Sahel

Arabisk. Kyst eller bred, en kystlinje til Saharaørkenen.
Også geografisk region i Afrika. Sahel omfatter (fra vest til øst): Senegal, Det sydlige Mauretanien, Mali, Burkina Faso, det sydlige Algeriet, Niger, det nordlige Nigeria, Tchad, det nordlige Cameroun, Sudan (herunder Darfur og den sydlige del af Sudan), samt Eritrea.
Arabic. Coastal or wide, a coastline to the Sahara Desert. Also geographical region in Africa. Sahel include (from west to east): Senegal, Southern Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, southern Algeria, Niger, northern Nigeria, Chad, northern Cameroon, Sudan (including Darfur and the south of Sudan) and Eritrea.
Arabe. Côtière ou large, une côte au désert du Sahara. Aussi région géographique en Afrique. Sahel include (d'ouest en est): le Sénégal, le sud de la Mauritanie, le Mali, le Burkina Faso, le sud de l'Algérie, le Niger, le nord du Nigeria, le Tchad, le nord du Cameroun, le Soudan (y compris le Darfour et le sud du Soudan) et de l'Érythrée.
Natur, klima. Fauna og flora: Fisk. Fugle. Koralrev. Vådområder.
Flora and fauna: Fish. Birds. Coral reefs. Wetlands
Flore et faune: Poissons. Oiseaux. Les récifs coralliens. Les zones humides.
Flora y fauna: Fish. Pájaros. Los arrecifes de coral. Los humedales.
Flora und Fauna: Fisch. Vögeln. Korallenriffe. Feuchtgebiet, Feuchtbiotop.
Peace Palace Library: Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law. .
Geologi: Bjerge, vulkaner, jordskælv og ørkenområder:
Geology: Mountains, volcanoes, earthquakes and desert areas
Géologie: Montagnes, volcans, tremblements de terre et les zones désertiques
Geología: Montañas, volcanes, terremotos y zonas desérticas
Geologie: Berge, Vulkane, Erdbeben und Wüstengebiete
Ørkenområder:
The Sahara desert occupies 4.6 million square kilometers or 10 per cent of the land mass of Africa. The fauna of the Sahara is relatively rich: there are 70 mammalian species, 20 of which are large mammals; 90 species of resident birds, and around 100 species of reptiles.
(Global Desert Outlook, UNEP 2006
Davies, J., Poulsen, L., Schulte-Herbrüggen, B., Mackinnon, K., Crawhall, N., Henwood, W.D., Dudley, N., Smith, J. and Gudka, M. 2012. Conserving Dryland Biodiversity. xii +84p
- http://www.unccd.int/Lists/SiteDocumentLibrary/Publications/drylands_bk_2.pdf
Fiddling in biodiversity hotspots while deserts burn? Collapse of the Sahara’s megafauna. / : S. M. Durant et al. Diversity and Distributions, 20, 114–122, 2013.
- http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ddi.12157/pdf
Unravelling biodiversity, evolution and threats to conservation in the Sahara-Sahel. / : Jos´e C. Brito et al. Biological Reviews 89 (2014) 215–231, 2013.
- http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/brv.12049/pdf
'Deserts and arid regions are generally perceived as bare and rather homogeneous areas of low diversity. The Sahara is the largest warm desert in the world and together with the arid Sahel displays high topographical and climatic heterogeneity, and has experienced recent and strong climatic oscillations that have greatly shifted biodiversity distribution and community composition. The large size, remoteness and long-term political instability of the Sahara-
Sahel, have limited knowledge on its biodiversity. However, over the last decade, there have been an increasing number of published scientific studies based on modern geomatic and molecular tools, and broad sampling of taxa of these regions. This review tracks trends in knowledge about biodiversity patterns, processes and threats across the Sahara-Sahel, and anticipates needs for biodiversity research and conservation.'
Western Sahara—The Destruction of Biodiversity by Modern Colonialism. / : Axel Goldau ; Translated by Nele Saworski With Delicate Fine Paintings by the Sahrawian Artist Fadel Jalifa. Kritische Ökologie Online Special, May,2008.
- http://www.arso.org/KritOekBioDiVspecial.pdf
World Database on Protected Areas: Beskyttede områder og nationalparker.
Tekst:
Ecologically Sensitive Sites in Africa. Volume 5: Sahel - Washington, DC, USA , World Bank, 1993.
- https://archive.org/details/ecologicallysens05wcmc
Historie: Sahel har været koloniseret af Romerriget, Det ottomanske Rige, Frankrig, Italien og Storbritannien
History: Sahel has been colonized by the Roman Empire, the Ottoman Empire, France, Italy and the UK.
Histoire: Sahel a été colonisée par l'Empire romain, l'Empire ottoman, la France, l'Italie et le Royaume-Uni.
Historiske primærkilder:
West African Arabic Manuscript Database 1987-.
- http://westafricanmanuscripts.org/subjects.htm
'The West African Arabic Manuscript Database currently includes descriptive records of 20,000 Arabic manuscripts from West Africa', herunder Boutilimit samlingen, Kano arkivet, Niamey arkivet, Nouakchott arkivet, Segou samlingen og Timbuctu samlingen.
- http://westafricanmanuscripts.org/documentation.html
Nordafrikanske krøniker fra middelalderen: Abd al-Sadi: Tarikh al-Sudan / Sudans Historie, 1653-1665, Ibn al-Mukhtar: Tarikh al-fattash / Forskerens Krønike 1665 samt den anonyme Notice historique ca. 1657-1659.
Sudans Historie på arabisk:
- http://archive.org/details/tarikhalsudan00sadauoft
Sudans Historie på fransk:
- http://archive.org/details/tarikhessoudanpa00sadauoft
Litteratur: Dubois, Félix: Timbuctoo the mysterious.
- New York, Longmans, Green and Co. 1896. - 399 s.
- http://archive.org/details/timbuctoomyster01whitgoog
Religion: Overvejende Islam.
Våbenfabrikker, våbenhandel og våbentransporter: Sahel countries boost military capacity : Maghreb countries are investing in weaponry as security challenges intensify in the region. / Jemal Oumar for Magharebia in Nouakchott – 04/11/1.
'[AFP/Sia Kambou] Given the security fallout from the Libyan revolution, Sahel countries have decided to enhance their military readiness.Faced with rising security challenges, Sahel states Mauritania, Mali and Niger are enhancing their military might through arms deals with France.'
Se også: The Association for Promoting the Discovery of the Interior Parts of Africa ; Ophørte stater ; SOS Sahel UK
- http://www.sahel.org.uk/about.html
Tuaregfolket.
Se tillige: Timbuktu eller Tombouctou Manuskripterne ved Institut des Hautes Etudes et de Recherches Islamiques - Ahmed Baba, Timbuktu / Ahmed Baba Institute of Higher Learning and Islamic Research, Mali

