US Navy

Engelsk, latin: Den amerikanske flåde.
Kommando under USAs forsvarsministerium.
Flåden havde værnepligt til og med Vietnamkrigen.
Den amerikanske flådes krigsskibe kan være udstyret med konventionelle våben og atomvåben og har deltaget i atomvåbenforsøg i Forsøgsområderne i Stillehavet i den tidlige del af den kolde krig, allerede fra Operation Crossroads i 1946.
Ifølge den amerikanske Rigsrevision koster det i 2018 omkring 1 milliard dollars at skrotte et af flådens halvtreds år gamle hangarskibe.
Se også: Amfibiekrigsførelse ; Farallon Islands ; the Fat Leonard corruption scandal ; Military Sealift Command ; Ocean Surveillance Information System ; Office for Naval Research ; Office of Naval Intelligence ; USA: Air force ; Army ; Coast Guard ; baser, herunder Okinawa ; kernevåben : deltagelse i krige.

Litteratur

GAO: Navy Readiness: Actions Needed to Address Costly Maintenance Delays Facing the Attack Submarine Fleet, 2018.
Navy shipyards have been unable to keep up with maintenance demands for attack submarines. As a result, the Navy has spent $1.5 billion since 2008 to support submarines that it could not deploy.
For example, the USS Boise has been docked for over 2 years while waiting for maintenance—with the Navy paying to support it.
CRS: Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress. / : Ronald O'Rourke, 2017.
The Aegis ballistic missile defense (BMD) program, which is carried out by the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and the Navy, gives Navy Aegis cruisers and destroyers a capability for conducting BMD operations. Under MDA and Navy plans, the number of BMD-capable Navy Aegis ships is scheduled to grow from 33 at the end of FY2016 to 49 at the end of FY2021. The figure for FY2020 may include up to four BMD-capable Aegis cruisers in reduced operating status as part of a program to modernize 11 existing Aegis cruisers. The Navy’s cruisers and destroyers are called Aegis ships because they are equipped with the Aegis ship combat system—an integrated collection of sensors, computers, software, displays, weapon launchers, and weapons named for the mythological shield that defended Zeus. The Aegis system was originally developed in the 1970s for defending ships against aircraft, anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCMs), surface threats, and subsurface threats. The system was first deployed by the Navy in 1983, and it has been updated many times since. The Navy’s Aegis ships include Ticonderoga (CG-47) class cruisers and Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) class destroyers.
GAO: Aircraft Carrier Dismantlement and Disposal: Options Warrant Additional Oversight and Raise Regulatory Questions Report to Congressional Committees, 2018. GAO-18-523 After 51 years of service, ex-USS Enterprise (also known as CVN 65)—the Navy’s first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier—is being prepared for dismantlement and disposal. At approximately 76,000 tons, CVN 65 will require an unprecedented level of work to dismantle and dispose of as compared to previous ships. The Navy originally intended to dismantle the entire CVN 65, both nuclear and non-nuclear components, at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and Intermediate Maintenance Facility (hereafter referred to as Puget Sound Naval Shipyard), which is its usual facility for this type of activity. However, in 2013, the Navy’s cost estimate for the shipyard to perform all CVN 65 dismantlement and disposal activities increased—from a range of $500 million to $750 million—to well over $1 billion. This led the Navy to consider alternatives. In 2016, the Navy issued a request for proposals to have a commercial company recycle the non-nuclear portions of the ship. The Navy also sought information from industry at that time on the potential for a commercial company to dismantle and dispose of the entire ship. In February 2017, the Navy announced it canceled its request for proposals on commercial recycling of non-nuclear portions of the ship and continued assessing its options.
GAO: Columbia class submarine technologies: Immature Technologies Present Risks to Achieving Cost, Schedule, and Performance Goals
Additional development and testing are required to demonstrate the maturity of several Columbia class submarine technologies that are critical to performance, including the Integrated Power System, nuclear reactor, common missile compartment, and propulsor and related coordinated stern technologies (see figure). As a result, it is unknown at this point whether they will work as expected, be delayed, or cost more than planned. Any unexpected delays could postpone the deployment of the lead submarine past the 2031 deadline.
CRS: Navy Columbia (SSBN-826) Class Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress. / : Ronald O'Rourke, 2017.
The Columbia (SSBN-826) class program, previously known as the Ohio replacement program (ORP) or SSBN(X) program, is a program to design and build a new class of 12 ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) to replace the Navy's current force of 14 Ohio-class SSBNs. The Navy has identified the Columbia-class program as the Navy's top priority program. The Navy wants to procure the first Columbia-class boat in FY2021. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget requests $842.9 million in advance procurement (AP) funding and $1,041.7 million in research and development funding for the program.
