Amerikansk alstbil til transport af atomvåben

atomvåben

Græsk: Egentlig masseødelæggelsesvåben: atombomber så som kernevåben; synonym for fissionsbomber og fussionsbomber (brintbomber); alt krigsmateriel, hvori anvendes uran som en del af ammunitionen, hvad enten uranen er beriget eller ej. Atomslagstyrken kan bestå af kortrækkende, taktiske; mellemdistanceatomvåben, teatervåben; eller langtrækkende, strategiske atomvåben. Atomvåben kan være udstyret med et eller flere sprænghoveder som fremføres af fly, raketter og missiler, overfladeskibe og atomundervandsbåde. Desuden kan atomammunition affyres fra kanoner, anvendes i landminer, ebomber, neutronvåben og genbruges i forringet uran.
Atomvåben er først udviklet i Storbritannien og i USA under anden verdenskrig og videreudviklet under og efter den kolde krig, hvor atompacifister protesterer mod atomvåben og kræver dem helt afrustet eller delvist nedrustet.
I atomalderen er der sket en lang række mere eller mindre alvorlige uheld med atomvåben og der er store miljøproblemer og omkostninger i forbindelse med affald fra atomvåbenproduktion.
Sprængninger af atomvåben medfører nedbrydning af ozonlaget, elektromagnetisk puls, lyseffekt, varmestråling, initial radioaktiv stråling, trykeffekt og residual (nedfald) radioaktiv stråling,
Atomvåben har været genstand for en række rustningsbegrænsende aftaler, eksempelvis ABM-traktaten og START. Anvendelse og trussel om anvendelse af atomvåben vurderes i 1996, at være i strid med folkeretten.
Stater som har fravalgt at udvikle og besidde atomvåben er Canada og Sverige.
Se også: the Advanced Concepts Initiative for new nuclear weapons ; affyringsrampe ; affyringssikkerhed ; agent defeating ; antændelighed ; Apollo Plant ; atom ; atomisvinter ; atomare ; atomkerne ; atomknap ; atomkrig ; Atomoplysningsudvalget ; atomterrorisme ; atomtrussel ; Atomvåben, Storbritannien ; Atomvåben, USA - Stockpile Stewardship ; atomvåbenforsøg ; ATP ; basepolitik ; Bikini-Able ; bunker-busting-bomber ; dial-a-yield ; dommedagsaskine ; earth penetrating weapons ; Giant Talk ; gråzonevåben ; Hanford Reservation 25 ; high explosive ; Hiroshima ; Holston US Army Ammunition Plant ; IAEA ; Kansas City Plant ; kemi ; low radiation yield ; MAD ; marine ; metallurgi ; militærforskning ; mini-nukes ; Nagasaki ; US National Ignition Facility ; Nevada Test Site ; Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. ; US Nuclear Security Enterprise, herunder Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, National Security Complex, NNSA operations at the Savannah River Site, and Nevada National Security Site ; Nuclear Weapons-Related Materiel ; NUTS ; one point detonation ; Pantex Plant ; predetonation ; reduced collateral damage weapons ; Rocky Flats ; Savannah River Site ; second stricke capability ; sikkerhedsgarantier ; TCHD Mk 2 ; tiraden ; weaponization.

Litteratur

Atomord. / Søren Hein Rasmussen. Sprogmuseet, 5. maj 2011 - http://sprogmuseet.dk/ord/atomord/

First use of Nuclear Weapons: Preserving Responsible Control: Hearings before the Subcommittee on International Security and Scientific Affairs of the Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives, Ninety-fourth Congress, second session ... March 16, 18, 23, and 25, 1976. - Washington D.C. : U.S. Gov. Print. Off. in Komm., 1976. - 246 s.

Jungk, Robert: Stærkere end tusinde sole : Atomforskernes skæbne.
- København : Jespersen og Pio, [1957]. - 309 s.

Moret, Leuren : Moret, Leuren: Nuclear Weapons Stealth Takeover : 5 Admirals, U.C. Regents, Carlyle Group, and Rand.

Nuclear Warships and Naval Nuclear Weapons : A Complete Inventory / Joshua Handler ; William M. Arkin.
- Washington : Greenpeace ; Institute for Policy Studies, 1988. - 95 s. ; Neptun papers; 2).

