Okinawa

Japansk: Reb i havet. Præfekturet Okinawa er en øgruppe, som består af hundreder af øer i den over 1,000 km lange Ryukyu øgruppe, der strækker sig fra den sydvestlige hovedø Kyushu til Taiwan, delvist besat af USA siden 1945.
Siden slutningen af Anden Verdenskrig har de amerikanske styrker startet større operationer fra Japan. Blandt de vigtigste af disse operationer var i 1950-53 Koreakrigen USA har igen brugt sine baser i Japan og på Okinawa under Vietnam-krigen. I 1969 var over 50.000 amerikansk militært personel udstationeret på Okinawa. Forud for tilbagevenden af Okinawa til japansk administration i 1972, var der rygter om, men aldrig bekræftet, at 1200 atomvåben var udstationeret i de amerikanske baser i Okinawa gemt i ammunition bunkers på Kadena Luft basen.
Endelig er dele af III-Marine Expeditionary Force indsat fra deres baser på Okinawa til Den Persiske Golf under Operation Desert Storm i begyndelsen af 1990'erne
Der var amerikanske kernevåben udstationeret på Okinawa under den kolde krig.
Nuclear Weapons on Okinawa Declassified December 2015, Photos Available Since 1990
Interagency Panel Grants Archive Appeal, Also Releases 9/11 and Taiwan Documents
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 541
'Washington, D.C., February 19, 2016 – For the first time, the U.S. government has officially declassified the fact that the United States stored nuclear weapons on Okinawa during the Cold War. Although an open secret for decades, the subject has been controversial because Japan’s leaders and U.S. officials have consistently denied the presence of such weapons on Japanese territory. However welcome the release may be, its significance is somewhat tempered by the astonishing fact that U.S. Air Force photographs of nuclear weapons on the island have been publicly available for over 25 years. The National Security Archive today is posting the first formally declassified document on the subject, along with several of the photos originally released in 1990 in Air Force collections at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), which have essentially gone unnoticed until now.'
Se også: Cambodja ; Guam ; Hawaii Okinawan Alliance in solidarity with Okinawa ; Japan: Fredsbevægelser, herunder Foundation of Citizens for Peace in Vietnam ; Laos ; Operation Iceberg ; Kongeriget Ryukyu, 1429-1879 ; Slaget om Okinawa 1945.

Film

Okinawa: They Came With Bayonets and Bulldozers. / : Regis Tremblay, 2015.
- http://registremblay.com/okinawa-they-came-with-bayonets-and-bulldozers/
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UkbxiA3OutQ#t=25

Litteratur

CRS: The U.S. Military Presence in Okinawa and the Futenma Base Controversy. / : Emma Chanlett-Avery ; Ian E. Rinehart. 2012 ; 2016.
'The relocation of Marine Corps Air Station Futenma (MCAS Futenma) is the largest and most problematic part of a broad overhaul of the stationing of U.S. forces in Japan and changes in how the Japanese and American militaries operate. A 2006 agreement between the U.S. and Japanese governments to relocate the Futenma base from its current location in the crowded city of Ginowan to Camp Schwab in Henoko, a less congested part of the island, was envisioned as the centerpiece of a planned realignment of U.S. forces in Japan. The proposed air station is often referred to as the Futenma Replacement Facility (FRF). The arrangement was designed to reduce the local community’s burden of hosting a loud air base that has generated safety concerns and, eventually, to return control of the Futenma land to local authorities as a way to boost economic development in the area. In addition, the relocation would have triggered the transfer of roughly 8,000 marines and their dependents from Japan to new facilities in Guam. Japan agreed to pay around 60% of the $10.3 billion estimated costs.'
Jon Mitchell, "Agent Orange on Okinawa - The Smoking Gun: U.S. army report, photographs show 25,000 barrels on island in early ‘70s," The Asia-Pacific Journal, Vol 10, Issue 40, No. 2, October 1, 2012.
'During the Vietnam War, 25,000 barrels of Agent Orange were stored on Okinawa, according to a recently uncovered U.S. army report.1 The barrels, containing over 1.4 million gallons (5.2 million liters) of the toxic defoliant, had been brought to Okinawa from Vietnam before being taken to Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean where the US military incinerated its stocks of Agent Orange in 1977.'
Jon Mitchell teaches at Tokyo Institute of Technology and is an Asia-Pacific Journal associate. In September 2012, “Defoliated Island”, a TV documentary based upon his research, was awarded a commendation for excellence by Japan’s National Association of Commercial Broadcasters. An English version of the program is currently in production in order to assist U.S. veterans exposed to military defoliants on Okinawa.
The National Security Archive : Revelations in Newly Released Documents about U.S. Nuclear Weapons and Okinawa, may 14, 1997.
(1) Memorandum, Ambassador Brown to Secretary Rogers, 4/29/69, Subject: NSC Meeting April 30 - Policy Toward Japan: Briefing Memorandum (Secret), with attached -
(2) Memorandum, Davis to Office of the Vice President, etc., 4/29/69, Subject: U.S.-Japanese Relationship: Summary (Top Secret), with attached
(3) NSSM 5 - Japan, Table of Contents and Part III: Okinawa Reversion (Secret)
(4) NSDM 13: Policy Toward Japan, 5/28/69
(5) Memorandum of Conversation, Nixon/Sato, 11/19/69 (Top Secret/Sensitive)
Documents 1-3 were originally marked by State Department reviewers as to remain secret "until expiration of the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty." These documents provide a detailed discussion of the issues surrounding U.S. nuclear weapons in Okinawa and their fate following reversion, and makes recommendations as to the position the U.S. government should take in negotiations with Japan on this issue. Page 2 of the first document and pages 2-3 of the second one provide an overview of the issues, based on the more detailed discussion found in the attached NSSM 5 extract. This extract can only be found in one place, an obscure State Department record collection which Dr. Wampler discovered at the U.S. National Archives. The National Security Council had previously denied release of the material found in document No. 3, including even the descriptive information found on the table of contents. Dr. Wampler noted that Document No. 3 contains "a detailed discussion of U.S. military rights and interests regarding nuclear weapons on Okinawa, in terms of nuclear storage and freedom for nuclear operations in the Pacific and Asia. Until now, both Washington and Tokyo have maintained a veil of secrecy wrapped in refusals to comment on these subjects." (see pages 21-26 of Document No. 3) Of especial importance, Dr. Wampler notes, is the statement on page 25 under '(4) Only Transit Rights for Nuclear Armed Planes and Ships': "Japan now acquiesces in transit by naval vessels armed with nuclear weapons. This right would automatically extend to Okinawa. (This is sensitive and closely held information)." [emphasis added]. '
National Archives and Records Administration: Okinawa: Bastion in the Pacific / Department of Defense. Department of the Army. Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations. U.S. Army Audiovisual Center.
- http://www.archive.org/details/gov.archives.111-tv-423
National Archives and Records Administration: Assault on Okinawa [ETC.] Series: Motion Picture Films from "United News" Newsreels, compiled 1942 - 1945. Part 1, British and U.S. carrier-based planes bomb Okinawa...
- http://www.archive.org/details/gov.archives.arc.39056
Security in northeast Asia : from Okinawa to the DMZ : hearing before the Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific, Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, second session, April 17, 1996 (1996).
- http://www.archive.org/details/securityinnorthe00unit


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