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Geography; Nature and climate; Demography; History; Wars; Culture ; Art; Film; Music; Politics; Political parties ; Defense; Peace movements; Religion; Social conditions ; Education , Economics and Arms trade.
Géographie; Nature et climat; Démographie; Guerres; Histoire; Culture ; La musique; Politique; Partis politiques ; La défense; Mouvements de paix; Religion; Conditions sociales ; Éducation; Économie et commerce des armes

Brasiliansk natur

Brazilian nature
Natureza Brasileira
Natureza brasileira
Natur, klima. Biodiversitet. Fauna og flora: Botaniske haver. Fisk. Fugle. Koralrev. Vådområder.
Nature, climate. Flora and fauna: Botanical gardens. Fish. Birds. Coral reefs. Wetlands
Flore et faune: Poissons. Oiseaux. Les récifs coralliens. Les zones humides.
Flora y fauna: Fish. Pájaros. Los arrecifes de coral. Los humedales.
Natur, Klima. Flora und Fauna: Botanische Gärten. Fisch. Vögeln. Korallenriffe. Feuchtgebiet, Feuchtbiotop.
Brasilien har stor biologisk mangfoldighed / megadiversity, men der er også truede dyr og planter.
Brazil has great biodiversity or megadiversity, but there are also threatened species and plants.
Flora
Major increase in Brazilian plant and fungus data shared through GBIF. - Last updated August 17th, 2015.
- http://www.gbif.org/newsroom/news/brazil-flora-fungi
Skov
The Ultimate Mystery Meat : Exposing the Secrets Behind Burger King and Global Meat Production. / : Marisa Bellantonioet al. Regnskogsfondet , Mighty Earth. 2017.
- http://www.mightyearth.org/mysterymeat/
Fauna
Ornithological gazetteer of Brazil I-II, 1991.
- https://archive.org/details/ornithologicalga01payn , og
- https://archive.org/details/ornithologicalga02payn
The avifauna of Curaçá (Bahia): the last stronghold of Spix’s Macaw. / : Juan Mazar Barnett et al.
Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22(2), 121-137. June 2014.
'The region of Curaçá was one of the first regions of the Brazilian northeast to be ornithologically explored, and is known as the type locality and last stronghold of the Spix’s Macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii), now extinct in the wild. The region of Curaçá has been considered of high conservation importance, particularly for holding some of the last relicts of Caraíba (Tabebuia caraiba) gallery forest in the Caatinga, and for representing the most obvious place to start a reintroduction program for C. spixii. Despite international interest in the plight of the macaw and frequent visits by ornithologists in the last 30 years, no general avian survey has been undertaken in the region. In this paper, we present data from three independent field seasons in the area, conducted in 1997-98, 2000, and 2011. We include data on 204 bird species recorded in the region, including 28 taxa endemic to the Caatinga.'
Spix’s Macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii) fact file. / :Ryan Watson. 2008.
Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation. Doha, State of Qatar.
- http://www.bluemacaws.org/Spix-fact-file20.11.07.pdf
Se også: - http://www.bluemacaws.org/:
Vådområder:
International Network of Basin Organizations / Det internationale netværk af flodbassin organisationer.
- http://www.inbo-news.org/spip.php?sommaire⟨=en:
Pantanal sumpen eller mosen.
Floder: Amazonfloden. Coloradofloden.
Iguazu-vandfaldet.
Nielsen, Jørgen Steen: Verdens opmærksomhed på Amazonas falder på et meget tørt sted. I: Information, 02/10/2011.
Plant diversity of the Pantanal wetland. / : A. Pott et al. Braz. J. Biol., 2011, vol. 71, no. 1 (suppl.), p. 265-273
'This is a review of current studies in diversity of the flora and main vegetation types in the Brazilian Pantanal. The flora of this wetland, nearly 2,000 species, constitutes a pool of elements of wide distribution and from more or less adjacent phytogeographic provinces, such as Cerrado, dry seasonal forests, Chaco, Amazonia and Atlantic Forest. The most numerous group includes wide-distribution species, mainly herbs, while the second contingent comes from the Cerrado. Endemic plants are rare, numbering only seven. The vegetation of the sedimentary floodplain is a mosaic of aquatics, floodable grasslands, riparian forests, savannas (cerrados), cerrado woodlands, dry forests, and a large area of mono-dominant savannas, and pioneer woodlands. The main vegetation types are briefly described with theircharacteristic species, and their estimated areas are given according to the latest mapping.'
