Diego Garcia

Geografi ; natur ; demografi ; historie ;kultur ; politik ; fredsbevægelser ; religion ; sociale forhold ; uddannelse ; økonomi.
Geografi: Britisk Ø i Det indiske ocean syd for Indien.
Geografihistoriske fremstillinger: Geography and Ecology of Diego Garcia Atoll, Chagos Archipelago / editors D. R. Stoddart and J. D. Taylor. The Atoll Research Bulletin, - Washington, D.C.: The Smithsonian Institution, August 27, 1971.
'Øerne i Chagos-øgruppen er af interesse af flere grunde. Først er de, de vådeste koraløer i Det Indiske Ocean, hvilket betyder år-lige nedbørsmængder på op til mere end 3700 mm; en ville således forvente markante økologiske forskelle mellem disse øer og de meget tørre øer i det vestlige indiske ocean. For det andet er Chagos øerne beliggende i centrum af Det Indiske Ocean og danner afslutningen af sekvenser af øer (Maldiverne og Laccadives i lineær opstilling mod nord, og den mere spredte vifte af øer i det vestlige indiske ocean), som viser markante forskelle i afstand fra kontinentalt land i området, klima, og habitat mangfoldighed.'
Atollen ejes af Storbritannien, der købte øen af af Mauritius i 1965 for 3 millioner £ for at skabe Det Britiske Territorium i Det Indiske Ocean som ud over Diego Garcia oprindelig bestod af Aldabra, Farquhar og Desroches (Des Roches) øerne. Nu består Det Britiske Territorium i Det Indiske Ocean kun af Chagosøerne - læs Diego Garcia.
Øen er, med sin nærhed til Indien, Pakistan, Kina, Mellemøsten og til Afrika, et aktuelt vigtigt geopolitisk trafikknudepunkt for amerikansk militær- og efterretningsvirksomhed. US, Australia plan expansion of military ties amid pivot to SE Asia. / Craig Whitlock. Washington Post, March 26, 2012.
'President Barack Obama and Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard announced Nov. 17, 2011, that the U.S. would permanently base 2,500 Marines in Darwin. The United States and Australia are planning a major expansion of military ties, including possible drone flights from a coral atoll in the Indian Ocean and increased U.S. naval access to Australian ports, as the Pentagon looks to shift its forces closer to Southeast Asia, officials from both countries said.'
Diego Garcia and the United States’ Emerging Indian Ocean Strategy. / Andrew S. Erickson, Walter DC. Ladwig III, and Justin D. Mikolay. I: Asian Security, vol. 6, no. 3, 2010, pp. 214–237.
- http://users.ox.ac.uk/~mert1769/Diego%20Garcia.pdf
John Pilger: Stealing a Nation (2004).
- http://archive.org/details/John_Pilger
'TV dokumentarudsendelse som afslører, hvordan den britiske regering deporterede en gruppe øers befolkning, herunder Diego Garcias, således, at USA kunne bygge en militærbase'.
Natur: The Atoll of Diego Garcia and the Coral Formations of the Indian Ocean. Bourne, G Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, January 1, 1887. s. 440-461
- http://archive.org/details/philtrans03411641
British Indian Ocean Territory. I: World Atlas of Coral Reefs / Mark Spalding, Corinna Ravilious, Edmund Peter Green. University of California Press, 2001 s. 226-229.
- http://archive.org/details/worldatlasofcora01spal
World Database on Protected Areas: Beskyttede områder og nationalparker: Information Sheet on Ramsar Wetlands: UK British Indian Ocean Territory, 2004. - 14 s.
- http://www.ukotcf.org/pdf/Ramsar/61BIOT.pdf
Demografi:
Nauvel, Christian: A Return from Exile in Sight? The Chagossians and Their Struggle. I: Northwestern Journal of International Human Rights, Volume 5, Issue 1 (Fall 2006).
- http://www.law.northwestern.edu/journals/jihr/v5/n1/4/Nauvel.pdf
Historie: Diego Garcia var koloniseret af Frankrig 1793-1814 og af Storbritannien 1814-1965 som en administrativ del af Maurentus, ifølge Paris traktaten af 1914: Treaties of Peace and Alliance; Signed at Paris, on the 30th May, 1814, and 20th November, 1815. Presented to the House of Commons ([1860?]).
