Nuclear 1995

miljø

Latin, fransk: De forhold, hvorunder alle mennesker og dyr lever.
En VVM-redegørelse er en Vurdering af Virkningerne på Miljøet.
Krige og militær, forurening, kernevåbenproduktion, baser og flyve-stationer er blandt de største miljøforurenere, hvilket er baggrunden for sammenkædningen af miljø- og fredsarbejde som det bl. a. ses hos Greenpeace.
Eksempler på miljøforurening ved Pantex fabrikken i Texas i forbindelse med produktion af kernevåben under den kolde krig, sakset fra Nuclear Wastelands s. 236-237:
Radionuklider (radioaktive stoffer) i jord: alfa og beta henfald fra plutonium, tritium, thorium, uran
Metalforurening i jord og vand: beryllium, bly, krom, kopper, sølv.
Uorganiske forbindelser i jord og vand: bariumoxid (bruges primært til tørring), cyanider - herunder blåsyre, flussyre og svovlsyre
Flygtige organiske forbindelser eller organiske opløsningsmidler i jorden: acetone, benzen, dimethylformamid, ethylacetat (brandfarlig kemisk for-bindelse mellem eddikesyre og ethanol), kloroform (her formodentligt anvendt som rensemiddel (se også: Radiolyse af kloroform i den intense strålingsimpuls fra en atomeksplosion)), methylenklorid (lim), methylethyl-keton (eksempelvis anvendt som cellulosefortynder), methylisobutyl ketonperoxider, tetrachlormethan eller carbontetrachlorid (også brand-slukningsmiddel), tetrahydrofuran (anvendes især til PVC), toluen (bruges som lim og ved fremstilling af sprængstoffet trotyl), trichlorethylen (rensemiddel til at rengøre og affedte metaldele)
Flygtige organiske forbindelser bundfældet i grundvand, herunder Ogallala grundvandsmagasinet: acetone, dimethylformamid, ethylacetat, kloroform, methylenklorid, methyl-ethylketon, methylisobutyl, keton-alkoholer, rensebenzin, tetrachlormethan, tetrakloretan, tetrahydrofuran, toluen, trichlorethylen
Diverse jordforurening: eddikesyre, benzin, dioxin, polychlorerede biphenyler og TNT
Se også: Affald ; agroøkologi ; atomaffald ; atomkraft ; bæredygtighed ; cirkulær økonomi ; energi ; erosion ; FN's internationale dag mod ødelæggelse af miljøet i krig og under væbnede konflikter ; genbrug ; De grønne ; habitat ; hardware ; Illinois Coalition for Peace, Justice & the Environment ; Institute for Energy and Environmental Research ; klima ; Chico Mendes ; Military Environmental Forum ; Miljø- og Energiministeriet ; Miljø- og Fødevareklagenævnet ; miljøorganisationer ; Miljøstyrelsen ; MOX ; nærmiljø ; overforbrug ; Dorothy Stang ; sundhed ; teknologi ; tungmetaller ; økonomi ; Århuskonventionen eller Konvention om adgang til oplysninger, offentlighedens medvirken og klageadgang på miljøområdet.

