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Amerikanske føderale præsidenter

U.S. Federal Presidents

U. S. présidents fédéraux

Presidentes U. S. Federal

US-Bundespräsidenten

De føderale amerikanske præsidenter er både statsoverhoveder og militære chefer. Dog ligger retten til at erklære krig formelt hos kongressen. Embedet er defineret i USAs forfatning. Som chef for den udøvende magt og leder af den føderale regering, er præsidentembedet det højeste politiske embede i USA Præsidenten vælges indirekte til en fire-årig periode af et valgkollegum eller af Repræsentanternes Hus, hvis valgkollegiet undlader at tildele et absolut flertal af stemmerne til kandidaterne. Siden ratificeringen af den toogtyvende ændring til USA's forfatning i 1951, må ingen person være valgt som præsident mere end to gange, og ingen, der har tjent mere end to år af periode, hvor en anden blev valgt, kan vælges mere end én gang Ved død, tilbagetræden eller fjernelse fra embedet af en siddende præsident, antager vicepræsidenten stillingen. Præsidenten skal være mindst 35 år og "indfødt" borger i USA.
The federal American presidents are both heads of state and military commanders. However, the right to declare war is formally with the Congress. The office is defined in the U.S. Constitution. As chief of the executive branch and head of the federal government, the presidency is the highest political office in the United States The president is indirectly elected to a four-year term by an Electoral College or by the House of Representatives should the Electoral College fail to award an absolute majority of votes to the candidates. Since the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment to the US Constitution in 1951, no person may be elected President more than twice, and no one who has served more than two years of a term to which someone else was elected may be elected more than once Upon the death, resignation, or removal from office of an incumbent President, the Vice President assumes the office. The President must be at least 35 years of age and a "natural born" citizen of the United States.
Reglerne og lovgivningen for opælling af valgmandsstemmer fremgår af:
CRS: Counting Electoral Votes: An Overview of Procedures at the Joint Session, Including Objections by Members of Congress.
/ : Jack Maskell, Elizabeth Rybicki. 2016.
'The Constitution and federal law establish a detailed timetable following the presidential election during which time the members of the electoral college convene in the 50 state capitals and in the District of Columbia, cast their votes for President and Vice President, and submit their votes through state officials to both houses of Congress. The electoral votes are scheduled to be opened before a joint session of Congress on January 6, 2017. Federal law specifies the procedures which are to be followed at this session and provides procedures for challenges to the validity of an electoral vote. This report describes the steps in the process and precedents set in prior presidential elections governing the actions of the House and Senate in certifying the electoral vote and in responding to challenges of the validity of one or more electoral votes from one or more states.'
CRS: The Electoral College: How It Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections. / : Thomas H. Neale. October 22, 2012. - 25 s.
'When Americans vote for President and Vice President, they are actually choosing presidential electors, known collectively as the electoral college. It is these officials who choose the President and Vice President of the United States. The complex elements comprising the electoral college system are responsible for one of the most important processes of the American political and constitutional system: election of the President and Vice President'.
'While the electoral college has delivered “the people’s choice” in 47 of 51 elections since ratification of the 12th Amendment, it can and has delivered Presidents who received fewer popular votes than their major opponents. Moreover, in the highly charged political atmosphere of contemporary presidential elections, a tie vote in the college, the failure of any candidate to receive a majority of electoral votes, or an extremely close election—in either popular or electoral votes—could lead to an acrimonious and protracted political struggle, or even a constitutional crisis. Historically, since ratification of the 12th Amendment, the elections of 1824, 1876, and 1888 revealed the weaknesses of the system, and in the case of 1824 and 1876, arguably brought the nation to the brink of civil violence. More recently, the controversial presidential election of 2000, in which George W. Bush narrowly won the electoral vote and the presidency with fewer popular votes than his major opponent, Al Gore, Jr....'

†: Præsidenter dræbt i løbet af deres embedsperioder.
†: Assassinated presidents during their terms of office