- http://archive.org/details/treatiesofpeacea00greauoft
''8. Hans Britiske Majestæt, fastsætter for sig selv og sine allierede, engagerer til at gendanne til Hans Mest Kristne Majestæt, inden den periode, som herefter blive fastsat, kolonierne, fiskerifabrikker, og virksomheder af enhver art, som var besat af Frankrig den 1 januar 1792, i havene og på kontinenterne i Amerika, Afrika og Asien, dog med undtagelse af øerne Tobago og St. Lucia, og Isle of France og dens besiddelser, især Rodrigues og Seychellerne, hvor flere kolonier og besiddelser Hans mest kristne Majestæts opgiver i fuld ret og suverænitet til Hans britiske Majestæt, og også den del af St. Domingo afstået til Frankrig i Basel Traktaten, og som Hans mest kristne Majestæt genindsætter i fuld ret og suverænitet til Hans katolske Majestæt. '
Under den første del af den kolde krig, i 1966, lejer London øen til Washington, der i de følgende år anlægger en base: Naval Support Facility Diego Garcia, med en række forskellige funktioner, eksempelvis luftvåbnets, Global Positioning System Monitoring Station, Diego Garcia.
Basen fungerer nu som marinens brændstofpåfyldnings- og støtte station. Den fungerer også som hjemsted for Det maritime forpositioneringsprogram, flådeenheden er ansvarlig for klargøring af skibene i Military Sealift Commands forpositioneringprogram i Det Indiske Ocean. Diego Garcia har også en luftbase, der understøtter B-52ere, andre bombefly, og optankningsfly som har været udsendt til Diego Garcia til at udføre missioner i Irak til støtte for Irak-krigen og i Golfkrigen i 1991, samt, også i Afghanistan under, hvad den amerikanske regering kaldet Operation Enduring Freedom, og i Irak igen under invasionen i 2003. Beskyttelsesrum til B-2 bombefly blev bygget på øen før 2003-invasionen af Irak.
Oplysninger om basen er stadig skjulte som klassificeret eller maskeret information.
- http://www.cnic.navy.mil/DiegoGarcia/About/index.htm
Fremstillinger af baseetableringen: David Vine: Island of Shame: Kansas City Public Library
- http://archive.org/details/DavidVineIslandOfShame
'David Vine, an assistant professor of anthropology at American University, presents his book Island of Shame: The Secret History of the U.S. Military Base on Diego Garcia. This presentation took place on September 17, 2009, at the Central Library, 14 W. 10th St., Kansas City, MO. '
'Territorial Disputes: Mauritius claims the Chagos Archipelago including Diego Garcia; in 2001, the former inhabitants of the archipelago, evicted 1967 - 1973, were granted U.K. citizenship and the right of return, followed by Orders in Council in 2004 that banned rehabitation, a High Court ruling reversing the ban, a Court of Appeal refusal to hear the case, and a Law Lords' decision in 2008 denying the right of return; since 2006, a limited number of escorted visits by Chagossians to the main BIOT islands have been hosted and funded by the U.K. government; repatriation is complicated by the exclusive U.S. military lease of Diego Garcia that restricts access to the largest viable island in the chain, the U.S. lease on Diego Garcia expires in 2016; in addition, the United Kingdom created the world's largest marine protection area around the Chagos islands prohibiting the extraction of any natural resources therein.'
- http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Br_Indian_Ocean_Terr.html#diego
6. Into this innocent world there intruded, in the 1960s, the brutal realities of global politics. In the aftermath of the Cuban missile crisis and the early stages of the Vietnam War, the United States felt vulnerable without a land based military presence in the Indian Ocean. A survey of available sites suggested that Diego Garcia would be the most suitable. In 1964 it entered into discussions with Her Majesty’s Government which agreed to provide the island for use as a base. At that time the independence of Mauritius and the Seychelles was foreseeable and the United States was unwilling that sovereignty over Diego Garcia should pass into the hands of an independent “non-aligned” government. The United Kingdom therefore made the British Indian Ocean Territories Order 1965 SI No 1920 (“the BIOT order”) which, under powers contained in the Colonial Boundaries Act 1895, detached the Chagos Archipelago (and some other islands) from the colony of Mauritius and constituted them a separate colony known as BIOT. The order created the office of Commissioner of BIOT and conferred upon him power to “make laws for the peace, order and good government of the Territory.” Those inhabitants of BIOT who had been citizens of the United Kingdom and Colonies by virtue of their birth or connection with the islands when they were part of Mauritius retained their citizenship. When Mauritius became independent in 1968 they acquired Mauritian citizenship but, by an exception in the Mauritius Independence Act 1968, did not lose their UK citizenship.
7. At the end of 1966 there was an exchange of notes between Her Majesty’s Government and the Government of the United States by which the United Kingdom agreed in principle to make BIOT available to the United States for defence purposes for an indefinitely long period of at least 50 years. It subsequently agreed to the establishment of the base on Diego Garcia and to allow the United States to occupy the other islands of the Archipelago if they should wish to do so.
