Israel

Geografi ; natur ; demografi ; historie ; kultur ; politik ; forsvar ; fredsbevægelser ; religion ; sociale forhold ; uddannelse ; økonomi.
Geography; nature; demographics; history, culture, politics, defense, peace movements, religion, social issues, education, economy.
Géographie, la nature, la démographie, histoire, la culture, la politique, la défense, les mouvements pacifistes, la religion, les questions sociales, l'éducation, économie.
Geografía, naturaleza, demografía, historia, cultura, política, defensa, movimientos por la paz, la religión, las cuestiones sociales, la educación, la economía.
Geographie, Natur, Demographie, Geschichte, Kultur, Politik, Verteidigung, Friedensbewegungen, Religion, Soziales, Bildung, Wirtschaft.
Geografi: Mellemøstlig  republik med grænser til Egypten, Jordan, Libanon, Palæstina og Gaza samt Syrien og med kystlinjer til Middelhavet og til Det røde Hav. Golan højderne. Del af Levanten. Israel udvider sit territorium med bosættelser og bufferzoner i Palæstina.
Aravadalen (Ha-Arava) eller Aravah er dalstrækningen fra Det Døde Hav og ned til Eilat og Det Røde Hav/Rødehavet.
Geografihistoriske primærkilder og fremstillinger: Carsten Niebuhr ekspeditionen. Stig T. Rasmussen [red]: Den arabiske rejse 1761-1767: En dansk ekspedition set i videnskabshistorisk perspektiv. Rosinante, 1990.
Natur: Det døde hav, Genesaretøen. Jordanfloden. Koral rev. World Atlas of Coral Reefs / Mark Spalding, Corinna Ravilious, Edmund Peter Green. University of California Press, 2001 - 432 s.
- http://archive.org/details/worldatlasofcora01spal
World Database on Protected Areas: Beskyttede områder og nationalparker.
The Peace Palace Library: Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law. . Aaron T. Wolf: Hydropolitics along the Jordan River : Scarce Water and its Impact on the Arab-Israeli Conflict. United Nations University Press, 1995.
Demografi: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank: Migration and Remittances Factbook 2011. Jewish Agency for Israel.
Holot fængslet: Jensen, Ditte: I ørkenen kan ingen høre deres klager. I: Information, 02/03/2014.
Nawratzki, Curt: Das neue jüdische Palästina.
- Berlin : Jüdischer Verlag, 1919. - 256 s.
- http://archive.org/details/dasneuejdische00nawr
'Vorwort--Die Lage des jüdischen Volkes in der Diaspora.--Palästina, Land und Leute.--Die jüdische Kolonisation Palästinas.--Kulturelles.--Schluss.--Anlage I-III. Gesamtzahl der Juden. Neuester Stand des Eisenbahn- und Strassenwesens in Palästina.--Status der jüdischen Siedlungen 1914'.
Historie: Kongeriget Jerusalem. Israel har bl.a. været besat af Det Persiske rige, Romerriget, Seljuk Sultanatet 1037-1194, Det ottomanske rige. Sykes-Picot aftalen 1916. Balfourdeklarationen 1917 og 1922. League of Nations Palestine Mandate: July 24, 1922. Britisk  mandatområde : Emiratet Transjordanien 1921-1946. Hagana. Irgun. Stern-gruppen. The Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry 1946. Drabet på FN diplomaten Folke Bernadotte. 1948. Israel har besat dele af Jordan, Palæstina, herunder Østjerusalem og Syrien.
Historiske primærkilder: Early Jewish Writings is the most complete collection of Jewish documents from antiquity with translations, introductions, and links. The Early Jewish Writings web site is copyright © 2004-2010 Peter Kirby
- http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/
The works of Flavius Josephus ... containing twenty books of the Jewish antiquities, seven books of the Jewish war, and the Life of Josephus I-II (1829).
http://www.archive.org/details/worksofflaviusjo01jose og
http://www.archive.org/details/worksofflaviusjo185702jose
Bibliothek der griechischen und römischen schriftsteller über judenthum und Juden in neuen uebertragungen und sammlungen .. (1865).
http://www.archive.org/details/bibliothekdergr00josegoog
Topographisch-historisches Lexicon zu den schriften des flavius Josephus (1966).
http://www.archive.org/details/topographischhi00josegoog
The Introduction of Domestic Camels to the Southern Levant: Evidence from the Aravah Valley. / : Lidar Sapir-Hen and Erez Ben-Yosef. Tel Aviv University, Friends of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University 2013. TEL AVIV Vol. 40, 2013, 277–285. It was recently suggested that the introduction of the camel to the southern Levant occurred in the early Iron Age (late 2nd–early 1st millennia BCE). Our study of faunal remains from Iron Age sites at Timna, together with previous studies of Late Bronze and Iron Age sites at Timna and Wadi Faynan, enable us to pinpoint this event more precisely. The new evidence indicates that the first significant appearance of camels in the Aravah Valley was not earlier than the last third of the 10th century BCE. This date accords with data from the Negev and the settled lands further to the north when the low chronology is applied to the early Iron IIA.