The Navy as of January 2017 estimates the procurement cost of the lead ship in the class at $8.2 billion in constant 2017 dollars, not including several billion dollars in additional cost for plans for the class, and the average unit procurement cost of ships 2 through 12 in the program at $6.5 billion each in constant FY2017 dollars. A March 2017 GAO report assessing selected major Department of Defense (DOD) weapon acquisition programs stated that the estimated total acquisition cost of the Columbia-class program is $100,221.9 million (about $100.2 billion) in constant FY2017 dollars, including $12,648.1 million (about $12.6 billion) in research and development costs and $87,426.5 million (about $87.4 billion) in procurement costs. Observers are concerned about the impact the Columbia-class program will have on the Navy's ability to fund the procurement of other types of ships at desired rates in the 2020s and early 2030s.
CRS: Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress. / : Ronald O'Rourke, 2017.
The Navy has been procuring Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) class Aegis destroyers since FY1985.
Surface Combatant Construction Industrial Base
All cruisers, destroyers, and frigates procured since FY1985 have been built at General Dynamics’ Bath Iron Works (GD/BIW) shipyard of Bath, ME, and Huntington Ingalls Industries’ Ingalls Shipbuilding (HII/Ingalls) of Pascagoula, MS. Both yards have long histories of building larger surface combatants. Construction of Navy surface combatants in recent years has accounted for virtually all of GD/BIW’s ship-construction work and for a significant share of HII/Ingalls’ ship-construction work. (HII/Ingalls also builds amphibious ships for the Navy.) Navy surface combatants are overhauled, repaired, and modernized at GD/BIW, HII/Ingalls, and other U.S. shipyards.
Lockheed Martin and Raytheon are generally considered the two leading Navy surface combatant radar makers and combat system integrators. Lockheed is the lead contractor for the DDG-51 combat system (the Aegis system), while Raytheon is the lead contractor for the DDG-1000 combat system, the core of which is called the Total Ship Computing Environment Infrastructure (TSCE-I). Lockheed has a share of the DDG- 1000 combat system, and Raytheon has a share of the DDG-51 combat system. Lockheed, Raytheon, and Northrop competed to be the maker of the AMDR to be carried by the Flight III DDG-51. On October 10, 2013, the Navy announced that it had selected Raytheon to be the maker of the AMDR. The surface combatant construction industrial base also includes hundreds of additional firms that supply materials and components. The financial health of Navy shipbuilding supplier firms has been a matter of concern in recent years, particularly since some of them are the sole sources for what they make for Navy surface combatants.
CRS: Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress. / : Ronald O'Rourke, 2017.
GAO: Navy force structure: Actions Needed to Ensure Proper Size and Composition of Ship Crews, 2017.
- http://www.gao.gov/assets/690/684771.pdf
CRS: Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress. / : Ronald O'Rourke, 1017.
Aircraft Carrier Construction Industrial Base
All U.S. aircraft carriers procured since FY1958 have been built by Newport News Shipbuilding (NNS), of Newport News, VA, a shipyard that is part of Huntington Ingalls Industries (HII). HII/NNS is the only U.S. shipyard that can build large-deck, nuclear-powered aircraft carriers. The aircraft carrier construction industrial base also includes hundreds of subcontractors and suppliers in various states.
CRS: Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate Program: Background and Issues for Congress. / : Ronald O'Rourke, 2017.
The Navy's Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate program is a program to procure a large number of LCSs and modified LCSs. The modified LCSs are to be referred to as frigates. The LCS program has been controversial over the years due to past cost growth, design and construction issues with the lead ships built to each design (including, most recently, multiple problems with the ships' propulsion systems), concerns over the ships' survivability (i.e., ability to withstand battle damage), concerns over whether the ships are sufficiently armed and would be able to perform their stated missions effectively, and concerns over the development and testing of the ships' modular mission packages. The Navy's execution of the program has been a matter of congressional oversight attention for several years.
CRS: Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress. / : Ronald O'Rourke, 2017.
The Navy has been procuring Virginia (SSN-774) class nuclear-powered attack submarines since FY1998 The U.S. Navy operates three types of submarines—nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs),3 nuclear-powered cruise missile and special operations forces (SOF) submarines (SSGNs),4 and nuclear-powered attack submarines (SSNs).
American Naval fighting ships
Dictionary of American Naval fighting ships, I-VIII. / : James L. Mooney, editor ; foreword by Arleigh Burke. Naval Historical Center, Dept. of the Navy, 1991.
https://archive.org/search.php?query=Dictionary%20of%20American%20Naval%20fighting%20ships
Shipping list no.: 91-626-P (v. 1, pt. A) v. 1, pts. A-B. Historical sketches, Letters A and B -- v. 2. Historical sketches, Letters C-F -- v. 3. Historical sketches, Letters G-K, appendices 1-6 -- v. 4. Historical sketches, Letters L-M -- v. 5. Historical sketches, Letters N-Q -- v. 6. Historical sketches, Letters R-S -- v. 7. Historical sketches, Letters T-V -- v. 8. Historical sketches, Letters W-Z
The dictionary consists of an alphabetical index to over 10,000 ship histories documenting nearly every ship that the US Navy has put to sea. Continental and Confederate vessels are also included. Entries include physical information, commissioning, service record, notable actions, and decommissioning. Drawings, photographs, and documents are also included
A history of the United States Navy from 1775 to 1901. / : Edgar Stantony Maclay.
- New York : Appleton, 1901.
- https://archive.org/details/cu31924088428887
- https://archive.org/search.php?query=subject%3A%22United+States.+Navy%22

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