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- Geography, nature and climate, demographics, history, wars,
culture, film, music, politics, political parties, defense, Nuclear
weapons, peace movements, religion, social issues, education,
economy and arms trade.
- Géographie, la nature, la démographie, histoire,
la culture, la politique, la défense, armes
nucléaires; les mouvements pacifistes, la religion, les
questions sociales, l'éducation, économie.
Israeli nuclear weapons
- Staten Israel er siden den kolde
krigs tid medlem af
- The State of Israel has since the Cold War, been a member of
the nuclear weapons club. Nuclear weapons accidents.
- Størsteparten af dokumentationen om de israelske
atomvåben er offentliggjort af amerikanske arkiver fra den
kolde krigs tid. At israelerne har atomvåben er først
og fremmest dokumenteret af amerikanske efterretningstjenester.
Historien om de israelske atomvåben starter i Norge og
Argentina, hvorfra nogle af atomvåbenes grundbestanddele kom
til Israel i aller største hemmelighed. Senere
fortsætter historien i Sydafrika. Alle oplysninger om
israelske atomvåben er hemmelige og eller maskerede.
- Militærforskning og
/ Military Research and Development
/ Recherche et développement militaire
/ Investigación y Desarrollo Militar
/ Militärische Forschung und Entwicklung:
- CRS: Nuclear Weapons
R&D Organizations in Nine Countries. / : Jonathan Medalia
et al., 2013.
'United States, China, France, India, Israel, North Korea,
Pakistan, Russia and United Kingdom.'
- For the first time, Israeli Supreme Court will hear case
regarding status of Atomic Energy Commission
Israeli Disamament Movement - press release. September 6, 2017.
Despite opposition by the state, the Supreme Court will hold a
first of its kind hearing today (Wednesday) regarding the secret
procedures governing the work of the Israel Atomic Energy
Following the appeal filed by attorney Itay Mack, representing 108
petitioners, the Supreme Court decided to hold a hearing by senior
justices, headed by incoming chief justice Ester Hayut, MeniMaziz
and Noam Solberg. The petitioners demand the establishment of
legislation to regulate operations of the Israel Atomic Energy
Commission (IAEC), its roles, authority, form of organization and
management, and to require monitoring of its activities and
Though the IAEC was created in 1952, its roles and methods of
monitoring its activities have never been enshrined in law. Instead
they were established in a secret administrative order, issued by
the then-Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion, and later via a series
of secret government rulings. The commission deals with a variety
of topics concerning the health and safety of Israeli citizens,
including nuclear safety, licensing of facilities and activities,
treatment of nuclear waste, and serving as a governmental
consultant for nuclear policy.
In a response submitted several months ago, the government demanded
to reject the petition outright and without a hearing. Its claims
were that the supreme court does not have the authority to order
the prime minister to legislate, and that either way, the
activities of the commission are anchored in procedures whose
legality derives from the government’s residual authority to
operate in any domain not enshrined in primary legislation.
In a precedent-setting decision, the supreme court rejected the
government’s position and decided to hold a hearing for the
petition. This is the first time in the history of the State of
Israel that a court will exercise legal criticism over the Atomic
Commission and its activities. During the hearing, the justices are
expected to pore over the most highly classified regulations of the
State of Israel, and determine whether they are satisfactory and
allow the government to continue using them, or to accept the
demand of the petitioners to establish legislation that will
regulate operations and enable real oversight.
“From our perspectives, the fact that the supreme court will
even hear this case is a victory,” said Sharon Dolev,
Director of the Israeli Disarmament Movement. “We are dealing
with dangerous facilities that operate without proper oversight and
without legislation. We are hopeful that following the Supreme
Court petition, whether we win or lose, we will finally have a real
discussion about the nature of oversight on the Nuclear Commission
and its facilities. This is not the end of the “kingdom of
secrecy,” and Israel’s nuclear ambiguity will not be
changed - but the safety of the citizens must be held in higher
regard than the convenience of the state and the
A Special National Intelligence Estimate from 1974 confirmed
Israel's nuclear weapons status.
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 240 Edited
by William Burr and Jeffrey Richelson
Posted - January 14, 2008.
