske våpen på avveie: en oversikt over norske eksportkontroll-skandaler siden 1987. / : Alexander Harang.
- Oslo: Norges fredslag, 2011.
Stillle propell i storpolitisk storm: KV/Toshiba-saken og dens bakgrunn. / : Olav Wicken - Oslo: Institutt for forsvarssludier, 1988. ; Forsvarsstudier 1/1988)
Eksport af våben til ...
Import af våben, ifølge SIPRIs Arms Transfers Database, fra Australien, Danmark, Frankrig, Italien, Norge, Schweiz, Storbritannien, Sverige, Tyskland og USA.
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Litteratur

The SIPRI top 100 arms-producing and military services companies, 2014. / : Aude Fleurant et al. SIPRI, 2015.
Justitsministeriets våbenudførselstilladelser i 2009. I: Udenrigsministeriet: Udførsel af våben og produkter med dobbelt anvendelse fra Danmark for 2009. 2010. - 100 s. .
Small Arms Transfers: Importing States. / : Small Arms Survey Research Notes, Number 12, 2011.
- http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/fileadmin/docs/H-Research_Notes/SAS-Research-Note-12.pdf

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