Dams in the Amazon: Belo Monte and Brazil's Hydroelectric Development of the Xingu River Basin. / : Philip M. Fearnside. Environmental Management Vol. xx, No. x, pp. 1–13, 2006.
- http://www.internationalrivers.org/files/attached-files/belo_monte_dec_making_em_01136.pdf
Integrated and Sustainable Management of Transboundary. Water Resources in the Amazon River Basin.
Water project series, number 8 – October 2005
- https://www.oas.org/dsd/Events/english/Documents/OSDE_8Amazon.pdf
'This document has been prepared by the Office for Sustainable Development and Environment of the General Secretariat of the Organization of American States, as the regional executing agency for the Amazon, in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme (implementing agency for the Global Environment Facility), and the Organization of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty'.
Biodiversity of the Pantanal: response to seasonal flooding regime and to environmental degradation. / : CJR Alho. Braz. J. Biol., 68(4, Suppl.): 957-966, 2008.
- http://www.scielo.br/pdf/bjb/v68n4s0/a05v684s.pdf
Effects of Severe Floods and Droughts on Wildlife of the Pantanal Wetland (Brazil)—A Review Cleber J. R. Alho; João S. V. Silva. Animals 2012, 2, 591-610; doi:10.3390/ani2040591
'The Pantanal is a wetland in the center of South America, (140,000 km² in Brazil), in the Upper Paraguay River Basin. Because of its diverse and abundant wildlife, it is recognized as one of the most important freshwater ecosystems in the world. Many endangered species occur there, including jaguar; waterfowl are exceptionally abundant. Relief varies between the low, and flat floodplain, and the surrounding non-flooded plateau areas. Rainfall shows inter-annual variability, influencing the flooding patterns. Historical climate instability of severe multi-annual flood and dry events has affected animals' habitats as well as their community structure, population size and behavioral ecology.'
Hydrochemical variability at the Upper Paraguay Basin and Pantanal wetland. / : A. T. Rezende Filho.
- Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 2723–2737, 2012
Plant diversity of the Pantanal wetland. / : A. Pott et al.
Braz. J. Biol., 2011, vol. 71, no. 1 (suppl.), p. 265-273
- http://www.scielo.br/pdf/bjb/v71n1s1/05.pdf
'This is a review of current studies in diversity of the flora and main vegetation types in the Brazilian Pantanal. The flora of this wetland, nearly 2,000 species, constitutes a pool of elements of wide distribution and from more or less adjacent phytogeographic provinces, such as Cerrado, dry seasonal forests, Chaco, Amazonia and Atlantic Forest.The most numerous group includes wide-distribution species, mainly herbs, while the second contingent comes from the Cerrado. Endemic plants are rare, numbering only seven. The vegetation of the sedimentary floodplain is a mosaic of aquatics, floodable grasslands, riparian forests, savannas (cerrados), cerrado woodlands, dry forests, and a large area of mono-dominant savannas, and pioneer woodlands. The main vegetation types are briefly described with their characteristic species, and their estimated areas are given according to the latest mapping..
Naturhistorie:
Historia naturalis Brasiliæ : auspicio et beneficio illustriss. I. Mauriti Com. Nassau illius provinciae et maris summi praefecti adornata : in qua non tantum plantae et animalia, sed et indigenarum morbi, ingenia et mores describuntur et iconibus supra quingentas illustrantur. Guilielmi Pisonis ... De medicina Brasiliensi libri quatuor: I. De aëre, aquis, & locis. II. De morbis endemis. III. De venenatis & antidotis. IV. De facultatibus simplicium. Et Georgi Marcgravi de Leibstad ... Historiæ rerum naturalium Brasiliæ libri octo: Quorum tres priores aguni de plantis. Quartus de piscibus. Quintus de avibus. Sextus de quadrupedibus & serpentibus. Septimus de insectis. Octavus de ipsa regione, & illius incolis. cum appendice de tapuyis, et Chilensibus Ioannes de Laet / Jan de Laet ... / : Willem Piso et al. - Lugdun. Batavorum : Apud Franciscum Hackium ; et Amstelodami : Apud Lud. Elzevirium, 1648 ; 1658.
