Israel

Geografi ; natur og klima ; demografi ; historie ; krige ; kultur ; kunst ; film ; musik ; politik ; politiske partier ; forsvar ; kernevåben ; fredsbevægelser ; sociale bevægelser ; religion ; sociale forhold ; uddannelse ; økonomi og våbenhandel.
Geography, nature and climate, demographics, history, wars, culture, film, music, politics, political parties, defense, peace movements, religion, social issues, education, economy and arms trade.
Géographie, la nature, la démographie, histoire, la culture, la politique, la défense, les mouvements pacifistes, la religion, les questions sociales, l'éducation, économie.
Geografía, naturaleza, demografía, historia, cultura, política, defensa, movimientos por la paz, la religión, las cuestiones sociales, la educación, la economía.
Geographie, Natur, Demographie, Geschichte, Kultur, Politik, Verteidigung, Friedensbewegungen, Religion, Soziales, Bildung, Wirtschaft.
Geografi: Israel er en subtropisk mellemøstlig, vestasiatisk republik med grænser til Egypten, Jordan, Libanon, Palæstina og Gaza samt Syrien og med kystlinjer til Middelhavet og til Det røde hav. Golan højderne. Israel er en del af Levanten. Israel udvider sit territorium med bosættelser og bufferzoner i Palæstina.
Kultur: The Jewish Encyclopedia, New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1901-1906, 12 bd.
http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/
Eksempelopslag Peace:
Bibelske Data:
Den primære betydning af ordet er "velstand", "sundhed" (Jer. xxix 7.. Job xv 21 [AV "velstand"];. Isa xlviii 18. Ps cxxii 6.. Abot III 2.). Det bruges i hilsener, som når Jakob spurgte om Laban, eller når Josef spurgte hans brødre om sin far (Mos xxix 6.) (Mos xliii 27, Hebr... Comp II Kings iv 26). . Senere, på hebraisk, som på aramæisk og arabisk blev "Fred med jer" en regelmæssig form for hilsen.
Den anden særskilte betydning af ordet er "fred" i modsætning til "krig" (Fork III 8.. Et al). Det betyder også fred i sindet og hjertet i modsætning til den uro og utilfredshed som skyldes det onde (Es xxxii. 17, xlviii. 22). Kærligheden til fred er indprentet som en dyd. Fredspagten er derfor mest ansete. "Du skal elske sandheden og fred" (Sak VIII 19. Comp ib 16.. Ps cxxxiii 1;.. Abot i. 12). Fred er en af de velsignelser, som Gud skænker mennesket, for han er skaberen af fred. "Jeg gør fred og skaber ondt" (Es xlv.7; comp ib LVII 19; Mos XV 15;... ps. XXIX. 11, cxlvii. 14).
-I Rabinsk Litteratur:
Fred er herliggjort som en af de største goder og velsignelser, som mennesket kan besidde. "Af hensyn til freden" bliver det styrende princip i forholdet mellem jøde og hedning... "For fredens skyld, kan sandheden blive ofret" (Yeb. 65b). "Intet kar, uden freden kan indeholde velsignelse" ("UK. 83b). Det siges endda, "Hele Torahen eksisterer kun af hensyn til freden" (Gi?. 59b). "Ved tre ting er velbevaret verden: ved Sandhed, dømmekraft og fred" (abot i. 18). Hillel sagde: "Elsk freden og søg fred" (abot i. 12).
Blandt andre ord om fred kan nævnes følgende: "Fredsskabende, ligesom velgørenhed, giver overskud i begge verdener" (Peah i. 1). "Guds navn er 'Fred" ("Pere? ha-Shalom" Shab 10b.). "Stor er freden, for den præstelige velsignelse afsluttes med fred" (Sifre, Num. Vi. 26). "Vær i forvejen Hilsen fred til alle mennesker" (Ber. 17a). "Hvem gør fred i sit eget hus for ham er lige så stor værdi, som hvis han havde sluttet fred i Israel" (Ab. RN xxviii. 43a). "Hvis israelitterne skulle praksis afgudsdyrkelse, og fred herskede blandt dem på samme tid, vil Gud sige, 'Jeg kan ikke udøve myndighed over for dem i vrede, fordi fred er blandt dem" (Mos R. XXXVIII. 6) .
http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=129&letter=P&search=peace#ixzz1BfPa9npA
Massemedier og pressefrihed / Mass media and freedom of the press:
Tekst:
Radio:
TV
Biblioteksvæsen / Libraries. Bogvæsen / Books:
National Library of Israel.
