Syrien

Syrien

Geografi ; natur og klima ; demografi ; historie ; krige ; kultur ; kunst ; film ; musik ; politik ; politiske partier ; forsvar ; fredsbevægelser ; religion ; sociale forhold ; uddannelse ; økonomi og våbenhandel.
Geography, nature and climate, demographics, history, wars, culture, film, music, politics, defense, peace movements, religion, social issues, education, economy and arms trade.
Géographie, la nature, la démographie, histoire, la culture, la politique, la défense, les mouvements pacifistes, la religion, les questions sociales, l'éducation, économie.
Geografía, naturaleza, demografía, historia, cultura, política, defensa, movimientos por la paz, la religión, las cuestiones sociales, la educación, la economía.
Geographie, Natur, Demographie, Geschichte, Kultur, Politik, Verteidigung, Friedensbewegungen, Religion, Soziales, Bildung, Wirtschaft.
Geografi: Syrien er en mellemøstlig  republik og landet er aktuelt defineret, ifølge ligningsmyndigheden Skatterådet, som et udviklingsland, med grænser til Irak, Israel, Jordan, Libanon, Tyrkiet og med kystlinje til Middelhavet. Syrien er en del af Levanten. Republikken Hatay udskilles fra Syrien 1938. Kurdistan.
UN atlas of Syria.
Kultur:
Massemedier og pressefrihed / Mass media and freedom of the press:
Internet enemies. Reporters Without Borders (Paris), 2009.
- http://www.rsf.org/IMG/pdf/Internet_enemies_2009_2_.pdf
Tekst:
Radio:
TV
Biblioteksvæsen / Libraries. Bogvæsen / Books:
Ebla: The World's Oldest Library. / : Hans H. WellischSource: The Journal of Library History (1974-1987), Vol. 16, No. 3 (Summer, 1981), pp. 488-500.
- http://www.jstor.org/stable/25541212
Ebla Digital Archives: A Project of Ca’ Foscari University of Venice.
- http://ancientworldonline.blogspot.dk/2011/02/ebla-archives-online.html
Tekst:
Aviser / Newspapers / journaux / Prensa / Tageszeitungen
Tidsskrifter, periodica / Journals, periodicals / Revues spécialisées, périodiques / Revistas, publicaciones periódicas / Zeitschriften, Periodika
Litteratur:
Brockelmann, Carl: Syrische Grammatik mit Paradigmen, Literatur, Chrestomathie und Glossar (1905).
- Berlin : Reuther.
- https://archive.org/details/syrischegramma00broc
Kunst / Art
Kunstakademier
Kunsthistorie
Kunstmuseer
Malere
Film / Movies / cinéma / Cine / Filme:
Filmhistorie:
Filmcensur:
Undervisning i film:
Producentselskaber:
Filmografier:
Tekst:
Teater:
International organisering
Syrien har v&arelig;et medlem af De arabiske republikkers føderation, Den forenede arabiske republik og De forenede arabiske stater. Syrien er medlem af Den arabiske liga, FN.
Forsvar / militær: SIPRI: Militærudgifter / Military expenditure of Syria.
Værnepligt: WRI: Country report and updates: Syria..
CRS: Syria’s Chemical Weapons: Issues for Congress. / : Mary Beth D. Nikitin et al. August 30, 2013. - 25 s.
'Syria has produced, stored, and weaponized chemical weapons, but it remains dependent on foreign suppliers for chemical precursors. The regime of President Bashar al Asad possesses stocks of nerve (sarin, VX) and blister (mustard gas) agents, possibly weaponized into bombs, shells, and missiles. The government also has associated production facilities. Chemical weapons and their agents can deteriorate depending on age and quality. Little is known from open sources about the current size and condition of the stockpile. Syria continues to attempt to procure new supplies of chemical weapons precursors, which are dual-use, through front companies in third countries. Most countries that have had chemical weapons arsenals in the past have destroyed these weapons under the Chemical Weapons Convention, or are in the process of destroying them. The U.S. intelligence community cites Iran, North Korea, and Syria as having active chemical weapons programs.
Central Intelligence Agency, Use of Toxins and Other Lethal Chemicals in Southeast Asia and Afghanistan, Special National Intelligence Estimate, Volume I, Key Judgments, February 2, 1982; Director of Central Intelligence, Implications of Soviet Use of Chemical and Toxin Weapons for U.S. Security Interests, Special National Intelligence Estimate, September 15, 1983. The1983 document also identified Czechoslovakia as a supplier of “chemical agents, delivery systems, and training” to Syria. Nevertheless, a Russian official involved in chemical weapons destruction stated in August 2012 that neither Russia nor the Soviet Union had supplied Syria with chemical weapons. “Russia Never Supplied Chemical Weapons to Syria—Official,” Interfax, August 21, 2012.'
