Bulgarien

Geografi ; natur og klima ; demografi ; historie ; krige ; kultur ; musik ; politik ; forsvar ; fredsbevægelser ; religion ; sociale forhold ; uddannelse ; økonomi og våbenhandel.
Geography; nature; demographics; history, wars, culture, music, politics, defense, peace movements, religion, social issues, education, economy.
Géographie, la nature, la démographie, histoire, la culture, la politique, la défense, les mouvements pacifistes, la religion, les questions sociales, l'éducation, économie.
Geografía, naturaleza, demografía, historia, cultura, política, defensa, movimientos por la paz, la religión, las cuestiones sociales, la educación, la economía.
Geographie, Natur, Demographie, Geschichte, Kultur, Politik, Verteidigung, Friedensbewegungen, Religion, Soziales, Bildung, Wirtschaft.
Geografi: Sydøsteuropæisk republik beliggende på Balkan med grænser til Grækenland, Makedonien, Rumænien, Serbien og Tyrkiet og med kystlinje til Sortehavet. Geografihistoriske fremstillinger: Tabula Peutingeriana
- http://www.euratlas.net/cartogra/peutinger/index.html
Demografi: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank: Migration and Remittances Factbook 2011.
Eastern European National Minorities, 1919-1980. A Handbook.
- https://archive.org/details/ERIC_ED257741
'Historical summaries and annotated bibliographies are provided for chapters focusing on national minorities in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia, Italy and Austria, Bulgaria, and Albania between 1919 and 1980. Chapter 1, "Eastern European National Minorities, 1919-1980" (Stephen M. Horak), includes an historical summary focusing on demographic problems and changes, political implications and problems of the interwar period, World War II, and the post-World War II period. The historical summary in Chapter 2, "National Minorities in Poland, 1919-1980" (Kenneth C. Farmer, David Crowe, and Richard Blanke) presents selections on minorities in interwar Poland, 1919-1939; World War II and the Nazi Occupation, 1939-1945; and national minorities in the Polish People's Republic, 1945-1980. Annotated bibliographic citations are categorized under general works, Ukranians, Jews, Belorussians, Germans, and Lithuanians. Remaining chapters present historical summaries and bibliographies under the following titles: "National Minorities in Czechoslovakia, 1919-1980" (Josef Kalvoda and David Crowe); "National Minorities in Hungary, 1919-1980" (Martin L. Kovacs and David Crowe); "National Minorities in Romania, 1919-1980" (Stephen Fischer-Galati); "National Minorities in Yugoslavia, 1919-1980: Linguistic Minorities from an Economic Perspective" (Toussaint Hocevar and David Crowe); "The Slovene and Croat Minorities in Italy and Austria, 1945-1980" (Toussaint Hocevar); "National Minorities in Bulgaria, 1919-1980" (Peter John Georgeoff and David Crowe); "National Minorities in Albania, 1919-1980" (Stephen M. Horak); and "Nationality Research Centers in Eastern European Countries" (Theodor Veiter). (LH)'.
Historie: Oldtiden. Forhistorisk bjergkunst / Rock Art: Magoura hulen. Den romersk provins Dacia / Dakien. Middelalderen. Katakomber.
Det autonome fyrstedømme Bulgarien 1878-1908.
Østrumelien eller den »autonome provins« Østrumelien / Rumelien / romerlandet eller [tyrkisk] Balkan og Anatolien. Kongeriget Bulgariens uafhængighedserklæring 1908.
Militærkup: 1923, 1934, 1944.
Deltagelse i krige / Participation in wars / Participation à des guerres / La participación en las guerras / Beteiligung an Kriegen
De sidste Kampe i Bulgarien. Historisk Arkiv, 1886.