- The Israel-Argentina Yellowcake Connection
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 432
Washington, D.C., June 25, 2013 -- During 1963-64, the Israeli
government secretly acquired 80-100 tons of Argentine uranium oxide
("yellowcake") for its nuclear weapons program, according to U.S.
and British archival documents published today for the first time
jointly by the National Security Archive, the Nuclear Proliferation
International History Project, and the James Martin Center for
Nonproliferation Studies. The U.S. government learned about the
sale through Canadian intelligence and found out even more from its
Embassy in Argentina. Washington was concerned that the yellowcake
purchase cast doubts on Israel's claims about a peaceful nuclear
program. In response to U.S. diplomatic queries about the sale, the
government of Israel was evasive in its replies and gave no answers
to the U.S.'s questions about the transaction.
- The U.S. Discovery of Israel's Secret Nuclear
Israeli Cover Stories about the Dimona Reactor Dismayed Top Level
Officials Who Saw a "Clearly Apparent Lack of Candor"
U.S. Embassy Telegram Quotes Ben-Gurion Aide That It Was a "Stupid
Mistake" by Israel to Cloak the Nuclear Project in Secrecy
To Prevent Military Uses of the Facility, U.S. Officials Believed
the International Atomic Energy Agency Should Monitor Dimona (It
Today's Posting Inaugurates the National Security Archive's Special
Web Site on Israeli Nuclear History
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 510
Avner Cohen and William Burr, editors
- Concerned About Nuclear Weapons Potential, John F. Kennedy
Pushed for Inspection of Israel Nuclear Facilities
Atomic Energy Commission Inspectors Gave Dimona a Clean Bill of
Health – Twice – after Deliberately Truncated Tours,
but U.S. Intelligence Remained Suspicious
International Atomic Energy Agency Inspection of Dimona Was
“Our Objective,” According to State Department
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 547
Posted - April 21, 2016
President John F. Kennedy worried that Israel’s nuclear
program was a potentially serious proliferation risk and insisted
that Israel permit periodic inspections to mitigate the danger,
according to declassified documents published today by the National
Security Archive, Nuclear Proliferation International History
Project, and the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies.
Kennedy pressured the government of Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion
to prevent a military nuclear program, particularly after
stage-managed tours of the Dimona facility for U.S. government
scientists in 1961 and 1962 raised suspicions within U.S.
intelligence that Israel might be concealing its underlying nuclear
aims. Kennedy’s long-run objective, documents show, was to
broaden and institutionalize inspections of Dimona by the
International Atomic Energy Agency.
- The Eisenhower Administration and the Discovery of Dimona:
March 1958-January 1961
Washington, DC, Posted April 15, 2015 -- The U.S. government first
learned of Israel's secret nuclear program at Dimona from an
American corporate official talking to U.S. diplomats in Tel Aviv
during mid-summer 1960, according to a declassified document
published today for the first time by the National Security
Archive, the Nuclear Proliferation International History Project,
and the Center for Nonproliferation Studies of the Middlebury
Institute of International Studies at Monterey. Other documents
published today detail the discovery of the secret project that
some in the U.S. government believed from the very start aimed at a
weapons capability; the U.S. debates over Israel's lack of candor;
and U.S. government efforts to pressure the Israelis to answer key
questions about the nature of the Dimona project.
This "discovery," which came as the presidency of Dwight D.
Eisenhower was drawing to a close, caused apprehension in
Washington by raising concern about regional stability and nuclear
proliferation, but it also produced annoyance because Israeli
officials at all levels repeatedly provided less than credible
answers to U.S. questions about Dimona. Thus, in September 1960,
when embassy officials asked about a new construction site when
they were on a helicopter ride nearby, an adroit Israeli official,
Addy Cohen, improvised a story to keep the secret: it was the site
of a textile factory, he said; a story that was not wholly false
because there was a textile plant near Dimona. An interview with
Addy Cohen detailing the episode appears in this posting for the
Documents published in this collection shed light on a particularly
notable intelligence failure: how Washington missed warning signs
that the Israelis had a nuclear project underway, but also how the
U.S. belatedly realized what the Israelis were doing, and how
Eisenhower and his senior advisers reacted to this discovery. Among
the documents are:
- The June 1959 Israel-Norway secret agreement providing for the
sale of Norwegian heavy water to Israel (through the United
Kingdom), transmitted by Oslo Embassy political officer Richard
Kerry (father of Secretary of State John Kerry).
- Reports about information from a then-covert source --
University of Michigan nuclear engineering professor Henry Gomberg
-- who learned that the Israelis had a secret nuclear reactor
project that involved experiments with plutonium.
