Geografi ; natur og klima ; demografi ; historie ; krige ; kultur ; musik ; politik ; politiske partier ; forsvar ; fredsbevægelser ; religion ; sociale forhold ; uddannelse ; økonomi og våbenhandel.
Geography, nature and climate, demographics, history, wars, culture, film, music, politics, defense, peace movements, religion, social issues, education, economy and arms trade.
Géographie, la nature, la démographie, histoire, la culture, la politique, la défense, les mouvements pacifistes, la religion, les questions sociales, l'éducation, économie.
Geografía, naturaleza, demografía, historia, cultura, política, defensa, movimientos por la paz, la religión, las cuestiones sociales, la educación, la economía.
Geographie, Natur, Demographie, Geschichte, Kultur, Politik, Verteidigung, Friedensbewegungen, Religion, Soziales, Bildung, Wirtschaft.
Geografi: Centralasiatisk, mellemøstlig republik med grænser til Afghanistan, Iran, Kasakhstan, Tibet og Usbekistan og med kystlinje til Det Kaspiske Hav.
Central Asia of Natural Resources Atlas.
Central Asian Countries Initiative for Land Management. Asian Development Bank Manila, Philippines, 2010
- http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/27508/central-asia-atlas.pdf
'Central Asia, made up of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, is a vast land mass separating the countries of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus from East and South Asia. It is a region rich in natural resources, including oil and gas, and has a surprising variety of animals and plants. And it is a region long shrouded in mystery, known by most for its role in ancient trans-Asian commerce via the Silk Road.'
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank: Migration and Remittances Factbook 2011.
Turkmenistan var en del af Sovjetunionen.


UNESCO: History of Civilizations of Central Asia I-VI.
- http://www.unesco.org/culture/asia/index-en.html
- http://www.unesco.org/culture/asia/html_eng/volumes.htm
Volume I: The Dawn of Civilization: Earliest Times to 700 B.C., eds. A. H. Dani and V. M. Masson (Paris, 1992).
- http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0009/000944/094466e.pdf
Volume 1 of this UNESCO multi-volume series traces the history of man in this vast region from the Palaeolithic beginnings to circa 700 BC, when the foundations of the Achaemenian Empire were laid. The earliest history of man is evidenced and the food producing areas of Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and the Indus Valley explored. The Bronze Age and the first signs of urbanization from the Indus to the Oxus are described as is the development of the nomadic pastoral tribes, such as the Aryans, whose history can be seen in proper perspective through archaeological evidence now available
Volume II: The Development of Sedentary and Nomadic Civilizations: 700 B.C. to A.D. 250, ed. János Harmatta, co-eds. B. N. Puri and G. F. Etemadi (Paris, 1994).
- http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001057/105703eo.pdf
Volume III: The Crossroads of Civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750, ed. B. A. Litvinsky, coeds. Zhang Guang-da and R. Shabani Samghabadi (Paris, 1996).
- http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001046/104612e.pdf
Volume IV: The Age of Achievement: A.D. 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century, 2 vols., eds. M. S. Asimov and C. E. Bosworth (Part One, Paris, 1998; Part Two, Paris, 2000).
- http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001116/111664eo.pdf
- http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001204/120455e.pdf Charles C. Kolb. Review of Asimov, M. S.; Bosworth, C. E., eds., History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV: The Age of Achievement: AD 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century, Part One: The Historical, Social and Economic Setting. H-Asia, H-Net Reviews. October, 1998.
- http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=2448
Volume V: Development in Contrast: From the Sixteenth to the Mid-Nineteenth Century, eds. Chahryar Adle and Irfan Habib, co-ed. Karl M. Baipakov (Paris, 2003).
- http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001302/130205e.pdf
Volume VI: Towards the Contemporary Period: From the Mid-Nineteenth to the End of the Twentieth Century, co-eds. Madhavan K. Palat and Anara Tabyshalieva (Paris, 2005).
- http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001412/141275e.pdf
Deltagelse i krige / Participation in wars / Participation à des guerres / La participación en las guerras / Beteiligung an Kriegen
Massemedier og pressefrihed / Mass media and freedom of the press:
Internet enemies. Reporters Without Borders (Paris), 2009.
- http://www.rsf.org/IMG/pdf/Internet_enemies_2009_2_.pdf
Biblioteksvæsen / Libraries. Bogvæsen / Books:
Aviser / Newspapers / journaux / Prensa / Tageszeitungen
Tidsskrifter, periodica / Journals, periodicals / Revues spécialisées, périodiques / Revistas, publicaciones periódicas / Zeitschriften, Periodika
Kunst / Art
Film / Movies / cinéma / Cine / Filme:
Undervisning i film:
Politik: Politiske partier: Nej.
International organisering
Turkmenistan er medlem af FN, Sammenslutningen af Uafhængige Stater (SNG).
Forsvar / militær
Paramilitære styrker:
Fredsbevægelser: / Peace movements / les mouvements pacifistes / movimientos por la paz / Friedensbewegungen
Sociale bevægelser, herunder miljøorganisationer:
Religion: Overvejende Islam.
Sociale forhold:
Økonomi: Den Internationale Bank for Genopbygning og Udvikling, Verdensbanken /
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development: Country at a Glance, 2011.
- http://go.worldbank.org/YB2ATM3HY0
BNP - FN data, landbrug, fiskeri, industri.
Landbrug: FAO Country Profiles.
Naturresourcer: Naturgas.
CRS: Europe’s Energy Security: Options and Challenges to Natural Gas Supply Diversification. / Michael Ratner et al. 2012. - 32 s.
Erhverv, handel og industri:
Våbenfabrikker, våbenhandel og våbentransporter: / Weapon Factories, arms trade and -transport / Les fabriques d'armes, le commerce des armes et de transport / Las fábricas de armas, tráfico de armas y -transporte / Waffenfabriken, Waffenhandel und Verkehr:
Import af våben fra USA.
U.S. Arms Exports and Military Assistance in the “Global War on Terror” : 25 Country Profiles. / Project Director: Rachel Stohl, Senior Analyst Contributing Authors: Sarah Chankin-Gould et al. Center for Defense Information at the World Security Institute, 2007. - 149 s. Online.

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