Capabilities Of Nuclear Weapons. / : Nigel B. Cook.
United States Goverment Printing Office Washington: 1964.
Buffalo Round 2 was a 1.4 kiloton fission bomb surface burst on Maralinga soil, which is calcium carbonate topped with a thin layer of silicate sand. This Maralinga soil produced silicate sand (Nevada test like) fallout for tower bursts like Buffalo Round 1 which produced no significant crater, proving that for low altitude bursts the fallout is caused by the sweep-up of loose desert sand by the afterwinds and updraft under the rising fireball. But for the surface burst Buffalo Round 2, the fallout particles were composed of calcium oxide surrounded by calcium carbonate which must have come from the calcium calcium subsoil, like the American tests on coral islands in Bikini and Eniwetok Atoll. This proved that the cratering ejecta provides the fallout material in a surface burst. The 1964 Capabilities of Nuclear Weapons, TM 23-200, uses this British surface burst to check its fallout model.
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