Albert Einstein Letter to The New York Times. December 4, 1948 New Palestine Party. Visit of Menachen Begin and Aims of Political Movement Discussed.
Deltagelse i krige
UK National Archives: Files of Jewish interest.
James M. Ennes, Jr.: The Assault on the [USS] Liberty: The True Story of the Israeli Attack on an American Intelligence Ship, 1980.
The October War and U.S. Policy. William Burr, editor, National Security Archive. October 7, 2003.
Middle East peace process : hearing before the Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, first session, September 20, 1995 (1996).
The colonization of the West Bank territories by Israel : hearings before the Subcommittee on Immigration and Naturalization of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Ninety-fifth Congress, first session ... October 17 and 18, 1977 (1978).
Den 3. april 2009 etablerede formanden for FNs Menneske-rettighedsråd en international, uafhængig undersøgelsesmission med mandat "til at undersøge alle krænkelser af international lovgivning om menneskerettigheder og international humanitær lov, der kunne have været begået på noget tidspunkt i forbindelse med den militære operationer, der blev gennemført i Gaza i perioden fra den 27. december 2008 og den 18. januar 2009, enten før, under eller efter. "
United Nations Fact Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict:: Human Rights in Palestine and other occupied Arab Territories, 2009.
Kultur: The Jewish Encyclopedia, New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1901-1906, 12 bd.
http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/
Eksempelopslag Peace:
Bibelske Data:
Den primære betydning af ordet er "velstand", "sundhed" (Jer. xxix 7.. Job xv 21 [AV "velstand"];. Isa xlviii 18. Ps cxxii 6.. Abot III 2.). Det bruges i hilsener, som når Jakob spurgte om Laban, eller når Josef spurgte hans brødre om sin far (Mos xxix 6.) (Mos xliii 27, Hebr... Comp II Kings iv 26). . Senere, på hebraisk, som på aramæisk og arabisk blev "Fred med jer" en regelmæssig form for hilsen.
Den anden særskilte betydning af ordet er "fred" i modsætning til "krig" (Fork III 8.. Et al). Det betyder også fred i sindet og hjertet i modsætning til den uro og utilfredshed som skyldes det onde (Es xxxii. 17, xlviii. 22). Kærligheden til fred er indprentet som en dyd. Fredspagten er derfor mest ansete. "Du skal elske sandheden og fred" (Sak VIII 19. Comp ib 16.. Ps cxxxiii 1;.. Abot i. 12). Fred er en af de velsignelser, som Gud skænker mennesket, for han er skaberen af fred. "Jeg gør fred og skaber ondt" (Es xlv.7; comp ib LVII 19; Mos XV 15;... ps. XXIX. 11, cxlvii. 14).
-I Rabinsk Litteratur:
Fred er herliggjort som en af de største goder og velsignelser, som mennesket kan besidde. "Af hensyn til freden" bliver det styrende princip i forholdet mellem jøde og hedning... "For fredens skyld, kan sandheden blive ofret" (Yeb. 65b). "Intet kar, uden freden kan indeholde velsignelse" ("UK. 83b). Det siges endda, "Hele Torahen eksisterer kun af hensyn til freden" (Gi?. 59b). "Ved tre ting er velbevaret verden: ved Sandhed, dømmekraft og fred" (abot i. 18). Hillel sagde: "Elsk freden og søg fred" (abot i. 12).