Litteratur

ACAS Concerned Africa Scholars: US militarization of the Sahara-Sahel: Security, Space & Imperialism.
I: Bulletin N°85 (Spring 2010). - 92 s. Online
U.S. Arms Exports and Military Assistance in the “Global War on Terror” : 25 Country Profiles. / Project Director: Rachel Stohl, Senior Analyst Contributing Authors: Sarah Chankin-Gould et al. Center for Defense Information at the World Security Institute, 2007. - 149 s. Online.
Afrikas historie skal skrives om: Timbuktu i udkanten af Sahara er der dukket i hundredtusindvis af gamle bøger og manuskripter op, som er ved at ændre forskernes og verdens opfattelse af Afrika, fortæller Alida Jay Boye fra Oslo Universitet, der netop har udgivet en ny bog om Saharas intellektuelle skatkammer. / Lise Richter. 50. Lagt på information.dk 28. oktober 2008. Bragt i den trykte udgave 29. oktober 2008.
Arabic literature in the eastern half of Africa. / Sean O’Fahey.
European Union External Action Service: A Coherent EU Strategy for the Sahel / l En Sammenhængende EU-strategi for Sahel. 2012. - 39 s.
Textual sources on an Islamic African past: Arabic material in Zanzibar’s National Archive. / Anne K Bang.
Intellectual innovation and reinvention of the Sahel: the seventeenth-century Timbuktu chronicles. Paulo F de Moraes Farias. I: The Meanings of Timbuktu. / Shamil Jeppie, Souleymane Bachir Diagne (eds). CODESRIA/HSRC, 2008, 416 s.
- ISBN 13 978-07969-2204-5 - Online
TV dokumentar: Link Media, Inc .Al Jazeera English - Witness: Timbuktu Scribes (2010).
- http://archive.org/details/linktv_al-jazeera-english-timbuktu-scribes20100625
Timbuktu: Script and Scholarship. / Prepared by the Tombouctou Manuscripts Project and Iziko Social History Collections Department (Cape Town), 2008. - 136 s.
World Bank: Ecologically Sensitive Sites in Africa. Volume 5: Sahel (1993). - 144 s.
- http://archive.org/details/ecologicallysens05wcmc


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