kemiske våben

Tidlig betegnelse Græsk: ild. Våben, der udspreder giftstoffer af forskellig art:
1) Nervegasser: Farveløse luft- og smagløse kemikalier, hørende til samme art som visse insektdræbende organiske fosforforbindelser. De forgifter nervesystemet og forstyrrer livsvigtige kropsfunktioner. Nervegasserne er opfundet i Tyskland i 1936. V-agenter opfundet i Storbritannien omkring 1955. CS-gassen (tåregas) opfundet i Storbritannien i midten af 1950'erne.
2) Blistergasser: Olieagtige væsker, som hovedsageligt brænder huden og forårsager blæredannelse. De har også en almindelig giftig virkning. Engelske forslag om anvendelse af kemiske våben under Krem-krigen: Brev fra Lord Palmerston til Lord Panmure, dateret 7. august 1855. Sennepsgas, gult kors, eller Yperlite der anvendes under første verdenskrig og af italienerne i Ethiopien i midten af 1930'erne, er eksempeler herpå. Svensk militær forsøgte i årene 1937 til 1940 at fremstille sennepsgas hos Bofors.
Tyskere fascister og deres allierede anvendte giftgas under anden verdenskrig i deres folkemord i koncentrationslejre.
Senere er kemiske våben anvendt under den kinesiske borgerkrig (1945-1949), i Fransk Indokina (1947), Israelkrigen (1948), Koreakrigen (1951-1952), i Algier krigen (1957) og under Vietnamkrigen.
På grund af de kemiske våbens farlighed, fremføres de som binære våben.
Forskning og udvikling af beskyttelsesmidler mod kemiske våben foregår (19881) bl.a. i Porton Down, det engelske Chemical Defence Establisment, nær Salisbury, Wiltshire.
Blandt amerikanske lagre med kemiske våben kan nævnes: Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (Alabama), Bluegrass Chemical Agent Pilot Plant (Kentucky), Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (Pacific), Pine Bluff Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (Arkansas), Pueblo Chemical Agent Pilot Plant (Colorado) og Umatilla Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (Oregon).
I den russiske by Gorny ved Volga, ligger Ruslands første destruktionsanlæg for kemiske våben.
Se også: Aerosoler ; aflatoxin ; agent defeating ; Anniston Chemical Agent Disposal Facility, Alabama ; U.S. Army's Chemical Materials Agency ; biologiske våben ; botulinum ; US Camp Sibert ; CBRN ; dampfareområde ; depletet uranium ; dosis ; Dugway Proving Ground-Wendover Bombing Range, Utah ; Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center, Maryland ; EMP ; Gaskommissionen af 1933 ; Golfkrigssyndromet ; Johnston Island ; kemi ; Nordisk Syntese Laboritorium A/S ; Clara Immerwahr ; Operation CHASE ; Operation Red Hat ; toksikologi ; sarin ; the Sunshine Project ; Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility, Utah ; Umatilla Chemical Depot, Oregon ; Gertrud Woker ; økologisk krigsførelse.

Nedrustningsinitiativer

Council Declaration of 13 June 2000, issued on the occasion of the adoption of the common list of military equipment covered by the European Union code of conduct on arms export 8.7.2000. I: EN Official Journal of the European Communities C 191/1
Declaration on the Use of Projectiles the Object of Which is the Diffusion of Asphyxiating or Deleterious Gases; July 29, 1899.
Haager-landkrigskonventionen af 1907 artikel 23.
(Genève)-Protokollen af 17. juni 1925 mod anvendelsen til krigsbrug af kvælende, giftige eller lignende gasarter samt af baktiologiske krigsmidler.
Den biologiske våbenkonvention fra 1972.
Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction 1975.
Convention on the Prohibitions of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction 1993 også kaldet Kemivåbenkonventionen.
The Chemical Weapons Convention 1997.
The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). / Organsiationen for Forbud mod Kemiske Våben, Haag.