Blandt andre ord om fred kan nævnes følgende: "Fredsskabende, ligesom velgørenhed, giver overskud i begge verdener" (Peah i. 1). "Guds navn er 'Fred" ("Pere? ha-Shalom" Shab 10b.). "Stor er freden, for den præstelige velsignelse afsluttes med fred" (Sifre, Num. Vi. 26). "Vær i forvejen Hilsen fred til alle mennesker" (Ber. 17a). "Hvem gør fred i sit eget hus for ham er lige så stor værdi, som hvis han havde sluttet fred i Israel" (Ab. RN xxviii. 43a). "Hvis israelitterne skulle praksis afgudsdyrkelse, og fred herskede blandt dem på samme tid, vil Gud sige, 'Jeg kan ikke udøve myndighed over for dem i vrede, fordi fred er blandt dem" (Mos R. XXXVIII. 6) .
http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=129&letter=P&search=peace#ixzz1BfPa9npA
Biblioteksvæsen. Bogvæsen:
Ownerless Objects? The story of the books Palestinians left behind in 1948. / Gish Amit.
- http://www.jerusalemquarterly.org/images/ArticlesPdf/33_amit.pdf
Jerusalem Quarterly 33 [ 7-21 ].
- http://thegreatbookrobbery.org/library/
Aviser / Newspapers / journaux / Prensa / Tageszeitungen
Tidsskrifter, periodica / Journals, periodicals / Revues spécialisées, périodiques / Revistas, publicaciones periódicas / Zeitschriften, Periodika
Litteratur:
Kunst / Art
Film:
Musik:
Teater:
Politik: Antallet af overgreb på palæstinensere stiger: Livet for palæstinenserne på den israelsk besatte Vestbred er præget af fysiske overgreb og hærværk. Siden 2009 er bosættervolden steget med 165 procent. / Mikkel Bahl. Lagt på information.dk 22. januar 2012 kl. 22:05. Bragt i den trykte udgave 23. januar 2012 på side 10 i 1. sektion.
- Free Press.
- http://www.freepress.net/search/luceneapi_node/israel
Leder: Den hellige ko. I: Filmtidsskriftet Ekko, 2011:52.
Yoav Shamir: Defamation DVD, januar 209.
- http://www.defamation-thefilm.com/html/about_yoav_shamir.html
Wollin, Amod: Ikke-volds aktioner bekymrer Israel mere end terror. I: Information, 06/20/1980.
Aktuelle og historiske politiske partier / Current and historical political parties
International organisering
Israel er medlem af FN, OECD.
Regering: Westminster regerings systemet.
Parlament
Tekst.
Forsvar / militær: SIPRI: Militærudgifter / Military expenditure of Israel. Golani Brigade. Værnepligt: WRI: Country report and updates: Israel: Israel er den største modtager af amerikansk udenrigspolitik bistand siden anden verdenskrig. Fra 1976-2004 var Israel den største årlige modtager af amerikansk udenrigsbistand, en position der kun for nylig er blevet overhalet af Irak. Siden 1985 har USA forudsat næsten tre milliarder dollars i tilskud om året til Israel. Jeremy M. Sharp: U.S. Foreign Aid to Israel. CRS, 2008.
Den israelske hær ødelægger EU-udviklingsprojekter: EU-udviklingsprojekter i de besatte områder til en værdi af mindst 370 mio. kr. er ifølge en ny opgørelse blevet ødelagt af den israelske hær – og ikke mindst danske projekter har stået for skud. / : Tobias Havmand Lagt på information.dk 28. maj 2012. Bragt i den trykte udgave 29. maj 2012 på side 10 i 1. sektion.
Richard F. Grimmett: Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 1998-2005, 2006.
Israel er medlem af atomvåbenklubben. Atomvåbenuheld. Before Dimona. Dimona Revealed.
The Israel-Argentina Yellowcake Connection
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 432
Washington, D.C., June 25, 2013 -- During 1963-64, the Israeli government secretly acquired 80-100 tons of Argentine uranium oxide ("yellowcake") for its nuclear weapons program, according to U.S. and British archival documents published today for the first time jointly by the National Security Archive, the Nuclear Proliferation International History Project, and the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. The U.S. government learned about the sale through Canadian intelligence and found out even more from its Embassy in Argentina. Washington was concerned that the yellowcake purchase cast doubts on Israel's claims about a peaceful nuclear program. In response to U.S. diplomatic queries about the sale, the government of Israel was evasive in its replies and gave no answers to the U.S.'s questions about the transaction.
Cohen, Avner: Israel and the Bomb.
- http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/israel/book.htm
Cohen, Avner : The Worst-Kept Secret: Israel's Bargain with the Bomb.
- New York: Columbia University Press, 2010. - ISBN 0-231-13698-6.
Hersh, Seymour M.: The Sampson Option: Israel's Nuclear Arsenal & American Foreign Policy.
- http://www.archive.org/details/Sampson_Option
Efterretningstjenester: Mossad.
Paramilitære styrker: Givati Brigade, 1983-.