- https://archive.org/details/historianaturali12piso
Flora brasiliensis / enumeratio plantarum in Brasilia hactenus detectarum quas suis aliorumque botanicorum studiis descriptas et methodo naturali digestas partim icone illustratas ediderunt Carolus Fridericus Philippus de Martius et Augustus Guilielmus Eichler iisque defunctis successor Ignatius Urban. Opus cura Musei C. R. Pal. vindobonensis auctore Steph. Englicher successore Ed. Fenzl conditum sub auspiciis Ferdinandi I., Austriae imperatoris, Ludovici I., Bavariae regis, Petri II., Brasiliae imperatoris, sublevatum populi brasiliensis liberalitate. - Monachii : apud R. Oldenbourg in comm., 1840-1906.
- https://archive.org/search.php?query=Flora%20brasiliensis
Historia naturalis palmarum. / : Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius
A Narrative of Travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro, With an Account of the Native Tribes, and Observations on the Climate, Geology, and Natural History of the Amazon Valley. / : Alfred Russel Wallace.
- London : Reeve & Co., 1853.- http://people.wku.edu/charles.smith/index1.htm
- https://archive.org/details/travelsonamazonr00wall
Notes of a Botanist on the Amazon & Andes: Being Records of Travel on the Amazon and Its Tributaries, the Trombetas, Rio Negro, Uaupés, Casiquiri, Pacimoni, Huallaga, and Pastasa; as Also to the Cataracts of the Orinoco, Along the Eastern Side of the Andes of Peru and Ecuador, and the Shores of the Pacific, During the Years 1849-1864, I-II. / : Richard Spruce. - London: Macmillan, 1908.
- https://archive.org/details/notesofbotanisto11908spru
- https://archive.org/details/notesofbotanisto21908spru
E museo Lundii: En samling af afhandlinger om de i det indre Brasiliens kalkstenshuler af Professor Dr. Peter Vilhelm Lund udgravede og i den Lundske palæontologiske Afdeling af Kjøbenhavs Universitets zoologiske Museum opbevarede dyre- og menneskeknogler. Paa Carlsbergfondet bekostning. / : Chr. Fr. Lütken et al. Københavns universitet. Zoologisk museum. Lundske palaeontologiske afdeling, 1888-1915.
Jordfundne og nulevende gumlere (Edentata) fra Lagoa Santa, Minas Geraes, Brasilien : med udsigt over gumlernes indbyrdes slægtskab. / : Herluf Winge.
- https://archive.org/details/jordfundneognule00wingehe
Den forsvundne maler : P.W. Lund og P.A. Brandt i Brasilien. / : Birgitte Holten, Michael Sterll, Jon Fjeldså. Museum Tusculanum, 2004.
P.W. Lund og knokkelhulerne i Lagoa Santa. / : Birgitte Holten, Michael Sterll ; redaktør: Gitte Lyngs ; kort: Per Jørgensen. Statens Naturhistoriske Museum, 2010.
Natur i international lov:
Traktaten om Amazonas samarbejdsorganisation / The Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization / Organização do Tratado de Cooperação Amazônica, 1998-.
Peace Palace Library: Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law. .
Klima:
Brasilien er medlem af / is a memner of the World Meteorological Organization
- https://www.wmo.int/pages/index_en.html
Geologi og jordbundsforhold: Bjerge, vulkaner, jordskælv og ørkenområder:
Geology: Mountains, volcanoes, earthquakes and desert areas
Géologie: Montagnes, volcans, tremblements de terre et les zones désertiques
Geología: Montañas, volcanes, terremotos y zonas desérticas
Geologie: Berge, Vulkane, Erdbeben und Wüstengebiete
World Database on Protected Areas: Beskyttede områder og nationalparker:
UNEP-WCMC (2008). National and Regional Networks of Marine Protected Areas: A Review of Progress. Cambridge.
- http://www.unep.org/regionalseas/publications/otherpubs/pdfs/MPA_Network_report.pdf
In Brazil, there are several World Heritage Natural sites.
Tekst:

Se tillige: Afrikansk natur ; Amerikas natur ; Asiens natur ; Europæisk natur ; Nordamerikas natur ; Oceaniens natur, Sydamerikas natur.
