arktisk

Nordlig.
Geografi ; natur og klima ; demografi ; historie ; krige ; kultur ; kunst ; film ; musik ; politik ; politiske partier ; forsvar ; fredsbevægelser ; religion ; sociale forhold ; uddannelse ; økonomi og våbenhandel.
Geography, nature and climate, demographics, history, wars, culture, film, music, politics, defense, peace movements, religion, social issues, education, economy and arms trade.
Géographie, la nature, la démographie, histoire, la culture, la politique, la défense, les mouvements pacifistes, la religion, les questions sociales, l'éducation, économie.
Geografía, naturaleza, demografía, historia, cultura, política, defensa, movimientos por la paz, la religión, las cuestiones sociales, la educación, la economía.
Geographie, Natur, Demographie, Geschichte, Kultur, Politik, Verteidigung, Friedensbewegungen, Religion, Soziales, Bildung, Wirtschaft.
Arctic Atlas.
Nordpols; hørende til Nordpolen.
Geografi: De mest almindelige og grundlæggende definition af Arktis definerer regionen som jord- og havområdet nord for polarcirklen (breddegrad på omkring 66.34o Nord). Definition af Polarcirklen omfatter den nordligste tredjedel eller deromkring af Alaska, samt, den del Chukchi Havet, som adskiller Alaska fra Rusland og USAs territoriale og Eksklusiv Økonomiske zone (EEZ ) i farvandet nord for Alaska. Det omfatter ikke de nederste to tredjedele eller deromkring af Alaska eller Beringshavet, der adskiller det nederste del af staten fra Rusland.
Otte lande har territorium nord for polarcirklen: USA (Alaska ), Canada, Rusland, Norge, Danmark (i kraft af Grønland), Finland, Sverige og Island. Disse otte lande er ofte omtalt som Arktise lande, og de er de medlemslande af Arktisk Råd, et mellemstatsligt forum etableret i 1996. Af de otte arktiske lande betragtes fem lande som arktiske kyststater : USA, Canada , Rusland, Norge og Danmark (i kraft af Grønland).
/ The most common and basic definition of the Arctic defines the region as the land and sea area north of the Arctic Circle (a circle of latitude at about 66.34o North). The Arctic Circle definition includes the northernmost third or so of Alaska, as well as the Chukchi Sea, which separates that part of Alaska from Russia, and U.S. territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) waters north of Alaska. It does not include the lower two-thirds or so of Alaska or the Bering Sea, which separates that lower part of the state from Russia.
Eight countries have territory north of the Arctic Circle: the United States (Alaska), Canada, Russia, Norway, Denmark (by virtue of Greenland, a member country of the Kingdom of Denmark), Finland, Sweden, and Iceland. These eight countries are often referred to as the Arctic countries, and they are the member states of the Arctic Council, an intergovernmental forum established in 1996. A subset of the eight Arctic countries are the five countries that are considered Arctic coastal states: the United States, Canada, Russia, Norway, and Denmark (by virtue of Greenland)..
Havområder
Baffinbugten, Barentshavet, Beauforthavet, Chukchihavet, Davisstrædet, Grønlandshavet, Hudsonbugten, Hvidehavet, Karahavet, Lincolnhavet, Det nordlige ishav, Pechorahavet, Wandelhavet og Åbent polarhav.
/ Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, Davis Strait, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Kara Sea, Lincoln Sea, Open Polar Sea, Pechora Sea, Wandel Sea and White Sea.
Arktis geografi i International lov
Kontinentalsokkelprojektet
Den 29. april 2003 besluttede Folketinget, at Danmark skal ratificere FN's havretskonvention af 1982. Efterfølgende har også Færøernes Lagting og Grønlands Landsting tiltrådt denne beslutning.
Vedtaget af Folketinget ved 2. (sidste) behandling den 29. april 2003 Folketingsbeslutning om Danmarks ratifikation af De Forenede Nationers havretskonvention af 10. december 1982 tillige med den dertil knyttede aftale af 28. juli 1994 om anvendelse af konventionens kapitel XI samt Danmarks tiltrædelse af aftale af 23. maj 1997 om privilegier og immuniteter for Den Internationale Havretsdomstol og protokol af 27. marts 1998 om privilegier og immuniteter for Den Internationale Havbundsmyndighed
- http://a76.dk/xpdf/folketingsbeslutning_%20b75_29_04_2003.pdf
Kommissionen for Kontinentalsoklens Grænser (CLCS) / the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf
- http://www.un.org/depts/los/clcs_new/clcs_home.htm
Herunder: Maritime Space: Maritime Zones and Maritime Delimitation.
- http://www.un.org/Depts/los/LEGISLATIONANDTREATIES/index.htm
Putin er ved at militarisere Arktis. / : Vibeke Sperling. I: Information, 6. august 2015.
Rusland stiller nye krav om Nordpolen. / : Martin Brerum. I: Information, 6. august 2015.