Report of the independent international commission of inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic. UN Human Rights Council, Seventeenth special session, 2011.
Military and security forces
'18. The Syrian Arab Armed Forces comprise the Army, the Navy and the Air Force. They are responsible for defending the national territory and protecting the State from internal threats. Numbering around 300,000, the armed forces are organized into three corps with a total of 12 divisions: seven armoured, three mechanized, one Republican Guard and the Special Forces. Elite units include the 10,000-man Republican Guard, under the President's control, tasked to counter any threat from dissident military forces, and the 20,000-man Fourth Division, which is commanded by Maher Al Assad, the President's brother.
19. The State security apparatus is reported to be large and effective, with a multitude of security forces and intelligence agencies that have overlapping missions. They play a powerful role in Syrian society, monitoring and repressing opposition to the Government. The internal security apparatus includes police forces under the Ministry of the Interior, Syrian Military Intelligence, Air Force Intelligence, the National Security Bureau, the Political Security Directorate and the General Intelligence Directorate. The latter consists of 25,000 members formally under the Ministry of the Interior but reporting directly to the President and his inner circle. It includes Internal Security (also known as the State Security Service), External Security and the Palestine Division.'
Efterretningstjenester: Heeger, Troels: Vestlige firmaer hjælper Syrien og Iran med overvågning: Diktatoriske regimer som Syrien og Iran anvender i stor stil vestlig overvågningsteknologi til at slå ned på de spirende demokratiske bevægelser. Den direkte konsekvens er henrettelse og tortur af pro-demokratiske demonstranter. Det er brud på menneskerettigheder, siger ekspert. Lagt på information.dk 10. november 2011. Bragt i den trykte udgave 11. november 2011 på side 8 i 1. sektion.
Paramilitære styrker: CRS: Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response. / : Christopher M. Blanchard et al. 2014.
Including, Select Anti-Asad Armed Groups and 2. U.S.-Designated Sunni Terrorist Groups.
Fredsbevægelser: / Peace movements / les mouvements pacifistes / movimientos por la paz / Friedensbewegungen
Sociale bevægelser, herunder miljøorganisationer:
Human Rights Watch: Far From Justice : Syria’s Supreme State Security Court, 2009. - 79 s.
- http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/syria0209webwcover.pdf
Religion: Overvejende Islam: Alawisme, Sunnier, alamiter, shiiter og ismailiter, samt orientalske kristne og kurdiske mindretal så som Yazidi sect / Yazidisme.
Sekten, der holder Syriens diktator ved magten : Borgerkrigen i Syrien har tydeliggjort, hvor afgørende en rolle, alawitterne spiller i landet. Minoritetssekten, som udgør blot 12 procent af Syriens befolkning, har siddet tungt på magten i 42 år og betragter sin skæbne som så tæt knyttet til regimets, at de støtter Bashar al-Assad til den bitre ende. / : Martin Chulov. Lagt på på information.dk 21. juni 2012. Bragt i den trykte udgave 22. juni 2012 på side 10 i 1. sektion.
Sociale forhold: UN General Assembly, Sixty-sixth session: Children and armed conflict: Report of the Secretary-General. 2012. - 51 s.
Uddannelse
Universiteter
Økonomi: Den Internationale Bank for Genopbygning og Udvikling, Verdensbanken /
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development: Country at a Glance, 2011.
- http://go.worldbank.org/YB2ATM3HY0
BNP - FN data, landbrug, fiskeri, industri.
Landbrug: FAO Country Profiles.
Hungersnød 2018-2019
FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP and WHO. 2018.
The State of Food Security and Nutrition
in the World 2018
: Building climate resilience
for food security and nutrition. Rome, FAO.
- http://www.fao.org/3/I9553EN/i9553en.pdf
Countries requiring external assistance for food.
Crop Prospects and Food Situation No. 2 June 2016. / :
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Naturresourcer og energi: Guld, olie.
Erhverv, handel og industri:

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