Afghansk natur ; Albansk natur ; Algerisk natur ; Andorras natur ; Amerikansk natur ; Angolas natur ; Antigua & Barbudas natur ; Argentinsk natur ; Armensk natur ; Aserbajdsjans natur ; Australsk natur ; Bahamas natur ; Bahrains natur ; Bangladesh natur ; Barbados natur ; Belgisk natur ; Belizesk natur ; Benins natur ; Bhutans natur ; Boliviansk natur ; Bosnien-Hercegovinas natur ; Botswanas natur ; Brunei Darussalams natur ; Bulgarsk natur ; Burkina Fasos natur ; Burundis natur ; Canadisk natur ; Cambodjansk natur ; Camerouns natur ; Centralafrikansk natur ; Chilensk natur ; Colombiansk natur ; Comorernes natur ; Congolesisk natur ; Costa Ricas natur ; Cubansk natur ; Cypriotisk natur ; Dansk natur ; Djiboutisk natur ; Dominicansk natur ; Dominicas natur ; Ecuadoriansk natur ; Engelsk natur ; Egyptisk natur ; El Salvadoransk natur ; Elfenbenskystens natur ; Eritreas natur ; Estlands natur ; Etiopisk natur ; Fijis natur ; Filippinsk natur ; Finsk natur ; De forenede arabiske Emiraters natur ; Fransk natur ; Færøsk natur ; Gabons natur ; Gambiansk natur ; Georgiansk natur ; Ghanas natur ; Grenadas natur ; Græsk natur ; Grønlandsk natur ; Guatemalas natur ; Guineas natur ; Guinea-Bissaus natur ; Guyansk natur ; Haitiansk natur ; Hollansk natur ; Honduras natur ; Hvideruslands natur ; Indisk natur ; Indonesisk natur ; Irakisk natur ; Iransk natur ; Islandsk natur ; Irsk natur ; Israelsk natur ; Italiensk natur ; Jamaicas natur ; Japansk natur ; Jordans natur ; Kap Verdisk natur ; Kasakhstanisk natur ; Kenyansk natur ; Kinesisk natur ; Kirgisistans natur ; Kiribatis natur ; Kosovos natur ; Kroatiens natur ; Kuwais natur ; Laotisk natur ; Lesothisk natur ; Letlands natur ; Libanesisk natur ; Liberiansk natur ; Libysk natur ; Liechtensteins natur ; Litauens natur ; Luxembourgs natur ; Madagascars natur ; Makedonsk natur ; Malawis natur ; Malaysias natur ; Maldiviensk natur ; Malis natur ; Maltesisk natur ; Marokkansk natur ; Marshalløernes natur ; Mauretaniens natur ; Mauritius natur ; Mexicansk natur ; Mikronesisk natur ; Moldovisk natur ; Monacos natur ; Mongoliets natur ; Montenegros natur ; Mozambiques natur ; Myanmars natur ; Namibias natur ; Naurus natur ; Nepals natur ; New Zealandsk natur ; Nicaraguansk natur ; Nigers natur ; Nigerias natur ; Norsk natur ; Nordkoreansk natur ; Omans natur ; Pakistansk natur ; Palaus natur ; Palæstinas natur ; Panamas natur ; Papua Ny Guineansk natur ; Paraguays natur ; Peruviansk natur ; Polsk natur ; Portugisisk natur ; Qatars natur ; Rumænsk natur ; Russisk natur ; Rwandas natur ; Salomonøernes natur ; Samoas natur ; San Marinos natur ; São Tomé & Principles natur ; Saudi-Arabisk natur ; Schweizisk natur ; Senegals natur ; Serbisk natur ; Seychellernes natur ; Sierra Leones natur ; Singapores natur ; Skotsk natur ; Slovakiets natur ; Sloveniens natur ; Somalisk natur ; Spansk natur ; Sri Lankas natur ; St. Kitts & Nevis natur ; St. Lucias natur ; St. Vincent og Grenadinernes natur ; Sudanesisk natur ; Surinams natur ; Svensk natur ; Swazilands natur ; Sydafrikansk natur ; Sydkoreansk natur ; Syrisk natur ; Tadsjikistans natur ; Taiwanesisk natur ; Tanzanias natur ; Tchads natur ; Thailandsk natur ; Tjekkisk natur ; Togos natur ; Tongas natur ; Trinidad & Tobagos natur ; Tunesisk natur ; Turkmenistans natur ; Tuvalus natur ; Tyrksk natur ; Tysk natur ; Ugandas natur ; Ukrainsk natur ; Ungarnsk natur ; Uruguays natur ; Usbekistans natur ; Vanuatus natur ; Venezuelas natur ; Vietnamesisk natur ; Yemens natur ; Zambias natur ; Zimbabwes natur ; Ækvatorial Guineas natur ; Østrisk natur ; Østtimors natur.


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