Ownerless Objects? The story of the books Palestinians left behind in 1948. / Gish Amit.
- http://www.jerusalemquarterly.org/images/ArticlesPdf/33_amit.pdf
Jerusalem Quarterly 33 [ 7-21 ].
- http://thegreatbookrobbery.org/library/
Aviser / Newspapers / journaux / Prensa / Tageszeitungen
Tidsskrifter, periodica / Journals, periodicals / Revues spécialisées, périodiques / Revistas, publicaciones periódicas / Zeitschriften, Periodika
Litteratur:
Kunst / Art
Kunstakademier
Kunsthistorie
Kunstmuseer
Malere
Film / Movies / cinéma / Cine / Filme:
Filmhistorie:
Filmcensur:
Undervisning i film:
Producentselskaber:
Filmografier:
Tekst:
Teater:
International organisering
Israel er medlem af FN, OECD.
Tekst.
Forsvar / militær: SIPRI: Militærudgifter / Military expenditure of Israel. Golani Brigade. Værnepligt: WRI: Country report and updates: Israel: Israel er den største modtager af amerikansk udenrigspolitik bistand siden anden verdenskrig. Fra 1976-2004 var Israel den største årlige modtager af amerikansk udenrigsbistand, en position der kun for nylig er blevet overhalet af Irak. Siden 1985 har USA forudsat næsten tre milliarder dollars i tilskud om året til Israel. Jeremy M. Sharp: U.S. Foreign Aid to Israel. CRS, 2008.
Den israelske hær ødelægger EU-udviklingsprojekter: EU-udviklingsprojekter i de besatte områder til en værdi af mindst 370 mio. kr. er ifølge en ny opgørelse blevet ødelagt af den israelske hær – og ikke mindst danske projekter har stået for skud. / : Tobias Havmand Lagt på information.dk 28. maj 2012. Bragt i den trykte udgave 29. maj 2012 på side 10 i 1. sektion.
Richard F. Grimmett: Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 1998-2005, 2006.
Efterretningstjenester: Mossad.
Paramilitære styrker: Givati Brigade, 1983-.
Sociale forhold: UN General Assembly, Sixty-sixth session: Children and armed conflict: Report of the Secretary-General. 2012. - 51 s.
Income maintenance allowances in Israel—ideal vs. actual. / Dmitri Romanov and Noam Zussman. I: Israel Economic Review, vol. 2, no. 1 (2004), 69-90.
- http://www.bankisrael.gov.il/deptdata/mehkar/iser/03/iser_4.pdf
'At the end of 2002 more than 150,000 families in Israel were receiving income maintenance allowances, about ten percent of the number of families of working age; twenty years ago about one percent of families received such support. Annual income maintenance payments amount to about 0.7 percent of Israel’s GDP.'
Uddannelse
Universiteter
Økonomi:
Bankvæsen.
Millions of documents show heads of state, criminals and celebrities using secret hideaways in tax havens. / : The International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Apr 3, 2016
- https://panamapapers.icij.org/
Den Internationale Bank for Genopbygning og Udvikling, Verdensbanken /
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development: Country at a Glance, 2011.
- http://go.worldbank.org/YB2ATM3HY0
CRS: U.S. Foreign Aid to Israel. / Jeremy M. Sharp. 2010. - 32 s.
- http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33222.pdf , og
- http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/100102.pdf
'Israel is the largest cumulative recipient of U.S. foreign assistance since World War II. From 1976-2004, Israel was the largest annual recipient of U.S. foreign assistance, having since been supplanted by Iraq. Since 1985, the United States has provided nearly $3 billion in grants annually to Israel.
Almost all U.S. bilateral aid to Israel is in the form of military assistance. In the past, Israel also had received significant economic assistance. Strong congressional support for Israel has resulted in Israel’s receiving benefits not available to other countries. For example, Israel can use some U.S. military assistance both for research and development in the United States and for military purchases from Israeli manufacturers. In addition, all U.S. foreign assistance earmarked for Israel is delivered in the first 30 days of the fiscal year. Most other recipients normally receive aid in installments. Congress also appropriates funds for joint U.S.-Israeli missile defense programs. In August 2007, the Bush Administration announced that it would increase U.S. military assistance to Israel by $6 billion over the next decade. The agreement calls for incremental annual increases in Foreign Military Financing (FMF) to Israel, reaching $3 billion a year by FY2011.'
U.S. Military Aid to Israel : Policy Implications & Options. / Josh Ruebner.
US Campaign to End the Israeli Occupation. 2012. - 36 s.