Fredsbevægelser: The Voice of Peace Radio Station 1973-.
Ein Mann - und sein Traum von einer heilbaren Welt. So könnte die Überschrift über dem Leben des außergewöhnlichen Friedensaktivisten Abie Nathan (1927 - 2008) aus Tel Aviv lauten. Abie Nathan, ehemaliger Kampfpilot und später überzeugter Pazifist, lebte nach dem Motto: "Sei du selbst die Veränderung, die du in der Welt sehen willst."
- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7K4JWld18no
Sociale bevægelser, herunder miljøorganisationer:
Religion: Dødehavsrullerne. Islam, herunder Alawisme. Jødedom. Zionisme samt kristne mindretal.
The Encyclopaedia of Judaism, Second Edition/ editors Jacob Neusner, Alan J. Avery-Peck,and William Scott Green.
- Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV, 2005. - 3230 s..
- http://archive.org/details/TheEncyclopaediaOfJudaismSecondEdition4VolumeSet
'This new edition of the prize-winning Encyclopaedia of Judaism is nearly double the size of the original three-volume edition. It features 52 new entries and includes the two separately published supplementary volumes and bibliographic updates.
This second edition offers an authoritative, comprehensive, and systematic presentation of the current state of scholarship on fundamental issues of Judaism, both past and present. While heavy emphasis is placed on the classical literature of Judaism and its history, this edition also includes principal entries on circumcision, genetic engineering, homosexuality, intermarriage in American Judaism, and other acutely contemporary issues. Articles are written in essay form, and many are illustrated for further emphasis. The elaborate index facilitates ready access to significant people, places, and other factual information. This invaluable reference work is written for an audience from all backgrounds, scholars and general readers alike.
von Mittelstaedt, Juliane:The Growing Influence of the Ultra-Orthodox in Israel. Spiegel Online International. 01/13/2012.
Biblical researches in Palestine, Mount Sinai and Arabia Petraea: A journal of travels in the year 1838 I-III / : Edward Robinson, Eli Smith. - Boston : Crocker & Brewster, 1841.
- http://archive.org/search.php?query=Biblical%20researches%20in%20Palestine
von Mittelstaedt, Juliane: Israel ligner Iran mere end Europa. I: Politiken, 02/12/2012.
Sociale forhold: UN General Assembly, Sixty-sixth session: Children and armed conflict: Report of the Secretary-General. 2012. - 51 s.
Income maintenance allowances in Israel—ideal vs. actual. / Dmitri Romanov and Noam Zussman. I: Israel Economic Review, vol. 2, no. 1 (2004), 69-90.
- http://www.bankisrael.gov.il/deptdata/mehkar/iser/03/iser_4.pdf
'At the end of 2002 more than 150,000 families in Israel were receiving income maintenance allowances, about ten percent of the number of families of working age; twenty years ago about one percent of families received such support. Annual income maintenance payments amount to about 0.7 percent of Israel’s GDP.'
Uddannelse
Universiteter
Økonomi: Den Internationale Bank for Genopbygning og Udvikling, Verdensbanken /
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development: Country at a Glance, 2011.
- http://go.worldbank.org/YB2ATM3HY0
CRS: U.S. Foreign Aid to Israel. / Jeremy M. Sharp. 2010. - 32 s.
- http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33222.pdf , og
- http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/100102.pdf
'Israel is the largest cumulative recipient of U.S. foreign assistance since World War II. From 1976-2004, Israel was the largest annual recipient of U.S. foreign assistance, having since been supplanted by Iraq. Since 1985, the United States has provided nearly $3 billion in grants annually to Israel.
Almost all U.S. bilateral aid to Israel is in the form of military assistance. In the past, Israel also had received significant economic assistance. Strong congressional support for Israel has resulted in Israel’s receiving benefits not available to other countries. For example, Israel can use some U.S. military assistance both for research and development in the United States and for military purchases from Israeli manufacturers. In addition, all U.S. foreign assistance earmarked for Israel is delivered in the first 30 days of the fiscal year. Most other recipients normally receive aid in installments. Congress also appropriates funds for joint U.S.-Israeli missile defense programs. In August 2007, the Bush Administration announced that it would increase U.S. military assistance to Israel by $6 billion over the next decade. The agreement calls for incremental annual increases in Foreign Military Financing (FMF) to Israel, reaching $3 billion a year by FY2011.'
U.S. Military Aid to Israel : Policy Implications & Options. / Josh Ruebner.
US Campaign to End the Israeli Occupation. 2012. - 36 s.
