Egypten

Geografi ; natur og klima ; demografi ; historie ; krige ; kultur ; musik ; politik ; forsvar ; fredsbevægelser ; religion ; sociale forhold ; uddannelse ; økonomi.
Geography; nature; demographics; history, culture, music, politics, defense, peace movements, religion, social issues, education, economy.
Géographie, la nature, la démographie, histoire, la culture, la politique, la défense, les mouvements pacifistes, la religion, les questions sociales, l'éducation, économie.
Geografía, naturaleza, demografía, historia, cultura, política, defensa, movimientos por la paz, la religión, las cuestiones sociales, la educación, la economía.
Geographie, Natur, Demographie, Geschichte, Kultur, Politik, Verteidigung, Friedensbewegungen, Religion, Soziales, Bildung, Wirtschaft.
Geografi, kartografi og geografihistorie:
Nordøstafrikansk og mellemøstlig arabisk republik. Yderligere informationer og dokumentation.
Atlas of Egypt
Demografi: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank: Migration and Remittances Factbook 2011.
FAO Statistical Yearbook 2014: Near East and North Africa. Food and Agriculture.
- Cairo : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Regional Office for the Near East and North Africa, 2014.
- http://www.fao.org/docrep/019/i3591e/i3591e.pdf
De lever af affald : Zabbaleen-folket har i mange år i vid udstrækning stået for Kairos renovationssystem. Hver dag indsamler de tonsvis af affald, som de genbruger og videresælger. Men den koptiske minoritet er under pres. / Sven Johannesen. Lagt på information.dk 5. februar 2012. Bragt i den trykte udgave 6. februar 2012 på side 10 i 1. sektion.
European Union: European Commission, European Neighbourhood Policy: Country Report, Egypt, 2 March 2005, SEC(2005) 287/3, available at: - http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/42c3bac04.html [accessed 7 February 2011].
Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Egypt: The situation of Sudanese citizens legally residing in Egypt; whether they are targeted by the Sudanese government; state protection available from Egyptian authorities (1985-2002) , 23 April 2002, EGY38844.E,
- http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3df4be2d34.html [accessed 7 February 2011].
Historie: Oldtiden: Palæontologi: Wadi Al-Hitan (Whale Valley / hvaldalen).
- http://whc.unesco.org/uploads/nominations/1186.pdf
Astronomi kulturarv og arkæoastronomi. Helleristninger / petroglyph. Nubien, Kerma, Kush eller Kusj. Katakomber. The National Archives of Egypt.
Meroë var grækernes og romernes navn på hovedstaden i fortidens etiopiske rige og på området mellem Nilen, Atbara og Den blå nil. Byen var hovedstaden i kongedømmet Kusj.
Ancient alphabets and hieroglyphic characters explained: with an account of the Egyptian priests, their classes, initiation, and sacrifices. / Ibn al-Mukhtar et al.- London : W. Bulmer & Co., 1806. - 223 s. - http://archive.org/details/ancientalphabet00hammgoog
Middelalderen: Sultanatet Egypten 1174-1517.
Egypten har værert koloniseret af grækerne, romerne, Palmyre imperiet 270–273, arabere, mamelukkerne, Det ottomanske rige 1517-1798, Frankrig 1798-1805, og Storbritannien 1882-1922, herunder det britiske protektorat under første verdenskrig. Revolution i Egypten 1803-1805 og i 1919. Kongeriget Egypten. Egypten besatte Sudan 1821-1885, Ægyptisk Sudan eller Anglo-ægyptisk Sudan.
UCLA Library Research Guides: Ancient Near East and Egypt.
- http://guides.library.ucla.edu/ancientneareast og,
- http://guides.library.ucla.edu/content.php?pid=21445&sid=152357
Papers respecting negotiations with the Egyptian delegation. / Great Britain. Foreign Office; Great Britain. High Commissioner for Egypt and the Sudan, 1921. - 24 s.
