amerikansk natur

American nature

Milieu naturels États-Unis

Entorno natural de los EE.UU.

Amerikanischen Natur

CRS: Federal Lands and Natural Resources: Overview and Selected Issues for the 113th Congress. / : Katie Hoover, 2014.
'Four agencies (referred to in this report as the federal land management agencies, or FLMAs) administer a total of 614 million surface acres (95%) of federal lands: the Forest Service (FS) in the Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), and National Park Service (NPS), all in the Department of the Interior (DOI). The federal estate also extends to the energy and mineral resources located below ground and offshore. These include about 700 million onshore acres of the federal subsurface mineral estate that are managed by BLM. In addition, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), also in DOI, manages approximately 1.7 billion offshore acres located in federal waters within and beyond the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone. Not all of these acres contain extractable mineral and energy resources.'

Amerikanske miljømyndigheder / U.S. Environmental Protection Authorities: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, 1946-. -
Environmental Protection Agency, 1970-. -
U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service 1940-.
U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service Opportunity and Challenge : The Story of BLM / James Muhn, Hanson R. Stuart. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, 1988. - 303 s. Officiel firmahistorie.

CRS: Federal Involvement in Flood Response and Flood Infrastructure Repair: Storm Sandy Recovery. / : Nicole T. Carter. Specialist in Natural Resources Policy. October 31, 2012. - 12 s.
'Although the storm was not notable for its wind intensity, Sandy’s significant size, its unusually low atmospheric pressure, and the astronomic high tide combined with other weather systems to amplify flooding consequences and economic and transportation disruptions. With events like Storm Sandy, common questions for Congress include: Which federal programs can assist with flood-fighting? Which federal programs can assist with repairing damaged dunes, levees, and other flood protection? What are the policy and funding issues that may arise during recovery? While state and local entities have significant flood-related responsi-bilities, federal resources are called in as these entities are overwhelmed and as presidential disasters are declared. Several agencies, including the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, have authorities to respond to flood emergencies and to assist with recovery efforts.'
CRS: Water Resource Issues in the 113th Congress. / : Betsy A. Cody et al. January 31, 2013. - 14 s.
'Federal Water Resource Agencies
Most of the large dams and water diversion structures in the United States were built by, or with the assistance of, Reclamation or the Corps. Historically, Reclamation projects were designed principally to provide reliable supplies of water for irrigation and some municipal and industrial uses. Corps projects were planned principally to improve navigation and reduce flood damages, with power generation, water supply, and recreation being incidental benefits. Reclamation currently manages more than 600 dams and reservoirs in 17 western states, providing water to approximately 10 million acres of farmland and 31 million people, as well as 58 power plants capable of producing 40 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity annually (enough for approximately 3.5 million homes). The Corps operates nationwide, and its activities are diverse. The Corps has constructed thousands of flood damage reduction and navigation projects throughout the country, including nearly 12,000 miles of commercially active waterways, nearly 1,000 harbors, and 600 dam and reservoir projects (with 75 hydroelectric plants generating 68 billion kilowatt-hours annually). Additionally, the Corps constructed, usually with nonfederal participation, roughly 9,000 miles of the estimated 100,000 miles of the nation’s levees, but only maintains 900 miles. The remaining levees are operated by nonfederal entities, often local governments or special districts.'