- http://aidtoisrael.org/downloads/Policy_Paper_print.pdf
Økonomiske kriser: 1983. Social vrede kan vælte Netanyahu / Harriet Sherwood ; Luke Browne. I: Information, 08/09/2011.
BNP - FN data, landbrug, fiskeri, industri.
Landbrug: FAO Country Profiles.
Naturressourcer: Kobber i historisk tid, sand og sten til veje, byggemateriale og bosættelser.
The Commissioner of Mines and Quarries.
"Der er 85 aktive stenbrud i Israel og omkring 2000 ikke-aktive og forladte stenbrud. Alle er åbne pit miner - udvinding af råstoffer til byggeri og vejanlæg industrier eller fosfater til den kemiske industri og landbrugssektoren. Der er ingen underjordiske miner eller kul, metal, ædelsten- eller lignende miner i Israel. '
/ 'There are 85 active quarries in Israel and about 2000 non-active and abandoned quarries. All are open pit mines – extracting raw materials for the building and road construction industries or phosphates for the chemical industry and the agricultural sector. There are no underground mines or coal, metal, precious stone or similar mines in Israel.'
Israel - national report csd-18 mining
- http://www.un.org/esa/dsd/dsd_aofw_ni/ni_pdfs/NationalReports/israel/mining.pdf
'Mineralindustrien i Israel er baseret på produktion af industrielle mineraler og i forlængelse heraf, uorganiske kemikalier. Det Døde Havs mineralrige saltvand har tilladt Israel at blive en storsroducent af potaske, salt, brom, magnesia og magnesium metaller, plus en lang række afledte produkter. Landet er også en væsentlig leverandør af gødning og kemikalier, baseret på mineraler og kemikalier fra Det Døde Hav, samt fosfat. '
/ 'The minerals industry of Israel is based on the production of industrial minerals and, by extension, inorganic chemicals. The Dead Sea‘s mineral-rich saline waters have allowed Israel to become a large-scale producer of potash, salt, bromine, magnesia and magnesium metal, plus numerous downstream products. The country is also a significant supplier of fertiliser and chemicals based on the minerals and chemicals from the Dead Sea, plus phosphate rock'
- http://www.mbendi.com/indy/ming/as/il/p0005.htm
Erhverv, handel og industri: Atomkraftværker.
Våbenfabrikker, våbenhandel og våbentransporter / Weapon Factories, arms trade and -transport:
Ny hjememside med analyser af israelsk våbeneksport: Neged Neshek!
- http://www.negedneshek.org/
Eksport af store våbensystemer, ifølge SIPRI Arms Transfers Database: Argentina, Brasilien, Chile, Ecuador, Spanien, Sydkorea, Uruguay og Venezuela.
- http://www.sipri.org/research/armaments/transfers/databases/armstransfers
Defense, Security and Occupation as a Business : Military, armaments and security trade relations between Spain and Israel. / : Alejandro Pozo (Dir.) et al. Negocis Ocults, 2014.
- http://negocisocults.org/en/security-as-a-business
'The present report is the follow up to a research conducted in 2009 on Spanish military exports to Israel, and the violations of the Spanish and European legislation this action entails. This second report aims at exploring more in depth the rest of the security and defense relations. The establishment of the Israeli military industry in Spain, the provision of training and knowledge transfer by Israel, and the research projects on security manifest the boom in military relations between the two countries, and the process of privatization of public security we are witnessing.'
Eksport af våbendele til: Danmark.
Tyske regler for våbeneksport er fuld af huller: Nye stramme regler forbyder salg af tyske våben til konfliktzoner og stater, der krænker menneskerettighederne. Men eksporten af kampvogne til Saudi Arabien og ubåde til Israel fortsætter med uformindsket kraft. / Charlotte Aagaard. Lagt på information.dk 30. januar 2012. Bragt i den trykte udgave 31. januar 2012 på side 5 i 1. sektion.
Israeli arms transfers to sub-Saharan Africa. / Siemon T. Wezeman. SIPRI Background Paper, 2011. - 16 s.
- http://books.sipri.org/files/misc/SIPRIBP1110.pdf
Buying into Occupation and War: The implications of military ties between South America and Israel. Palestinian Grassroots Anti-Apartheid Wall Campaign. 2010. - 39 s. - http://stopthewall.org/downloads/pdf/buy-in2-occ.pdf
Import af våben og ammunition fra: Danmark, EU, Spanien, Sverige, Tyskland, USA, Vesttyskland.

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