- ⚔ ☢
⚓ Engelsk, latin: Den amerikanske
Kommando under USAs forsvarsministerium.
Flåden havde værnepligt til og med Vietnamkrigen.
Den amerikanske flådes
krigsskibe kan være udstyret med konventionelle
våben og atomvåben og
har deltaget i
Forsøgsområderne i Stillehavet i den tidlige del
af den kolde krig, allerede fra
Operation Crossroads i 1946.
- Ifølge den amerikanske Rigsrevision koster det i 2018
omkring 1 milliard dollars at skrotte et af flådens halvtreds
år gamle hangarskibe.
- Se også:
Farallon Islands ; the Fat Leonard corruption scandal ; Military Sealift Command ; Ocean Surveillance Information System ; Office for Naval Research ; Office of
Naval Intelligence ; USA: Air force ;
Army ; Coast Guard ; baser, herunder
Okinawa ; kernevåben : deltagelse i krige.
- GAO: Navy Readiness: Actions Needed to Address Costly
Maintenance Delays Facing the Attack Submarine Fleet, 2018.
Navy shipyards have been unable to keep up with maintenance demands
for attack submarines. As a result, the Navy has spent $1.5 billion
since 2008 to support submarines that it could not deploy.
For example, the USS Boise has been docked for over 2 years while
waiting for maintenance—with the Navy paying to support
- CRS: Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program:
Background and Issues for Congress. / : Ronald O'Rourke, 2017.
The Aegis ballistic missile defense (BMD) program, which is carried
out by the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and the Navy, gives Navy
Aegis cruisers and destroyers a capability for conducting BMD
operations. Under MDA and Navy plans, the number of BMD-capable
Navy Aegis ships is scheduled to grow from 33 at the end of FY2016
to 49 at the end of FY2021. The figure for FY2020 may include up to
four BMD-capable Aegis cruisers in reduced operating status as part
of a program to modernize 11 existing Aegis cruisers. The
Navy’s cruisers and destroyers are called Aegis ships because
they are equipped with the Aegis ship combat system—an
integrated collection of sensors, computers, software, displays,
weapon launchers, and weapons named for the mythological shield
that defended Zeus. The Aegis system was originally developed in
the 1970s for defending ships against aircraft, anti-ship cruise
missiles (ASCMs), surface threats, and subsurface threats. The
system was first deployed by the Navy in 1983, and it has been
updated many times since. The Navy’s Aegis ships include
Ticonderoga (CG-47) class cruisers and Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) class
GAO: Aircraft Carrier Dismantlement and Disposal: Options Warrant
Additional Oversight and Raise Regulatory Questions Report to
Congressional Committees, 2018. GAO-18-523 After 51 years of
service, ex-USS Enterprise (also known as CVN 65)—the
Navy’s first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier—is being
prepared for dismantlement and disposal. At approximately 76,000
tons, CVN 65 will require an unprecedented level of work to
dismantle and dispose of as compared to previous ships. The Navy
originally intended to dismantle the entire CVN 65, both nuclear
and non-nuclear components, at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard and
Intermediate Maintenance Facility (hereafter referred to as Puget
Sound Naval Shipyard), which is its usual facility for this type of
activity. However, in 2013, the Navy’s cost estimate for the
shipyard to perform all CVN 65 dismantlement and disposal
activities increased—from a range of $500 million to $750
million—to well over $1 billion. This led the Navy to
consider alternatives. In 2016, the Navy issued a request for
proposals to have a commercial company recycle the non-nuclear
portions of the ship. The Navy also sought information from
industry at that time on the potential for a commercial company to
dismantle and dispose of the entire ship. In February 2017, the
Navy announced it canceled its request for proposals on commercial
recycling of non-nuclear portions of the ship and continued
assessing its options.
GAO: Columbia class submarine technologies: Immature
Technologies Present Risks to Achieving Cost, Schedule, and
Additional development and testing are required to demonstrate the
maturity of several Columbia class submarine technologies that are
critical to performance, including the Integrated Power System,
nuclear reactor, common missile compartment, and propulsor and
related coordinated stern technologies (see figure). As a result,
it is unknown at this point whether they will work as expected, be
delayed, or cost more than planned. Any unexpected delays could
postpone the deployment of the lead submarine past the 2031
CRS: Navy Columbia (SSBN-826)
Class Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and
Issues for Congress. / : Ronald O'Rourke, 2017.
The Columbia (SSBN-826) class program, previously known as the Ohio
replacement program (ORP) or SSBN(X) program, is a program to
design and build a new class of 12 ballistic missile submarines
(SSBNs) to replace the Navy's current force of 14 Ohio-class SSBNs.
The Navy has identified the Columbia-class program as the Navy's
top priority program. The Navy wants to procure the first
Columbia-class boat in FY2021. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget
requests $842.9 million in advance procurement (AP) funding and
$1,041.7 million in research and development funding for the
The Navy as of January 2017 estimates the procurement cost of the
lead ship in the class at $8.2 billion in constant 2017 dollars,
not including several billion dollars in additional cost for plans
for the class, and the average unit procurement cost of ships 2
through 12 in the program at $6.5 billion each in constant FY2017
dollars. A March 2017 GAO report assessing selected major
Department of Defense (DOD) weapon acquisition programs stated that
the estimated total acquisition cost of the Columbia-class program
is $100,221.9 million (about $100.2 billion) in constant FY2017
dollars, including $12,648.1 million (about $12.6 billion) in
research and development costs and $87,426.5 million (about $87.4
billion) in procurement costs. Observers are concerned about the
impact the Columbia-class program will have on the Navy's ability
to fund the procurement of other types of ships at desired rates in
the 2020s and early 2030s.