Litteratur

Carson, Rachel: Silent Spring, 1962
- https://archive.org/details/fp_Silent_Spring-Rachel_Carson-1962
Carson, Rachel: Det tavse forår. Gyldendal 1969.
CRS: Human-Induced Earthquakes from Deep-Well Injection: A Brief Overview.
/ : Peter Folger ; Mary Tiemann, 2014.
'The development of unconventional oil and natural gas resources using horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has created new demand for wastewater disposal wells that inject waste fluids into deep geologic strata. An increasing concern in the United States is that injection of these fluids may be responsible for increasing rates of seismic activity. The number of earthquakes of magnitude 3.0 or greater in the central and eastern United States has increased dramatically since about 2009, from an average of approximately 20 per year between 1970 and 2000 to over 100 per year in the period 2010-2013. Some of these earthquakes may be felt at the surface. For example, 20 earthquakes of magnitudes 4.0 to 4.8 have struck central Oklahoma since 2009. The largest earthquake in Oklahoma history (magnitude 5.6) occurred on November 5, 2011, near Prague, causing damage to several structures nearby. Central and northern Oklahoma were seismically active regions before the recent increase in the volume of waste fluid injection through deep wells. However, the recent earthquake swarm does not seem to be due to typical, random, changes in the rate of seismicity, according to the U.S. Geological Survey.'
'Prior to the moment magnitude (M) 5.6 earthquake that occurred on November 6, 2011, in central Oklahoma (discussed below), an M 4.8 earthquake that struck northeast Denver on August 9, 1967, was generally accepted as the largest recorded human-induced earthquake. The M 4.8 earthquake was part of a series of earthquakes that began within several months of the 1961 start of deep-well injection of hazardous chemicals produced at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal defense plant. The earthquakes continued after injection ceased in February 1966.13 The disposal well was drilled through the flat-lying sedimentary rocks into the underlying older crystalline rocks more than 12,000 feet deep, and injection rates varied from 2 million gallons per month to as much as 5.5 million gallons per month.14 Earthquake activity declined after 1967, but continued for the next two decades. Scientists concluded that the injection triggered the earthquakes, and that even after injection ceased, the migration of the underground pressure front continued for years and initiated earthquakes along an ancient fault system many miles away from the injection well.15 As discussed below, the Rocky Mountain Arsenal earthquakes had many similarities to the recent increased earthquake activity in some deep-well injection activities of the United States, including, for example, injection near or in underlying crystalline bedrock, activation of fault systems miles away from the well, and migration of the pressure front away from the point of injection months or years after injection stopped.'
Measuring Social Movement Organization Populations: A comprehensive Census of U.S. Environmental Movement Organizations. Robert Brulle, Liesel Hall Turner, Jason Carmichael, and J. Craig Jenkins. Mobilization: An International Quarterly Review 12(3): pp 195-211.
- http://www.pages.drexel.edu/~brullerj/Methods%20-%20Mobilization.pdf
Engberg, Jens: Det heles vel : Forureningsbekæmpelsen i Danmark fra loven om sundhedsvedtægter i 1850'erne til miljøloven 1974.
- København : Københavns Kommune Miljøkontrollen : 1999. - 524 s.
Ferdinand, Nina: Danmark sender ulovligt elektronikskrot til Afrika : Danskernes udtjente computere ender som miljøproblemer i udlandet. I: Ingeniøren, 12/17/2004.
How many more? : 2014's deadly environment: the killing and intimidation of environmental and land activists, with a spotlight on Honduras / : Global Witness, 2015.
Geographical area
Global Witness found cases of killings of environmental and land defenders in 17 countries in 2014. Central and South America account for more than three quarters of all deaths with 88 out of the global total of 116 killed. The rest are mostly from South East Asia whilst three deaths were recorded in Africa and one in India.
Brazil is again the worst-affected country with 29 killings occurring in 2014. Most of these relate to the conflict over the ownership, control and use of land. Colombia is the second most dangerous country with 25 killings – more than half whose victims are indigenous people, struggling to defend their ancestral lands. The Philippines accounts for 15 deaths in 2014 - predominantly at the hands of paramilitary groups defending mining interests - whilst Honduras continues to be the hardest-hit country per capita with 12 deaths. Many of the killings in Honduras and other Central America countries are a result of the struggle against hydropower dams and their impacts on local communities.
Leder: Fra asken i ilden. I: Information, 9. juli 2018. Om den amerikanske milgøminister Scott Pruitts afgang som minister.
Protecting the Environment During Armed Conflict: An Inventory and Analysis of International Law. / : Elizabeth Maruma Mrema et al. - New York : United Nations Environment Programme ; the Environmental Law Institute, 2009. - 88 s. - ISBN: 978-92-807-3042-5
[Online].
Quella, Alicia Katherine. "Retrospective mortality and cancer incidence study of former U.S. Atomic Energy Commission workers at the Iowa Army Ammunitions Plant in Burlington, Iowa." PhD diss., University of Iowa, 2010.
- http://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/876.
Report of the Conference on an Arctic Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Copenhagen, 10-11 august, 2009
Studietur førte til global klimabebevægelse. / : Lasse Skov Andersen ; Jesper Løvenbalk Andersen. I: Information 04/14/2015.


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