Natur, klima. Biodiversitet. Fauna og flora: Fisk. Fugle. Koralrev. Vådområder.
Nature, climate. Flora and fauna: Botanical gardens. Fish. Birds. Coral reefs. Wetlands
Flore et faune: Poissons. Oiseaux. Les récifs coralliens. Les zones humides.
Flora y fauna: Fish. Pájaros. Los arrecifes de coral. Los humedales.
Natur, Klima. Flora und Fauna: Botanische Gärten. Fisch. Vögeln. Korallenriffe. Feuchtgebiet, Feuchtbiotop.
International Network of Basin Organizations / Det internationale netværk af flodbassin organisationer.
- http://www.inbo-news.org/spip.php?sommaire⟨=en:
Arctic Biodiversity Trends 2010 – Selected indicators of change.
CAFF International Secretariat, Akureyri, Iceland. May 2010.
- http://arcticbiodiversity.is/abt2010/images/stories/report/pdf/Arctic_Biodiversity_Trends_Report_2010.pdf
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ydGhSUKSGiI#t=63
'The Arctic plays host to a vast array of biodiversity, including many globally significant populations. Included among these are more than half of the world´s shorebird species, 80% of the global goose populations, several million reindeer and caribou, and many unique mammals, such as the polar bear. During the short summer breeding season, 279 species of birds arrive from as far away as South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and South America to take advantage of the long days and intense period of productivity. Several species of marine mammals, including grey and humpback whales, and harp and hooded seals, also migrate annually to the Arctic.'
Vådområder:
Tekst:
Peace Palace Library: Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law. .
Geologi og jordbundsforhold: Bjerge, vulkaner, jordskælv og ørkenområder:
Geology: Mountains, volcanoes, earthquakes and desert areas
Géologie: Montagnes, volcans, tremblements de terre et les zones désertiques
Geología: Montañas, volcanes, terremotos y zonas desérticas
Geologie: Berge, Vulkane, Erdbeben und Wüstengebiete
World Database on Protected Areas: Beskyttede områder og nationalparker.
Tekst:
'The Arctic Report Card (www.arctic.noaa.gov/reportcard/) considers a wide range of environmental observations throughout the Arctic, and is updated annually. The 2013 update to the Report Card illustrates the significant effects of year-to-year and regional variability, which overlie the impacts of the persistent warming trend that began over 30 years ago. For instance, after a record-setting year in 2012, relatively cool air temperatures in summer 2013 across the central Arctic Ocean, Greenland and northern Canada facilitated an increase in the summer sea ice extent and a decrease in the extent and duration of melting at the surface of the Greenland ice sheet. In contrast, summer 2013 was one of the warmest on record in Alaska, where new record high temperatures were set at some permafrost observatories, and Fairbanks, in the center of the state, experienced a record 36 days with temperatures of 27°C or higher.'
- http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/reportcard/ArcticReportCard_full_report.pdf
Demografi:
Se også: Antarktis ; Arktis som atomvåbenfri zone ; Arctic Biodiversity Assessment ; atomubåde ; is ; Ishavet ; kryosfære ; trægrænse ; U.N. Convention on Law of the Sea ; US National Snow and Ice Data Center.
Historie: Oldtiden / Antiquity. Helleristninger / petroglyph.
Assessment of Cultural Heritage Monuments and Sites in the Arctic. / : Arctic Council's Sustainable Development Working Group, 2013.
- https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/handle/11374/50

Litteratur

Conference on an Arctic Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone, Copenhagen, 10-11 August, 2009. Editor: John Avery.
CRS: Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress. / : Ronald O'Rourke et al. 2014. - 77 s.
Maritime jurisdiction and boundaries in the Arctic region. / : International Boundaries Research Unit, Durham University, 2013.
- https://www.dur.ac.uk/ibru/resources/arctic/
The Peace Palace Library: Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law.
'Uheldigt' at skære i arktisstudier, mens alle ser mod nord: Mens resten af verden søger efter mere viden om Arktis, så kan Eskimologi og arktiske studier ikke optage nye studerende i år. Studiet risikerer ligesom 12 andre småfag på Københavns Universitet at blive lukket fra 2017. / : Lise Richter. I: Information, 19. Januar 2016.
'13 uddannelser på Humanistisk Fakultet på Københavns Universitet lukker i år for optag og risikerer helt at lukke i 2017 – et af fagene er Eskimologi og arktiske studier, som er det eneste sted i verden, hvor man kan lære grønlandsk som fremmedsprog på universitetsniveau.'


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