- CRS: Navy DDG-51 and
DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for
Congress. / : Ronald O'Rourke, 2017.
The Navy has been procuring Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) class Aegis
destroyers since FY1985.
Surface Combatant Construction Industrial Base
All cruisers, destroyers, and frigates procured since FY1985 have
been built at General Dynamics’ Bath Iron Works (GD/BIW)
shipyard of Bath, ME, and Huntington Ingalls Industries’
Ingalls Shipbuilding (HII/Ingalls) of Pascagoula, MS. Both yards
have long histories of building larger surface combatants.
Construction of Navy surface combatants in recent years has
accounted for virtually all of GD/BIW’s ship-construction
work and for a significant share of HII/Ingalls’
ship-construction work. (HII/Ingalls also builds amphibious ships
for the Navy.) Navy surface combatants are overhauled, repaired,
and modernized at GD/BIW, HII/Ingalls, and other U.S.
Lockheed Martin and Raytheon are generally considered the two
leading Navy surface combatant radar makers and combat system
integrators. Lockheed is the lead contractor for the DDG-51 combat
system (the Aegis system), while Raytheon is the lead contractor
for the DDG-1000 combat system, the core of which is called the
Total Ship Computing Environment Infrastructure (TSCE-I). Lockheed
has a share of the DDG- 1000 combat system, and Raytheon has a
share of the DDG-51 combat system. Lockheed, Raytheon, and Northrop
competed to be the maker of the AMDR to be carried by the Flight
III DDG-51. On October 10, 2013, the Navy announced that it had
selected Raytheon to be the maker of the AMDR. The surface
combatant construction industrial base also includes hundreds of
additional firms that supply materials and components. The
financial health of Navy shipbuilding supplier firms has been a
matter of concern in recent years, particularly since some of them
are the sole sources for what they make for Navy surface
- CRS: Navy Force Structure and
Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress. / :
Ronald O'Rourke, 2017.
- GAO: Navy force structure: Actions Needed to Ensure
Proper Size and Composition of Ship Crews, 2017.
- CRS: Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class
Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for
Congress. / : Ronald O'Rourke, 1017.
Aircraft Carrier Construction Industrial Base
All U.S. aircraft carriers procured since FY1958 have been built by
Newport News Shipbuilding (NNS), of Newport News, VA, a shipyard
that is part of Huntington Ingalls Industries (HII). HII/NNS is the
only U.S. shipyard that can build large-deck, nuclear-powered
aircraft carriers. The aircraft carrier construction industrial
base also includes hundreds of subcontractors and suppliers in
- CRS: Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate Program:
Background and Issues for Congress. / : Ronald O'Rourke, 2017.
The Navy's Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate program is a program
to procure a large number of LCSs and modified LCSs. The modified
LCSs are to be referred to as frigates. The LCS program has been
controversial over the years due to past cost growth, design and
construction issues with the lead ships built to each design
(including, most recently, multiple problems with the ships'
propulsion systems), concerns over the ships' survivability (i.e.,
ability to withstand battle damage), concerns over whether the
ships are sufficiently armed and would be able to perform their
stated missions effectively, and concerns over the development and
testing of the ships' modular mission packages. The Navy's
execution of the program has been a matter of congressional
oversight attention for several years.
- CRS: Navy Virginia
(SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background
and Issues for Congress. / : Ronald O'Rourke, 2017.
The Navy has been procuring Virginia (SSN-774) class
nuclear-powered attack submarines since FY1998 The U.S. Navy
operates three types of submarines—nuclear-powered ballistic
missile submarines (SSBNs),3 nuclear-powered cruise missile and
special operations forces (SOF) submarines (SSGNs),4 and
nuclear-powered attack submarines (SSNs).
- American Naval fighting ships
Dictionary of American Naval fighting ships, I-VIII. / :
James L. Mooney, editor ; foreword by Arleigh Burke. Naval
Historical Center, Dept. of the Navy, 1991.
Shipping list no.: 91-626-P (v. 1, pt. A) v. 1, pts. A-B.
Historical sketches, Letters A and B -- v. 2. Historical sketches,
Letters C-F -- v. 3. Historical sketches, Letters G-K, appendices
1-6 -- v. 4. Historical sketches, Letters L-M -- v. 5. Historical
sketches, Letters N-Q -- v. 6. Historical sketches, Letters R-S --
v. 7. Historical sketches, Letters T-V -- v. 8. Historical
sketches, Letters W-Z
The dictionary consists of an alphabetical index to over 10,000
ship histories documenting nearly every ship that the US Navy has
put to sea. Continental and Confederate vessels are also included.
Entries include physical information, commissioning, service
record, notable actions, and decommissioning. Drawings,
photographs, and documents are also included
- A history of the United States Navy from 1775 to 1901. /
: Edgar Stantony Maclay.
- New York : Appleton, 1901.
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