Natur: Vandløb: American Rivers is a organization which since 1973 is working to protect and restore the nation’s rivers and streams. The American River / Río de los Americanos, Ashtabula River, Carson River, Clinch River, Clinton River, Coloradofloden, Colorado River (Costa Rica), Colorado River (Texas), Columbia River, herunder Columbia River Corridor Long-Term Steward-ship, The Columbia. FDR Presidential Library, Video 353, 1949.
Connecticut River, Delaware River, Elk River, Fremont River, Hood Canal, Holston River, Kalamazoo River, Lake Mohonk, Lower Fox River, Mississippi, Missouri, Muskingum River New River, Nisqually River, herunder Tulalip indianernes fish-ins 1969, Ogallala grundvandsmagasinet eller the High Plains Aquifer, Ohio River, Rio Grande, Rock River, San Miguel River (Colorado) - herunder San Miguel Watershed Coalition 1990-., Savannah River, Shonka Ditch, Thames River eller Pequot River (Connecticut), Tippecanoe River, Tongue River, Tricounty Canal.
Wasting Our Waterways 2012: Toxic Industrial Pollution and the Unfulfilled Promise of the Clean Water Act. / Rob Kerth, Shelley Vinyard, Environment America Research & Policy Center. 2012. - 53 s.
Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem: Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2009. / Prepared by: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, National Marine Fisheries Service, Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce, University of Washington. October 2010. - 150 s.
Geohydrology of the Shallow Aquifer System, Naval Weapons Station Yorktown, Yorktown, Virginia. / A.R. Brockman, D.L. Nelms, G.E. Harlow, Jr., and J.J. Gildea. U.S. Geological Survey, Water-Resources Investigations Report 97-4188, 1997. - 66 s.
'In the conceptual ground-water-flow system at the Station, ground water flows downward from the Columbia aquifer in the recharge areas to and through the Cornwallis Cave and (or) Yorktown-Eastover aquifers to the discharge areas (seeps, springs, streams, and estuaries). A ground-water divide trends west to east across the south central Station in each of the lower two shallow aquifers. Ground-water flow generally is either north toward the York River estuary or south toward the James River estuary on opposite sides of the divide'.
Greenhouse effect, sea level rise, and coastal wetlands. / : James G Titus et al.
- Washington, D.C. : U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1988. - 168 s.
'Increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other gases released by human activities are generally expected to warm the earth a few degrees (C) in the next century by a mechanism commonly known as the "greenhouse effect." Such a warming could raise sea level by expanding ocean water, melting mountain glaciers, and eventually causing polar ice sheets to slide into the oceans. Unfortunately, it is not yet possible to accurately predict future sea level. Estimates for the year 2025 range from five to fifteen inches above current sea level, while estimates of the rise by 2100 range from two to seven feet. Although the timing and magnitude of future sea level rise is uncertain, there is an emerging scientific consensus that a significant rise is likely.
To further society's understanding of how to rationally respond to the possibility of a substantial rise in sea level, EPA has undertaken assessments of the impacts of sea level rise on economic development, beach erosion control strategies, salinity of estuaries and aquifers, and coastal drainage and sewage systems. Those studies have generally found that even a one-foot rise in sea level has important implications for the planning and design of coastal facilities. This report examines the potential impacts of sea level rise on coastal wetlands in the United States. Coastal marshes and swamps are generally within a few feet of sea level, and hence could be lost if sea level rises significantly. Although new wetlands could form where new areas are flooded, this cannot happen where the land adjacent to today's wetlands is developed and protected from the rising sea. Once built, neighborhoods can be expected to last a century or longer. Therefore, today's coastal development could limit the ability of coastal wetlands to survive sea level rise in the next century.'
Kitsap halvøen.
Bjerge: Appalachian bjergkæden, Mountaynes Apalatsi eller Apalache Cheyenne Mountain. Lookout Mountain. Rocky Mountain. Sierra Nevada bjergkæden. Mount Weather. Yucca Mountain.
World Database on Protected Areas: Beskyttede områder og nationalparker. Vådområder. The Peace Palace Library: Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law. US. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Public Works.: Public works appropriations for 1969, for water and power resources development and the Atomic Energy Commission. - Washington,: Govt. Print. Off., 1968.- 1580 s.
'pt.1. Atlantic-Pacific Interoceanic Canal Study Commission; Civil Functions, Army; Delaware River Basin Commission; Panama Canal. -pt.2. Alaska Power Administration; Bonneville Power Administration; Bureau of Reclamation; Federal Water Pollution Control Administration; Southeastern Power Administration; Southwestern Power Administration; Tennessee Valley Authority; Water Resources Council'.
The Great Plains is a vast expanse of glasslands stretching from the Rocky Mountains to the Missouri River and from the Rio Grande to the coniferous forests of Canada—an area more than eighteen hundred miles from north to south and more than five hundred miles from east to west. The Great Plains region includes all or parts of Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, Nebraska, Wyoming, South Dakota, North Dakota, Montana, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. The region, once labeled "the Great American Desert (See: Excerpt From "The Plow That Broke The Plains": Producer: Pare Lorenz, 1936.
is now more often called the "heart-land," or, sometimes, "the breadbasket of the world." /
De store sletter eller prærierne er et stort område med landbrugsjord som strækker sig fra Rocky Mountains til Missouri-floden og fra Rio Grande til nåleskove i Canada, et område på mere end 2800 km fra nord til syd og mere end fem hundrede kilometer fra øst til vest.
Prærierne omfatter hele eller dele af Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, Nebraska, Wyoming, South Dakota, North Dakota, Montana, Alberta, Saskatchewan og Manitoba. Regionen - en gang betitlet "The Great American Desert (se stumfilmen "The Plow That Broke The Plains": Producer: Pare Lorenz, 1936. -,")
kaldes nu oftere "Heartland" eller nogle gange "verdens brødkurv ."
Encyclopedia of the Great Plains. / : David J. Wishart, Editor University of Nebraska–Lincoln
The northern Great Plains of Canada and the United States cover thousands of square miles. This true-color Aqua MODIS image from May 3, 2005, shows a portion of the Great Plains covering Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and a small slice of Ontario, Canada, and Montana, North Dakota, Minnesota, Wyoming, and South Dakota in the United States. Scattered across the region are thousands of lakes ranging in color from deep blue-green and black to milky blue, tan, and even white. In the northern part of the image, many of the lakes are white because their surfaces are still frozen from the cold winter, and spring temperatures have not risen enough to thaw them completely. The largest lake in the scene, Lake Winnipeg, shows the greatest amount of surface ice, while the clear water at its northern end shows swirls of milky tan sediment. To the east, Lake Manitoba is ice free, but also shows swirls of cloudy sediment in its waters. -
Skov: Black Hills National Forest. Extent of Off-Site Uranium Contamination from Custer National Forest and Black Hills National Forest Abandoned Uranium Mine Sites, North Cave Hills Final Report. South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. 2007. - 217 s. -