Nuclear Weapons - Country Comparisons. / : Claire Mills ; Jon Lunn.
The House of Commons Library, 2016.
- http://researchbriefings.files.parliament.uk/documents/CBP-7566/CBP-7566.pdf

Natural Resources Defence Council, Inc.: Nuclear Weapons Databook Vol. 1: U.S. Nuclear Forces and Capabilities / Thomas B. Cochran ; William M. Arkin Milton M Hoenig. - Cambridge Mass. : Ballinger, 1984. - 340 s. : ill. - ISBN 0-88410-173-8

Nuclear Weapons, What You Need to Know. / : Jeremy Bernstein.
Cambridge University Press, 2008.
- https://archive.org/details/Nuclear_Weapons_What_You_Need_to_Know_by_Jeremy_Bernstein

Nuclear Wastelands : A global guide to nuclear weapons production and its health and environmental effects / by a special commission of International Psysicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War and the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research ; edited by Arjun Makhijiani, Howars Hu and Katherine Yih. - Cambridge ; London : The MIT Press, 1995. - 666 s. : ill. - ISBN 0-262-13307-5

Recovery and Recycling of Aluminum, Copper, and Precious Metals from Dismantled Weapon Components / J. D. Lutz and W.T. Wheelis. , 1995. - 20 s.
- http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/25039-GHRlGt/webviewable/25039.pdf
'In general, the ongoing dismantlement of nuclear weapon hardware represents a material stream totaling some 100 to 300 tons of material per year for 10 to 15 years, exclusive of the "physics package" and the aeroshell. This material stream is roughly 30% aluminum, 10% copper, 10% ferrous, 1% precious metals, 25% other metals and inorganics, and 25% organics.'

Reducing Alert Rates of Nuclear Weapons. / : Hans M. Kristensen ; Matthew McKinzie.
UNIDIR. United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research. Geneva, Switzerland, 2012.
- http://www.unidir.org/files/publications/pdfs/reducing-alert-rates-of-nuclear-weapons-400.pdf

Still assuring destruction forever: An update to the 2012 report Assuring destruction forever: Nuclear weapon modernization around the world. / : Edited by Ray Acheson et al.
- New York: Reaching Critical Will of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, 2013.

U.S. Nuclear Weapons Research, Development, Testing, and Production, and Naval Nuclear Propulsion Facilities.
Compiled by Stephen I. Schwartz
Director, U.S. Nuclear Weapons Cost Study Project.
http://www.brook.edu/fp/projects/nucwcost/sites.htm

Zahle, Henrik: Den yderste beslutning : Eller hvem har ret til at beordre anvendelse af atomvåben? I: Ret mod atomvåben. Akademisk forlag, 1984 s. 56-61.

Protester mod atomvåben

Avery, John: The Overlooked Threat of Nuclear Weapons.
Chomsky, Noam: Nuclear Weapons and Unchecked Climate Change Are Leading Us Toward Doomsday, Talk, 18 March 2015.
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w8GSalDF71c
Wittner, Lawrence S.: The Struggle Against the Bomb.
- Cambridge : Cambridge University Press ; Stanford Nuclear Age Series.
The Struggle against the Bomb: One World or None: A History of the World Nuclear Disarmament Movement through 1953. Volume 1. Stanford Nuclear Age Series. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1993. vii + 456 pp. Photographs, notes, bibliography, index. $75.00 (cloth), ISBN 0-8047-2141-6; $29.95 (paper), ISBN 0-8047-2528-4.
The Struggle against the Bomb: Resisting the Bomb: A History of the World Nuclear Disarmament Movement, 1954-1970. Volume 2. Stanford Nuclear Age Series. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997. vii + 641 pp. Photographs, notes, bibliography, index. $80.00 (cloth), ISBN 0-8047-2918-2; $32.95 (paper), ISBN 0-8047-3169-1.
The Struggle against the Bomb: Toward Nuclear Abolition: A History of the World Nuclear Disarmament, 1971 to the Present. Volume 3. Stanford Nuclear Age Series. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003. vii + 657 pp. Photographs, notes, bibliography, index. $75.00 (cloth), ISBN 0-8047-4861-6; $32.95 (paper), ISBN 0-8047-4862-4.


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