Lindberg, Kristian: Bitre rivaler i
våbenkapløbets kulisser. I: Berlingske
CRS: Manufacturing Nuclear Weapon “Pits”: A Decisionmaking Approach for Congress. / : Jonathan E. Medalia, 2014.
'A pit is a nuclear weapon component, a hollow plutonium shell that is imploded with conventional explosives to create a nuclear explosion that triggers the rest of the weapon.
During the Cold War, the Rocky Flats Plant (CO) manufactured as many as 2,000 pits per year. On June 6, 1989, armed agents from the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Environmental Protection Agency raided Rocky Flats to investigate suspected environmental crimes.1 As a result, DOE first suspended pit production at Rocky Flats later that year, subsequently halted it permanently, and eventually dismantled the plant and remediated the site.'
New Memoir by Participant in U.S. H-Bomb Program Sheds Light on the Making of the First Test Device
First-Hand Perspectives on Edward Teller and Other Leading Figures, and on Dispute over Who Originated Key Idea of Radiation Implosion
Book by Kenneth W. Ford Being Published Over Objections of Department of Energy
First Full Account of Project Matterhorn, Pioneering Effort in Use of Computer Technologies for Nuclear Weapons Development
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 507
Posted - March 24, 2015
Washington, DC, Posted March 24, 2015 -- A new scientific memoir by one of the few surviving participants in the U.S. H-bomb project provides fresh information and insights into the production of the world's first thermonuclear device. In an exclusive essay and selection of declassified documents provided to the National Security Archive and posted today on the Archive's website (www.nsarchive.org), the author, Dr. Kenneth W. Ford, brings to light intriguing pieces of the H-bomb's early history, including personal aspects such as the brittle relationship between physicists Edward Teller and Stanislaw Ulam and their feud over who came up with one of the central theories leading to the H-bomb's development.
Building the H Bomb, A Personal History (Singapore: World Scientific, 2015) describes a central element of the process -- the Princeton University-based "Project Matterhorn" -- where Ford and his colleagues used the latest computer technology to calculate the mid and late stages of a thermonuclear explosion, especially the burning of the nuclear fuel. The Matterhorn calculations were essential to the IVY MIKE thermonuclear test that caused the island of Elugelab -- part of Enewetak atoll in the Marshall Islands -- to disappear on 1 November 1952.
Shot in the Dark : The largest nuclear bomb in U.S. history still shakes Rongelap Atoll and its displaced people 50 years later. Beverly Deepe Keever Feb 5,2004.
The Radioactive Signature of the Hydrogen Bomb / : Lars-Erik De Geer.
Science & Global Security, 1991, Volume 2, pp.351-363.
'It has long been supposed that the Teller-illam invention of February 1951, that made the construction of a full-scale fusion device feasible could be deduced from a careful analysis of the debris that scatters worldwide after an atmospheric test. This was part of the theme of an article in the January/February 1990 issue of the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists written by Daniel Hirsch and William G. Mathews. Their conclusion, arrived at to a large degree through interviews with Hans Bethe, was that the H-bomb secret was given to the Soviets, not through the spy Klaus Fuchs, but rather by carrying out Mike, the first test of a fusion device based on the Teller-illam ideas. The Bulletin article and an extended version of that paper issued by the Los Angeles based Committee to Bridge the Gap argue that the observation of the very high neutron fluencies in the explosion, which can be derived from the fallout composition, would lead a competent scientist to the trick.'
U.S. Cold War Nuclear Target Lists Declassified for First Time
According to 1956 Plan, H-Bombs were to be Used Against Priority "Air Power" Targets in the Soviet Union, China, and Eastern Europe
Major Cities in Soviet Bloc, Including East Berlin, Were High Priorities in "Systematic Destruction" for Atomic Bombings
Plans to Target People ("Population") Violated International Legal Norms
SAC Wanted a 60 Megaton Bomb, Equivalent to over 4,000 Hiroshima Atomic Weapons
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 538. / : Edited by William Burr
Washington, D.C., December 22, 2015 - The SAC [Strategic Air Command] Atomic Weapons Requirements Study for 1959, produced in June 1956 and published today for the first time by the National Security Archive www.nsarchive.org, provides the most comprehensive and detailed list of nuclear targets and target systems that has ever been declassified. As far as can be told, no comparable document has ever been declassified for any period of Cold War history.
The SAC study includes chilling details. According to its authors, their target priorities and nuclear bombing tactics would expose nearby civilians and "friendly forces and people" to high levels of deadly radioactive fallout. Moreover, the authors developed a plan for the "systematic destruction" of Soviet bloc urban-industrial targets that specifically and explicitly targeted "population" in all cities, including Beijing, Moscow, Leningrad, East Berlin, and Warsaw. Purposefully targeting civilian populations as such directly conflicted with the international norms of the day, which prohibited attacks on people per se (as opposed to military installations with civilians nearby).
The National Security Archive, based at The George Washington University, obtained the study, totaling more than 800 pages, through the Mandatory Declassification Review (MDR) proces.
The SAC document includes lists of more than 1100 airfields in the Soviet bloc, with a priority number assigned to each base. With the Soviet bomber force as the highest priority for nuclear targeting (this was before the age of ICBMs), SAC assigned priority one and two to Bykhov and Orsha airfields, both located in Belorussia. At both bases, the Soviet Air Force deployed medium-range Badger (TU-16) bombers, which would have posed a threat to NATO allies and U.S. forces in Western Europe.
A second list was of urban-industrial areas identified for "systematic destruction." SAC listed over 1200 cities in the Soviet bloc, from East Germany to China, also with priorities established. Moscow and Leningrad were priority one and two respectively. Moscow included 179 Designated Ground Zeros (DGZs) while Leningrad had 145, including "population" targets. In both cities, SAC identified air power installations, such as Soviet Air Force command centers, which it would have devastated with thermonuclear weapons early in the war.
Check out today's posting at the National Security Archive
USA efterlod brintbombe i Grønland. / Jakob Hvide Beim ; Sanne Fahnøe. I: Politiken, 11/12/2007.