atomaffald

Græsk: Al det radioaktive  affald der er fremkommet i forbindelse med udvikling og anvendelse af atomenergi, atomvåben eller kernevåben, herunder uheld. Radioaktivt affald så som brugte reaktorstave genbruges bl.a. militært i depleted uranium og i MOX.
Atomaffald er bl.a. dækket ind under f&oslassh;lgende international lovgivning: Affaldskonventionen og Konvention om bistand i tilfælde af kernekraftuheld eller strålingsfare fra 1986 og International fælles konvention af 5. september 1997 om sikker håndtering af brugt brændsel og radioaktivt affald / Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. Konventionen 'har til formål at nå og bevare et højt sikkerheds-niveau i hele verden inden for håndvåbentering af brugt brændsel og radioaktivt affald. Dette skal ske gennem at styrke nationale foranstaltninger og internationalt samarbejde samt i alle faser af håndtering af brugt brændsel og radioaktivt affald at etablere og bevare effektive forsvarsmekanismer imod mulige farer, således at enkeltpersoner, samfundet og miljøet beskyttes mod ioniserende strålings skadelige virkninger. Konventionen skal bidrage til at sikre at befolkningens helbred og sikkerhed samt beskytte miljøet så godt som praktisk muligt i fremtiden, også i lande, som eventuelt har begrænset eller utilstrækkelig lovgivning på området.'
Blandt de organisationer som arbejder med atomaffaldsproblemer kan nævnes: FN's Videnskabelige Komité vedrørende Effekterne af Atomstråling, ILO, Det Internationale Atomenergiagentur, Den Internationale Kommission for Strålebeskyttelse, Den Internationale Kommission for Strålebeskyttelsesenheder og-målinger, International Radiation Protection Association, Kerneenergiagenturet, FN's Miljøprogram Verdenssundhedsorganisationen, herunder Det Internationale Agentur for Kræftforskning / International Agency for Research on Cancer, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Commission on Radiological Protection, International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, International Labour Organization, Nuclear Energy Agency, United Nations Environment Programme World Health Organization
Se også: The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal, usually known eller Basel Convention, 1992 ; Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future ; atomvåbenuheld ; Farallon Island Radioactive Waste Dump ; Internationalt strålebeskyttelsessamarbejde ; Lake Powell ; Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force ; Runit Island ; slutdepot ; Yucca Mountain Underground Laboratory.

Litteratur

Breccia-pipe uranium mining in the Grand Canyon region and implications for uranium levels in Colorado River water. / : Jon E. Spencer ; Karen Wenrich. Arizona Geological Survey, 2011.
- http://azmemory.azlibrary.gov/cdm/ref/collection/statepubs/id/29325
CRS: Civilian Nuclear Waste Disposal. / : Mark Holt. 2015.
'Spent Nuclear Fuel Program
The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (P.L. 97-425), as amended in 1987, required DOE to focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the site of a deep underground repository for spent nuclear fuel and other highly radioactive waste. The state of Nevada has strongly opposed DOE’s efforts on the grounds that the site is unsafe, pointing to potential volcanic activity, earthquakes, water infiltration, underground flooding, nuclear chain reactions, and fossil fuel and mineral deposits that might encourage future human intrusion.'
CRS: U.S. Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage. / James D. Werner. 2012. - 56 s. - http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42513.pdf
GAO: Testimony Before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, U.S. Senate Saturday, December 6, 2003 Nuclear Waste Cleanup : Preliminary Observations on DOE’s Cleanup of the Paducah Uranium Enrichment Plant Statement of Robin M. Nazzaro, Director Natural Resources and Environment.
- http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d04278t.pdf
House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs (now House Committee on Natural Resources). Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment: Disposal of Low Level Radioactive Waste (July 26, 1990). 1-DVD - 'The subcommittee heard testimony on a new policy by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission which deregulates low-level atomic waste from hospitals, labs and nuclear plants. The subcommittee also released documentation of Environmental Protection Agency and some National Regulatory Commission staff advisers opposition to the new regulations developed by the National Regulatory Commission. Some lawmakers' also expressed concern that certain states would become dumping grounds for the atomic waste'.
- http://www.archive.org/details/org.c-span.13300-1
Hvad indlandsisen gemmer. / : Owen Wilkes. Forsvar, 1980:1 s. 18-20.
Nuclear Wastelands : A global guide to nuclear weapons production and its health and environmental effects / by a special commission of International Psysicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War and the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research ; edited by Arjun Makhijiani, Howars Hu and Katherine Yih. - Cambridge ; London : The MIT Press, 1995.
Nuclear Wastes in the Arctic: An Analysis of Arctic and Other Regional Impacts from Soviet Nuclear Contamination, OTA-ENV-623
- Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, September 1995. - 244 s.
- http://www.fas.org/ota/reports/9504.pdf
Spent Nuclear Fuel Pools in the U.S.: Reducing the Deadly Risks of Storage.
/ : Robert Alvarez. Institute for Policy Studies, 2011.
Uddannelses- og Forskningsministeriet, 14. marts 2018:
Regeringen og Folketingets partier er enige om, at det radioaktive affald fortsat oplagres på Risø indtil senest 2073, hvor et dybtliggende slutdepot skal kunne tages i brug. Faciliteterne på Risø skal opgraderes, og mulighederne for at eksportere det mest radioaktive affald vil fortsat blive afsøgt.
Regeringen (Venstre, Liberal Alliance og Det Konservative Folkeparti), Socialdemokratiet, Dansk Folkeparti, Radikale Venstre, Socialistisk Folkeparti, Alternativet og Enhedslisten er enige om en langsigtet løsning for Danmarks radioaktive affald.
Regeringen har i dag fremsat et forslag til folketingsbeslutning, der indebærer en opgradering af Dansk Dekommissionerings lagerfaciliteter på Risø. Opgraderingen vil sørge for, at oplagringen af det radioaktive affald også i fremtiden sker under betryggende forhold og tager hensyn til højvandesikring, klimastyring og øget affaldsvolumen i takt med, at anlæggene på Risø afvikles.
A Visual Description of the Concrete Exterior of the Cactus Crater Containment Structure. / : Terry Hamilton.Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 2013.
During the Radiological Cleanup of Enewetak Atoll (1972-1980), radioactively contaminated soil was removed by excision and buried inside the Cactus nuclear test crater on Runit Island.
Wallace, Helen Rock Solid? A scientific review of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste.
GeneWatch UK, 2010. - 67 s.


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