- http://aidtoisrael.org/downloads/Policy_Paper_print.pdf
Økonomiske kriser: 1983. Social vrede kan vælte Netanyahu / Harriet Sherwood ; Luke Browne. I: Information, 08/09/2011.
Gush Shalom presents: Settlement Products Wiki
Press release, March 28, 2016
Settlement Products Wiki - a systematic informational research about businesses in the settlements and their products; businesses that have left the settlements and relocated to within the Green Line; and the misleading tactics with which businesses attempt to cover up and conceal their location in the settlements. - http://settlement-products.wikia.com/
'Documentation that we found online testifies to the long history of shoe polish company Mavrik Industries, which was founded in the 1930's in Tel-Aviv, became the largest factory of its type in Israel and in the entire Middle East and engulfed 28 competing factories. The company moved to the Mishor Adumim settlement industrial zone – which turned out to be an unlucky business choice that ended in its folding during the second intifada. Similarly, Atlas Sweets, which was one of the leading manufacturers of chewing gum in Israel since the 1970's, relocated to the Atarot industrial zone in East Jerusalem and there faced serious business difficulties when the second intifada broke out. The company ultimately folded and its equipment and brand were purchased by the Mastix company from Beit Shemesh.
Documents from the Companies' Registrar and court rulings tell the story of Abir Textile Industries, Abir Thread Industries, Sabrilon Thread Technology and Hadoron Textile Marketing, which were located in the Barkan industrial zone, became intertwined, conducted intricate power struggles and ultimately nearly all of them went bankrupt and entered into receivership. We can mention information that was uncovered about additional settlement companies that faced bankruptcy, receivership and closure – including Ariye Plast from the Ma'aleh Efraim industrial zone, Mey Tsurim from Rosh Tsurim in Gush Etzion, the Hebron Settlers' Carpentry, and quite a few other companies.'
Occupation, Inc.: How Settlement Businesses Contribute to Israel's Violations of Palestinian Rights. 2016 Human Rights Watch.
- https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/report_pdf/israel0116_web.pdf
'In fact, the physical footprint of Israeli business activity in the West Bank is larger than that of residential settlements. In addition to commercial centers inside of settlements, there are approximately 20 Israeli-administered industrial zones in the West Bank covering about 1,365 hectares, and Israeli settlers oversee the cultivation of 9,300 hectares of agricultural land. In comparison, the built-up area of residential settlements covers 6,000 hectares (although their municipal borders encompass a much larger area).'
BNP - FN data, landbrug, fiskeri, industri.
Landbrug: FAO Country Profiles.
Naturressourcer: Kobber i historisk tid, sand og sten til veje, byggemateriale og bosættelser.
The Commissioner of Mines and Quarries.
"Der er 85 aktive stenbrud i Israel og omkring 2000 ikke-aktive og forladte stenbrud. Alle er åbne pit miner - udvinding af råstoffer til byggeri og vejanlæg industrier eller fosfater til den kemiske industri og landbrugssektoren. Der er ingen underjordiske miner eller kul, metal, ædelsten- eller lignende miner i Israel. '
/ 'There are 85 active quarries in Israel and about 2000 non-active and abandoned quarries. All are open pit mines – extracting raw materials for the building and road construction industries or phosphates for the chemical industry and the agricultural sector. There are no underground mines or coal, metal, precious stone or similar mines in Israel.'
Israel - national report csd-18 mining
- http://www.un.org/esa/dsd/dsd_aofw_ni/ni_pdfs/NationalReports/israel/mining.pdf
'Mineralindustrien i Israel er baseret på produktion af industrielle mineraler og i forlængelse heraf, uorganiske kemikalier. Det Døde Havs mineralrige saltvand har tilladt Israel at blive en storsroducent af potaske, salt, brom, magnesia og magnesium metaller, plus en lang række afledte produkter. Landet er også en væsentlig leverandør af gødning og kemikalier, baseret på mineraler og kemikalier fra Det Døde Hav, samt fosfat. '
/ 'The minerals industry of Israel is based on the production of industrial minerals and, by extension, inorganic chemicals. The Dead Sea‘s mineral-rich saline waters have allowed Israel to become a large-scale producer of potash, salt, bromine, magnesia and magnesium metal, plus numerous downstream products. The country is also a significant supplier of fertiliser and chemicals based on the minerals and chemicals from the Dead Sea, plus phosphate Rock'
- http://www.mbendi.com/indy/ming/as/il/p0005.htm
Erhverv, handel og industri: Atomkraftværker.

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