Litteratur

Arbejdsgruppen vedr. tilrettelæggelse af en faglig rådgivning om virkningerne af kernevåben og kemiske kampstoffer: Rådgivning af virkningerne af kernevåben og kemiske kampstoffer. Civilforsvarsstyrelsen, 198? - 147 s.
CRS: U.S. Disposal of Chemical Weapons in the Ocean: Background and Issues for Congress. / : David M. Bearden. 2007.
Dejevsky, Mary: Putins 'usikre' vælgerkreds. I: Information, 03/11/2004.
Dupont Blasters' Handbook: The Practical Methods of Using Explosives for Various Purposes. / Jules Bebie. - - Wilmington Delaware : E.I. du Pont De Nemours and Company, 1923. - 155 s.
- http://archive.org/details/Dupont_Blasters_Handbook_November_
Er Saddam Husseins kemikalier en trussel mod verdensfreden. I: Dagen, 11/09/2002.
General Accounting Office: Chemical and Biological Defense: DOD Needs to Continue to Collect and Provide Information on Tests and on Potentially Exposed Personnel. GAO-04-410, May 14, 2004.
General Accounting Office: Chemical Weapons : Better Management Tools Needed to Guide DOD's Stockpile Destruction Program. GAO-04-221T, October 30, 2003.
Lloyd George, David: Erindringer : Bearbejdelse af War memoirs, Bd. I-IV foretaget af Henning Kehler, overs. af Gunnar Leistikow. - København : Hasselbalch, 1935. - 395 s.
Possible Long-Term Health Effects of Short-Term Exposure to Chemical Agents ; Experiments performed at the Edgewood Arsenal Maryland, during the Cold War 1955 thru 1975, Dugway Proving Grounds and other military installations. NRC Panel on Anticholinesterase Chemicals. Committee on Toxicology Board on Toxicology and Environmental Health Hazards Assembly of Life Sciences. National Academy Press Washington D.C. June 1982l.
http://www.archive.org/details/NrcReportOnPossibleLong-termHealthEffectsOfShort-termExposureTo
Remediation of Buried Chemical Warfare Materiel. / : Committee on Review of the Conduct of Operations for Remediation of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel from Burial Sites. - Washington D. C. : National Academy of Sciences Press, 2012. - 140 s.
'The Committee on Review of the Conduct of Operations for Remediation of Recovered Chemical Warfare Materiel from Burial Sites was appointed by the National Research Council in response to a request by Conrad F. Whyne, Director of the Chemical Materials Agency (CMA). The study dealt primarily with the activities of the Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project (NSCMP), which falls organizationally under the CMA and is headed by Laurence G. Gottschalk, Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel. Mr. Whyne, Mr. Gottschalk, and their staffs heavily supported the activities of the committee.
This report is concerned with the investigation and, if required, the remediation of sites that contain buried chemical materiel. About 250 such sites, located in 40 states and territories of the United States, are thought to exist. Remediation efforts are currently under way in the Spring Valley area of Washington, D.C., and at the Camp Sibert site in Alabama. A substantially larger effort is anticipated at the Redstone Arsenal in Alabama.'
Review Committee Report: Inadvertent Shipment of Live Bacillus anthracis Spores by DoD. / : Committee for Comprehensive Review of DoD Laboratory Procedures, Processes, and Protocols Associated with Inactivating Bacillus anthracis Spores. 2015.
'On May 29, 2015, due to the inadvertent shipment of live anthrax from a Department of Defense (DoD) laboratory, the Deputy Secretary of Defense (DSD) directed the Under Secretary of Defense (USD) for Acquisition, Technology & Logistics (AT&L) to conduct a 30-day review of the Department’s safety practices for generating and handling inactivated Bacillus anthracis (BA). This independent review was in addition to the concurrent investigation initiated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). For more than a decade, DoD and CDC have been working closely on optimal oversight of and compliance with the select agent regulations. These regulations impact all U.S. laboratories that work with biological select agents including those supported by the DoD's Critical Reagents Program (CRP), which primarily serves the interagency and the biodefense research community.'
Sverige planerade kemiske vapen. I: (svensk) Metro, 04/18/2002.
Weper, Torsten: Krigens beskidte våben. I: Information, 03/22/2003.


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