- http://archive.org/details/papersrespecting00egyp
'Memorandum of clauses of suggested convention between Great Britain and Egypt, handed by the Marquess Curzon of Kedleston to Adly Yeghen Pasha on November 10, 1921.--Reply of the Egyptian delegation to the proposals of His Majesty's government, handed by Adly Yeghen Pasha to the Marquess Curzon of Kedleston on November 15, 1921.--Communication from His Majesty's high commissioner for Egypt and the Soudan to His Highness the Sultan of Egypt, December 3, 1921.'
Nile and Jordan, being the archaeological and historical inter-relations between Egypt and Canaan, from the earliest times to the Fall of Jerusalem in A.D. 70 (1921).
- http://www.archive.org/details/nilejordanbeinga00kniguoft
A history of events in Egypt from 1798 to 1914 (1915).
- http://www.archive.org/details/historyofeventsi00weiguoft
Cicero (in Pia, 21) bruger Udtrykket provincia om Kongeriget Ægypten, forsaavidt det var overdraget P. Lentulus at drage dertil og indsætte Kongen... Johan Nicolai Madvig: Den Romerske stats forfatning og forvaltning (1881).
- http://www.archive.org/details/denromerskestat01madvgoog
Narrative of the operations and recent discoveries within the pyramids, temples, tombs, and excavations, in Egypt and Nubia; and of a journey to the coast of the Red Sea, in search of the ancient Berenice; and another to the oasis of Jupiter Ammon. / : Giovanni Battista Belzoni, 1822.
- https://archive.org/details/recentdiscovpyra00belz
Description of Egypt: Modern State, Volume Two: Or, Collection of Observations and Research Conducted in Egypt During the Expedition of the French Army. / : Commission des sciences et arts d'Egypte
- https://archive.org/details/DescriptionOfEgyptModernStateVolumeTwoOrCollectionOfObservations
'When Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Egypt in 1798, he brought with him an entourage of more than 160 scholars and scientists. Known as the French Commission on the Sciences and Arts of Egypt, these experts undertook an extensive survey of the countryâs archeology, topography, and natural history. Among the contributors to the survey was Jean-François Champollion, who used the famous Rosetta Stone to unlock many of the mysteries that long had surrounded the language of ancient Egypt. In 1802 Napoleon authorized the publication of the commissionâs findings in a monumental, multi-volume work that included plates, maps, scholarly essays, and a detailed index. Publication of the original Imperial edition began in 1809. It proved so popular that a second edition was published under the post-Napoleonic Bourbon Restoration. The "Royal edition" (1821-29) from the collections of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina is presented here.'
- https://archive.org/search.php?query=creator%3A%22Commission+des+sciences+et+arts+d%27Egypte%22
The Egyptian Gallery
- http://www.museums.norfolk.gov.uk/index.htm
The Egyptian Gallery at Norwich Castle contains a small but significant collection of artefacts that date from around 4500 to 2500 years old, many of which were donated by wealthy travellers such as Jeremiah Colman, who visited Egypt in the nineteenth century.
The Norwich shroud: conservation and investigation of a rare Eighteenth Dynasty shroud. / : Monique Pullan et al The British Museum: Technical Research Bulletin, 2012.
- http://www.britishmuseum.org/pdf/BMTRB_6_Pullan-et-al.pdf
Militærkup: 1879, 1952, 2012 ; 2013.
Deltagelse i krige
Nelson, Harold Hayden: The battle of Megiddo ... (1921).
Thesis (PH. D)--University of Chicago, 1913. Egypt - History to 332 B.C.
http://www.archive.org/details/battleofmegiddo00nelsrich
Report of the British naval and military operations in Egypt, 1882 (1885).
http://www.archive.org/details/reportofbritishn00good
Why John Bright Left the Cabinet. Papers Past. Se også: Hirst: Quakers in Peace and War s. 300.
National Security Archive: The October War and U.S. Policy, 2003.
Kultur: Advanced Papyrological Information System.
Massemedier og pressefrihed:
Internet enemies. Reporters Without Borders (Paris), 2009.