8. In 1967 the United Kingdom Government bought all the land in the Archipelago from the company but granted the company a lease to enable it to continue to run the coconut plantations until the United States needed vacant possession. It took some time for the US Defence Department to obtain Congressional approval but in 1970 it gave notice that Diego Garcia would be required in July 1971. After receiving this notice the Commissioner of BIOT, using his powers of legislation under the BIOT order, made the Immigration Ordinance 1971. It provided in section 4(1) that —
“no person shall enter the Territory or, being in the Territory, shall be present or remain in the Territory, unless he is in possession of a permit …[issued by an Immigration Officer]”
9. Between 1968 and 1971 the United Kingdom government secured the removal of the population of Diego Garcia, mostly to Mauritius and the Seychelles. A small population remained on Peros Banhos and the Salomon Islands, but they were evacuated by the middle of 1973. No force was used but the islanders were told that the company was closing down its activities and that unless they accepted transportation elsewhere, they would be left without supplies. The whole sad story is recounted in detail in an appendix to the judgment of Ouseley J in Chagos Islanders v Attorney General [2003] EWHC 2222 (QB), [2003] All ER (D) 166.
Judgments - R (On The Application of Bancoult) V Secretary of State For Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs HOUSE OF LORDS, SESSION 2007-08 [2008] UKHL 61 on appeal from: [2007] EWCA Civ 498 OPINIONS OF THE LORDS OF APPEAL FOR JUDGMENT IN THE CAUSE R (on the application of Bancoult) (Respondent) v Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Appellant) Hearing dates: 30 JUNE, 1, 2 and 3 JULY 2008. ON WEDNESDAY 22 OCTOBER 2008, HOUSE OF LORDS OPINIONS OF THE LORDS OF APPEAL FOR JUDGMENT IN THE CAUSE R (on the application of Bancoult) (Respondent) v Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Appellant)
[2008] UKHL 61 - http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200708/ldjudgmt/jd081022/banc-1.htm
Primærdokumenter: 16. December 1965 : UN General Assembly: Resolutions adopted: Question of the Mauritius
- http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/RESOLUTION/GEN/NR0/218/29/IMG/NR021829.pdf?OpenElement
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: Availability of Certain Indian Ocean Islands for Defene Purposes : Agreement Effected by Exchange of Notes Signed at London December 30, 1966; Entered into Force December 30, 1966. - 10 s.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: Naval Support Facility on Diego Garcia : Agreement Effected by Exchange of Notes Signed at London February 25, 1976; Entered into Force February 25, 1976. With supplementary arrangements and related notes. - http://homepage.ntlworld.com/jksonc/docs/bancoult-d16b1.html
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland : Defense: Naval Support Facility on Diego Garcia Supplemental arrangement relating to the agreement of February 25, 1976. Signed at Washington December 13, 1982; Entered into force December 13, 1982.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and United States of America : Exchange of notes constituting an agreement concerning the British Indian Ocean Territory and operations and construction contracts on Diego Garcia. Washington, 16 November 1987.
Policy Department External Policies: The Status and Location of the Military Installations of the Member States of the European Union and their Potential Role for the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), European Union, Policy Department External Policies, Briefing Paper, February 2009 - 26 s.. / James Rogers and Luis Simón
Deltagelse i krige
Kultur: The Art of Chagos – Paintings of Clement Siatous - http://chagos.info/?p=234
Politik:
Tekst.
Aktuelle og historiske politiske partier / Current and historical political parties: Nej, ikke i 2012.
International organisering
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Forsvar / militær:
Diego Garcia Project Documentation Report. / Naval Facilities Engineering Command Washington DC Chesapeake div , feb 1985.
Abstract : In 1980, two Buoy Dolphin systems were installed in Diego Garcia, British Indian Ocean Territory, to better enable large ships to moor alongside the newly constructed Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricant (POL) Pier. These buoys were positioned about 175 feet from either end of the pier and have been used to secure the bow and stern lines of ships whose lengths exceed that of the pier. In early 1981, 11 fleet moorings were installed in the Diego Garcia lagoon to support the Navy's new Indian Ocean requirements.
Efterretningstjenester: CIA-fanger på Diego Garcia - 07. Mar. 2008 USA`s efterretningstjeneste CIA har benyttet sin base på Diego Garcia, en britisk ø i Det Indiske Ocean, i sit hemmelige fangeprogram. Det fastslår Manfred Novak, rapportør om tortur ved FN`s Menneskerettighedsråd . - http://arbejderen.dk/node/34582
Diego Garcia Tracking Station - Link performance analysis for a proposed future architecture of the Air Force Satellite Control Network. Thesis Presented to the Faculty Department of Systems and Engineering Management Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air University Air Education and Training Command In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Systems Engineering Eric W. Nelson, BS Captain, USAF December 2011. - 80 s. - http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a553980.pdf
Paramilitære styrker:
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Religion:
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Uddannelse
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Økonomi:
BNP - FN data, landbrug, fiskeri, industri.
Landbrug. Fiskeri: Commercial Fishing. I: Chagos News The Periodical Newsletter of the Friends of the Chagos, No.14 January 2000.
- http://www.reefnewmedia.co.uk/cmt_chagos/uploads/PDF/Newsletters/ChagosNews14.pdf
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