- A telegram from the U.S. embassy in Tel Aviv reporting on
Finance Ministry official Addy Cohen's statement that "we've been
misbehaving," and one by an unidentified official close to Prime
Minister David Ben-Gurion that the secrecy surrounding Dimona was
unjustifiable and that it was "a stupid mistake on the part of
- Reports by U.S. Ambassador Ogden Reid on conversations with
- A State Department message to the embassy in Tel Aviv conveying
irritation that the responses of the Israeli government showed a
"lack of candor."
- Messages about a role for the International Atomic Energy
Agency in inspecting and safeguarding Dimona.
- Many of the documents published today have been declassified
for years but have not been collected and published comprehensively
with the aim of shedding light on the Eisenhower administration's
efforts to come to terms with the discovery of Dimona. This
material is only the tip of the iceberg: many documents from this
period are still classified in State Department records and in the
files of the Atomic Energy Commission, although they are currently
under request by the National Security Archive.
Today's posting marks the inauguration of the National Security
Archive's special Web page on Israeli Nuclear History, edited by
Avner Cohen. As a project of the Archive's Nuclear Vault, it will
be the homepage for the Archive's postings relating to the Israeli
- JFK vs. Israel's Bomb 1963
U.S. Intelligence: Dimona Plutonium = "One or Two Weapons Per
Secret Clash Between Kennedy and Two Israeli Prime Ministers
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 671
Washington D.C., May 2, 2019 - Declassified documents published
today by the National Security Archive illuminate President John F.
Kennedy’s secret preoccupation with the Israeli nuclear
program during 1963. Possibly more determined to check nuclear
proliferation than any other U.S. president, Kennedy wanted U.S.
experts to inspect Israel’s nuclear reactor site at Dimona to
ensure that it was not being used for a weapons program. Through
secret correspondence with Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion
and his successor Levi Eshkol Kennedy applied unprecedented
pressure, informing both prime ministers that the U.S.’s
“commitment to and support of Israel “could be
“seriously jeopardized” if it could not obtain
“reliable information” about the Dimona reactor and
Israel’s nuclear intentions.
Surprised by the U.S.’s firm demands, Eshkol deliberated for
seven weeks before he reluctantly assented. Kennedy did not live to
see the inspection that took place in January 1964, but his demands
on Israeli prime ministers initiated the inspection visits that
continued through the 1960s, although they were not enough to deter
Israel from getting the bomb.
The National Security Archive obtained the documents through
declassification requests and research at the U.S. National
- The NUMEC Mystery: Was U.S. Highly Enriched Uranium Diverted to
Israel’s Nuclear Weapons Program?
U.S. Officials in 1960s Believed Americans Had Cooperated with
300 Kilos of Weapons-Grade Uranium Unaccounted For
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 565
Washington, D.C., November 2, 2016 – Senior U.S. officials in
the 1960s believed that U.S. citizens cooperated with Israeli
intelligence officials in assisting the Israeli nuclear weapons
program, according to declassified U.S. government documents
published today for the first time by the National Security
For decades there have been allegations and suspicions that foreign
agents, perhaps aided by American citizens, diverted a significant
amount of missing uranium from a firm called NUMEC in the small
town of Apollo, Pennsylvania, to Israel. Because of the high stakes
involved, the affair has been clouded in denial and
This Electronic Briefing Book provides the most revealing of the
declassified documents that are currently available, including
records from former CIA station chief (Tel Aviv) John Hadden, to
try to illuminate part of the mystery of the Israeli nuclear
- Cohen, Avner: Israel and the Bomb.
Cohen, Avner : The Worst-Kept Secret: Israel's Bargain with
- New York: Columbia University Press, 2010. - ISBN
Hersh, Seymour M.: The Sampson Option: Israel's Nuclear
Arsenal & American Foreign Policy.
Se også: -
- Israel Submarine Capabilities. The Nuclear Threat Initiative,
Israel opruster tyske ubåde med atomvåben. / : Michael
Reiter, Berlin I: Ingeniøren 7. jun 2012 .
'Det tyske nyhedsmagasin Der Spiegel har afsløret, at Israel
efter al sandsynlighed er ved at udstyre topmoderne ubåde med
atomvåben. I Tyskland, hvor ubådene er købt, har
afsløringen nedkaldt en storm af protester over
Operation Samson: Israel's Deployment of Nuclear Missiles on Subs
- Se også: Aktuelle stater med atomvåben,
kernevåben: Frankrig, Indien,
Israel, Kina, Nordkorea,
Pakistan, Rusland, Storbritannien og USA.
- See also: Current states with nuclear weapons: France, India,
Israel, China, North Korea, Pakistan, Russia, UK and USA.
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