Kultur: Compendium
- http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/compendium.php og
- http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/profiles-download.php?pcid=1010
Massemedier og pressefrihed:
Tekst:
Radio:
TV
Biblioteksvæsen. Bogvæsen:
Tekst:
Aviser / Newspapers / journaux / Prensa / Tageszeitungen
Tidsskrifter, periodica / Journals, periodicals / Revues spécialisées, périodiques / Revistas, publicaciones periódicas / Zeitschriften, Periodika
Litteratur:
Kunst / Art
Film:
Teater:
Politik: Demokratisk parlamentarisme
Regeringer:
Lovgivende forsamling, parlament:
Valg:
Tekst:
Aktuelle og historiske politiske partier / Current and historical political parties / Actuelles et historiques des partis politiques / Los partidos políticos actuales e históricos / Aktuelle und historische politische Parteien
Nyt bulgarsk kommunistparti var forbudt med urette
Bulgarien må affinde sig med, at et politisk parti ikke uden videre kan forbydes blot fordi det kalder sig kommunistisk. Den Europæiske Menneskerettighedsdomstol fandt en krænkelse af foreningsfriheden ved det forbud, som Bulgariens Højesteret i for ti år siden havde nedlagt mod det nydannede Bulgariens Kommunistiske Parti, som en vis Anguel Tsonev Anguelov sammen med 49 andre søgte at få registreret som parti i 1996.
Case of Tsonev v. Bulgaria (Application no. 45963/99) Judgment, Strasbourg 13 April 2006
Fem års chikane af makedonsk organisation i Bulgarien krænkede forsamlingsfriheden
'Den Europæiske Menneskerettighedsdomstol har tilkendt to pro-makedonske organisationer i Bulgarien, Den Forenede Makedonske Organisation (UMO Ilinden) ved formanden Yordan Ivanov og Den Forenede Makedonske Organisation (UMO Ilinden – PIRIN) sammenlagt 12.000 euro (90.000 kr.) for den krænkelse af deres - og forsamlingsfrihed, som bulgarske myndigheder havde udsat dem for i perioden 1990-2003.' Case of the United Macedonian Organisation Ilinden – pirin and others v. Bulgaria (Application no. 59489/00) Judgment, Strasbourg 20 October 2005
International organisering
Bulgarien var medlem af Folkeforbundet og senere af Warshawapagten under den kolde krig.
Hult, Berndt: Europas röda arméer. - Stockholm: Hörsta, 1953. - 180 s.
og er aktuelt medlem af Antarktis traktatsystemet / Antarctic Treaty System, EU, Europarådet, FN, NATO, OSCE. Bulgarien og tiltrædelsen af Den europæiske union. (3. reviderede udgave), 1999. - 18 s.
Forsvar / militær: SIPRI: Militærudgifter / Military expenditure of Bulgaria.
Værnepligt: Nej. WRI: Country report and updates: Bulgaria.
Efterretningstjenester:
Paramilitære styrker:
Fredsbevægelser:
Sociale bevægelser, herunder miljøorganisationer:
Religion
Sociale forhold:
Uddannelse
Universiteter:
Økonomi: Den Internationale Bank for Genopbygning og Udvikling, Verdensbanken /
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development: Country at a Glance, 2011.
- http://go.worldbank.org/YB2ATM3HY0
BNP - FN data, landbrug, fiskeri, industri.
Landbrug: FAO Country Profiles.
Naturresourcer / Natural resources: Kul.
Erhverv, handel og industri: Atomkraftværker.
Våbenfabrikker, våbenhandel og våbentransporter / Weapon Factories, arms trade and -transport: Expal - Maxam.- http://www.maxam-corp.com/en/expal
Bulgarian arms sales in 2010 amounted to 259 million euros
novinite, July 20, Bulgaria’s 2010 Arms Exports Amounted to EUR 260 M
A report produced by an inter-ministerial export control commission shows that the prime recipients for Bulgarian arms in 2010 were India, the United States, Egypt, and the Czech Republic. Three hundred and thirty-nine export permits were issued during 2010 and only two permits were refused. The report will be published by the Ministry of Economy, Energy, and Tourism after it is presented to Parliament. The figure of 259 million euros represents a large decline in exports from the 1980s, when a peak of $1 billion in annual sales was recorded. Human Rights Watch, Bulgaria: Money Talks - Arms Dealing with Human Rights Abusers, 1 April 1999, D1104, available at:
- http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3ae6a7f80.html [accessed 22 March 2012]
'Bulgaria has earned a reputation as an anything-goes weapons bazaar where Kalashnikov assault rifles, mortars, antitank mines, ammunition,explosives and other items are available for a price, no matter who the buyers are or how they might use the deadly wares. In the 1990s Bulgaria has been a weapons source for armed forces in Iraq, the former Yugoslavia, Angola, and Rwanda, among other countries.'

Send kommentar, email eller søg i Fredsakademiet.dk
Locations of visitors to this page