- http://www.rsf.org/IMG/pdf/Internet_enemies_2009_2_.pdf
Tekst:
Radio:
TV
Biblioteksvæsen. Bogvæsen:
Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Aviser / Newspapers / journaux / Prensa / Tageszeitungen
Tidsskrifter, periodica / Journals, periodicals / Revues spécialisées, périodiques / Revistas, publicaciones periódicas / Zeitschriften, Periodika
Litteratur:
Kunst / Art
Film:
Teater:
Politik: Torture In Egypt 2003-2006. Khaled Said.
Undtagelsestilstand i Egypten siden oktober 1981, efter mordet på præsident Anwar El Sadat, ifølge lov nr. 162 af 1958 (fra den kolde krig).
Leder: Arabiske forventninger.
I: Information, 01/31/2011.
Rikke Bruunsgaard Andersen: Facebooksiden, der opklarede et mord og tændte et oprør.
I: Politiken, 02/06/2011.
Live blog - Egypt protests: From our head-quarters in Doha, we keep you updated on all things Egypt, with reporting from Al Jazeera staff in Cairo, Alexandria, and Suez.
Human Rights Watch sætter, 02/07/2011, døds-tallet til mindst 297 dræbte siden 28. januar 2011 / Human Rights Watch puts the death toll as at least 297 killed since January 28. http://www.hrw.org/egypt-live-updates
Aktuelle og historiske politiske partier / Current and historical political parties:
Forfatningsdomstolen / Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt.
- http://www.sis.gov.eg/En/Story.aspx?sid=472
Egypt's supreme court dissolves parliament and outrages Islamists: Highest court also rules army candidate can remain in election race in moves denounced as a coup by Muslim Brotherhood. / : David Hearst and Abdel-Rahman Hussein in Cairo. guardian.co.uk, Thursday 14 June 2012
Engelske navne på de politiske partier i Egypten er her:
Australia: Refugee Review Tribunal, Egypt: 1. Please provide a list of the political parties in Egypt. 2. Are there any reports about the attempted registration of the “Independent party” or the “Young Egypt Party”? 3. Are there any reports mentioning the Independent party or the Young Egypt Party? , 12 May 2008, EGY33332, available at:
- http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4b6fe1ced.html [accessed 7 February 2011].
Mursi, Mohammad: Dette er Egyptens revolution, ikke vores. I: Information, 10/02/2011.
WRITENET, Egypt: Islamic Fundamentalist Organisations: The Muslim Brotherhood and the Gama'A Al-Islamiya (The Islamic Group), 1 March 1994, available at:
- http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3ae6a6bb8.html [accessed 7 February 2011].
Egyptian [Wafd] delegation to the Peace conference, collection of official correspondence from November 11, 1918, to July 14, 1919; twelve appendices containing verbatim transcriptions of official Egyptian reports, correspondence, depositions of victims and eye-witness, and photographs of atrocities committed by British troops in Egypt (1919).
- http://www.archive.org/details/egyptiandelegati00pari
International organisering
Egypten har været medlem af De arabiske republikkers føderation, Den forenede arabiske republik og De forenede arabiske stater, Folkeforbundet(1937-), og er medlem af Den arabiske liga, FN, Forum for gaseksporterende lande / Gas Exporting Countries Forum, IAEA, the "New Agenda" Coalition.
Regering:
Tekst.
Parlament
Forsvar / militær: SIPRI: Militærudgifter / Military expenditure of Egypt. Værnepligt: WRI: Country report and updates: Egypt.
Den egyptiske regering har importeret våben fra bl.a. Frankrig, Schweiz, Tyskland og USA. USAs 'militærhjælp' til Egypten bl.a. kanaliseret via The US Office of Military Cooperation - Egypt, til en værdi af omkring 1.3 milliarder dollar om året genbruges delvist i den amerikanske våbenindustri, eksempelvis hos Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Northrup Grumman, og Raytheon. De store amerikanske våbenfabrikker vedligeholder ældre amerikanske våben eksporteret til Egypten og sælger nye. Ifølge Pentagons, contract database, er de ti største amerikanske våbenleverandører til Egypten inden for de sidste par år:
  1. Lockheed Martin - F16.
  2. DRS C3 and Aviation - hardware til overvågning og til grænsekontrol samt tjenesteydelser til den egyptiske regering
  3. L-3 Communication Ocean Systems - sonarer til den egyptiske flåde og militære billedbehandlingssystemer
  4. Deloitte Consulting - planlægningsprogrammer til det egyptiske luftvåben
  5. Boeing - Helikoptere og logistik.
  6. Raytheon - Stinger missiles og tilhørende teknisk støtte
  7. AgustaWestland - vedligeholdelse af amerikanske helikoptere.
  8. US Motor Works - reservedele og vedligeholdelse af køretøjer.
  9. Goodrich Corp. - overvågningssystemer til de egyptiske F-16.
  10. Columbia Group - vedligeholdelse af køretøjer, teknisk støtte og træningsprogrammer til den egyptiske flåde.
Egypt's military-industrial complex : With US-made tear gas canisters fired on protesters in Cairo, Washington's role in arming Egypt is under the spotlight. guardian.co.uk, Friday 4 February 2011
http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/cifamerica/2011/feb/04/egypt-arms-trade
Deutschland setzt Rüstungsexporte nach Ägypten aus
http://www.dw-world.de/dw/function/0,,83389_cid_14817837,00.html
Le Monde: Les ventes d'armes françaises à l'Egypte sont suspendues depuis le 27 janvier, selon Matignon.
http://www.lemonde.fr/international/article/2011/02/05/les-ventes-d-armes-francaises-a-l-egypte-sont-suspendues-depuis-le-27-janvier-selon-matignon_1475482_3210.html
Kein Kriegsmaterial mehr nach Ägypten.
http://www.20min.ch/news/schweiz/story/Kein-Schweizer-Waffen-Export-nach--gypten-18832114
Efterretningstjenester
Paramilitære styrker:
Fredsbevægelser:
Sociale bevægelser, herunder miljøorganisationer:
Religion: Overvejende Islam samt kristne mindretal.
Sociale forhold:
Uddannelse: Hypatia af Alexandria. Rumforskning / Space research.
Universiteter
Økonomi: Den Internationale Bank for Genopbygning og Udvikling, Verdensbanken /
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development: Country at a Glance, 2011.
- http://go.worldbank.org/YB2ATM3HY0
Central Bank of Egypt - http://www.cbe.org.eg/
Økonomiske kriser: 1876. Turisme.
Phillip Inman: Egyptian president has cash in British and Swiss banks plus UK and US property. Mubarak family fortune could reach $70bn, say experts guardian.co.uk,Friday 4 February 2011.
- http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/feb/04/hosni-mubarak-family-fortune?INTCMP=SRCH
BNP - FN data, landbrug, fiskeri, industri.
Landbrug: FAO Country Profiles. Bomuld, kaffe.
Naturresourcer: Aluminium, guld, jernmalm, olie og naturgas. Oliefirmaer: Egypt Oil & Gas.
Ifølge the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) under USAs energminisetrium er der tre olie og naturgas rørledninger i Egypten: The Arab Gas Pipeline (AGP), The Arish-Ashkelon pipeline, SUMED Pipeline, eller Suez-Mediterranean Pipeline. USA var i 2009 den største importør af flydende naturgas / Liquefied Natural Gas fra Egypten,omkring 35 % af produktionen.
CRS: Europe’s Energy Security: Options and Challenges to Natural Gas Supply Diversification. / Michael Ratner et al. 2012. - 32 s.
Energi, erhverv, handel og industri: Licensfremstillede biler, stål.
Våbenfabrikker, våbenhandel og våbentransporter: Rustningsministeriet / Ministry for Military Production, herunder the Arab Organization for Industrialization og the National Organization for Military Production.
- http://www2.sis.gov.eg/En/Politics/Executive/Ministries/040804000000000021.htm
Import af våben fra Sverige, Sydafrika, Tjekkoslovakiet.
Arms export and transfers from Sub-Saharan Africa to Sub-Saharan Africa. / Study realized by Africa Europe Faith and Justice Network, December 2010. - 11 s.
Amnesty International: Dansk skib transporterede våben til styret i Egypten, 12/07/2011.
Charles Levinson and Matthew Rosenberg: Egypt Said to Arm Libya Rebels. I: Wall Street Journal, 03/17/2011.

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