gudsfred

Treuga Dei / pax dei / Gottesfrieden; våbenstilstand skabes under synoden i Charroux 898 af den tidlige middelalders bods- og reformbevægelse som en udvidelse af kirkefreden.
Following the example of my predecessors, I, Gunbald, archbishop of Bordeaux, called together the bishops of my diocese in a synod at Charroux.... and we, assembled there in the name of God, made the following decrees:
1 . Anathema against those who break into churches. If anyone breaks into or robs a church, he shall be anathema unless he makes satisfaction.
2. Anathema against those who rob the poor. If anyone robs a peasant or any other poor person of a sheep, ox, ass, cow, goat, or pig, he shall be anathema unless he makes satisfaction.
3. Anathema against those who injure clergymen. If anyone attacks, seizes, or beats a priest, deacon, or any other clergyman, who is no . t bearing arms (shield, sword, coat of mail, or helmet), but is going along peacefully or staying in the house, the sacrilegious person shall be excommunicated and cut off from the church, unless he makes satisfaction, or unless the bishop discovers that the clergyman brought it upon himself by his own fault. Oliver J. Thatcher, and Edgar Holmes McNeal, eds., A Source Book for Medieval History, (New York: Scribners, 1905), p. 412
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/pc-of-god.html
Gudsfreden vedtages og udvides efterfølgende på synoderne i 1047 (Synodus Helenesis) og i Narbonne 1054.
Gudsfreden omfatter gejstelige, munke, nonner, pilgrimme, købmænd, bønder, kvinder, besøgende i synoder og kirker, klostre, hyrder og deres flokke på marken 1.
I samarbejde med den franske regering og paven påbydes gudsfreden i 1095 alle kristne stater. Et løfte på tro og love til en fjende inden for et bestemt tidsrum, for at denne skulle holde fred. Gudsfreden udvides med tiden, således, at alle stormændenes fejder skulle hvile fra onsdag aften til mandag morgen samt på helligdage. Straffen for brud på gudsfreden var bandlysning og interdikt. Kirkefreden og gudsfreden skabte grundlaget for de første sociale bevægelser, historiske fredskirker i middelalderen, retfærdig krig og international ret.
Se også Eirene ; landefred.

Litteratur og kilder

History of the Christian Church, Volume IV: Mediaeval Christianity. A.D. 590-1073. (i.vi.vi).
Kluckhohn, August: Geschicte des Gottesfriedens. Leipzig, 1857. - 150 s. [Haves: Statsbiblioteket].
Landes, Richard: Peace of God : A Bibliography on the Peace and Truce of God.
Paxton, Frederick S.: History, Historians, and the Peace of God. I: The Peace of God s. 21-40.
Forskningsoversigt.
The Peace of God : Social Violence and Religious Responce in France around the Year 1000. / Richard Landes ; Thomas Head eds. - Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1992. - 364 s. [Haves: Det kongelige bibliotek].
Truce of God - Bishopric of Terouanne, 1063.
http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/source/t-of-god.html
1) Kluckhohn, August: Geschicte des Gottesfriedens s. 52.


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