USA har 71.862 tons atomaffald, som er midlertidigt oplagret i mere end 30 stater, ifølge data indsamlet af AP.
GSN: Japanese Crisis Highlights U.S. Atomic Waste Safety Problem. Thursday, March 24, 2011.
James' river guide : containing descriptions of all the cities, towns, and principal objects of interest, on the navigable waters of the Mississippi Valley, flowing west from the Allegheny Mountains, east from the Rocky Mountains, and south from near the northern lakes, including the rivers of Alabama and Texas, flowing into the Gulf of Mexico: also, an account of the sources of the rivers: with full tables of distances, and many interesting historical sketches of the country, statistics of population, products, commerce, manufactures, mineral resources, scenery, &c., &c. Illustrated with forty-four maps, and a number of engravings (1860).
Our western empire, or, The new West beyond the Mississippi [microfilm] : containing the fullest and most complete description, from official and other authentic sources, of the geography, geology and natural history (with abundant incidents and adventures), the climate, soil, agriculture, the mineral and mining products, the crops, and herds and flocks, the social condition, educational and religious progress, and future prospects of the whole region lying between the Mississippi and the Pacific Ocean : to which is added the various routes, and prices of passage and transportation for emigrants thither, the laws, regulations and provisions for obtaining lands from the national or state governments or railroads, counsel as to locations and procuring lands, crops most profitable for culture, mining operations, and the latest processes for the reduction of gold and silver, the exercise of trades or professions, and detailed descriptions of each state and territory, with full information concerning Manitoba, British Colombia, and those regions in the Atlantic States adapted to settlement, by those who do not wish to go west, and statistics of crops, areas, rainfall, etc. (1881). -
The Birds of America from Original Drawings by John James Audubon.
- London : Pub. by the author, 1827-38. 4 v. CCCCXXXV col. pl. 100 cm. - , og
'Værket Birds of America består af to dele, det berømte plancheværk og et tilhørende tekstværk, Ornithological Biography'.
Fuglene: Audubon: Birds of America. / Torsten Schlichtkrull.
Særtryk af Fund og forskning i Det kongelige biblioteks samlinger. Bind 49, 2010. 48 s. -
National Archives and Records Administration: John James Audubon: The birds of America. 1986.
Program commemorates the two hundredth anniversary of this nineteenth-century naturalist and artist, John James Audubon. To highlight Audubon's development as an artist, the program uses quotations from his journals, illustrations from his original drawings and engravings, and works of art by other artists of the period. the images of the works of art are interwoven with live motion nature photography and footage of sites significant to audubon's life and work.
Fauna boreali-americana, or, The zoology of the northern parts of British America : containing descriptions of the objects of natural history collected on the late northern land expeditions, under command of Captain Sir John Franklin, R.N. (1829).
Koral rev. World Atlas of Coral Reefs / Mark Spalding, Corinna Ravilious, Edmund Peter Green. University of California Press, 2001 432 s.

Se også: Amerikanske lokalstater.

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