Se også: Attentatforsøg mod amerikanske præsidenter ; the Continental Congress 1774-1778.
Songs and Ballads of American History and of the Assassination of Presidents.
http://www.allmusic.com/album/songs-and-ballads-of-american-history-and-of-the-assassination-of-presidents-r122773
Arkiver og biblioteker: Kontoret for Præsidentielle Biblioteker administrerer et landsdækkende netværk af præsidentielle biblioteker begyndede med den 31. amerikanske præsident , Herbert Hoover. Præsidentielle Biblioteker er ikke biblioteker i gængs forstand. De er arkiver og museer, som på ét sted samler en præsident og hans administrations dokumenter og kulturgenstande og præsentere dem for offentligheden til undersøgelse og diskussion uden hensyntagen til politiske overvejelser eller tilhørsforhold. Præsidentielle biblioteker og museer tilhører, ligesom deres samlinger, det amerikanske folk.
The Office of Presidential Libraries administers a nationwide network of Presidential libraries beginning with the 31st President of the United States, Herbert Hoover. Presidential Libraries are not libraries in the usual sense. They are archives and museums, bringing together in one place the documents and artifacts of a President and his administration and presenting them to the public for study and discussion without regard for political considerations or affiliations. Presidential Libraries and Museums, like their holdings, belong to the American people.
CRS: The Presidential Records Act: Background and Recent Issues for Congress. / : Wendy Ginsberg, November 15, 2012. - 11 s.
'Additionally, Presidents from both political parties have faced questions and concerns about their abilities to maintain accurate, comprehensive, and accessible archives, especially considering their increasing use of electronic—and perhaps ephemeral—platforms like e-mail, Facebook, Twitter, blogs, and YouTube. The PRA requires the collection of all presidential records, including those created on electronic platforms. The increasing volume of records created by incumbent Presidents may prompt concerns about incumbent Presidents’ abilities to appropriately collect and retain records.
The Presidential Records Act defines a presidential record as “documentary materials … created by the President or his immediate staff.” In turn, the term documentary materials includes “all books, correspondence, memorandums, documents, papers, pamphlets, works of art, models, pictures, photographs, plats, maps, films, and motion pictures, including, but not limited to, audio, audiovisual, or other electronic or mechanical recordations.
As a consequence of the Watergate incident, Congress passed the Presidential Recordings and Materials Preservation Act of 1974 (PRMPA; 44 U.S.C. §2111) to assure that the presidential papers of Richard M. Nixon were placed under federal custody. Though this act, which directly addresses presidential records, was passed prior to the 1978 Presidential Records Act, it governed only documents associated with the Nixon presidency'.
National Archives and Records Administration: Presidential Libraries
- http://www.archives.gov/presidential-libraries/
National Archives and Records Administration: Report on alternative models for presidential libraries issued in response to the requirements of pl 110-404 September 25, 2009. - 87 s., heri: Location of Presidential Papers and Libraries from Washington to Bush.
Eksempler: 'George Washington –Library of Congress has 95% of extant Washington papers; also Huntington Library; Historical Societies of Virginia and Pennsylvania; Virginia State Library; Yale University; and the Detroit Public Library.
John Adams –Massachusetts Historical Society
Thomas Jefferson – Library of Congress; also University of Virginia; Massachusetts Historical Society; National Archives; Missouri Historical Society; Historical Society of Pennsylvania; College of William and Mary; Henry E. Huntington Library; American Philosophical Society; New York Historical Society; Virginia State Library; William Clements Library; Yale University; and other smaller repositories and private hands James Madison – Library of Congress; also University of Virginia; Huntington Library; the Historical Societies of Virginia and Pennsylvania; New York Public Library; William L. Clements Library (U. of Michigan); and Princeton University
James Monroe – Library of Congress; also James Monroe Memorial Library; College of William and Mary; University of Virginia; and Virginia State libraries
John Quincy Adams – Massachusetts Historical Society'...
- http://www.archives.gov/presidential-libraries/reports/report-for-congress.pdf
The Scripps Library and Multimedia Archive.
- http://millercenter.org/scripps
Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, herunder A compilation of the messages and papers of the presidents.
- New York : Bureau of national literature, inc., 1897.
- http://archive.org/details/compilationofmes01inunit
'v. 1. George Washington - Thomas Jefferson -- v. 2. James Madison - John Quincy Adams -- v. 3. John Quincy Adams - Andrew Jackson -- v. 4. Andrew Jackson - Martin Van Buren -- v. 5. Martin Van Buren - James K. Polk -- v. 6. James K. Polk - Franklin Pierce -- v. 7. Franklin Pierce - Abraham Lincoln -- v. 8. Abraham Lincoln - Andrew Johnson -- v. 9. Andrew Johnson - Ulysses S. Grant -- v. 10. Ulysses S. Grant - Chester A. Arthur -- v. 11. Chester A. Arthur - Grover Cleveland -- v. 12. Grover Cleveland - Benjamin Harrison -- v. 13. Benjamin Harrison - Grover Cleveland -- v. 14. Grover Cleveland - Wm. McKinley -- v. 15. Wm. McKinley - Theodore Roosevelt -- v. 16. Theodore Roosevelt -- v. 17. Theodore Roosevelt - Wm. Howard Taft -- v. 18. Wm. Howard Taft - Woodrow Wilson -- v. 19. Index, A-M -- v. 20. Index, N-Z
- http://archive.org/search.php?query=Public%20Papers%20of%20the%20Presidents%20of%20the%20United%20States
Eksempel: Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States : Jimmy Carter : 1977.
- Washington DC: Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1977.
Book I: ix, 1164, A-44 p., [10] p. of plates; Book II: ix, 1165-2223, A-76 p., [10] p. of plates
- http://archive.org/details/4732130.1977.001.umich.edu , og
- http://archive.org/details/4732130.1977.002.umich.edu
Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States : Jimmy Carter : 1978.
- Washington DC: Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1979.
Book I: ix, 1224, A-45 p., [10] p. of plates; Book II: ix, 1225-2303, A-82 p., [10] p. of plates
- http://archive.org/details/4732130.1978.001.umich.edu , og
- http://archive.org/details/4732133.1978.002.umich.edu
Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States : Jimmy Carter : 1979.
- Washington DC: Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1980.
Book I: ix, 1224, A-45 p., [10] p. of plates; Book II: ix, 1225-2303, A-82 p., [10] p. of plates
- http://archive.org/details/4732130.1979.001.umich.edu , og
- http://archive.org/details/4732197.1979.002.umich.edu
Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States : Jimmy Carter : 1980-1981.
- Washington DC: Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
Book I: ix, 968, A-65 p., [10] p. of plates; Book II: ix, 969-1948, A-112 p., [10] p. of plates; Book III: ix, 1949-3050, A-146 p., [10] p. of plates
- http://archive.org/details/4732203.1980.001.umich.edu , og
- http://archive.org/details/4732203.1980.002.umich.edu , og
- http://archive.org/details/4732203.1980.003.umich.edu
Se tillige: Amerikanske vicepræsidenter ; USA: historie ; the Militia Act of 1792 Mount Rushmore National Memorial ; US National Security Action Memoranda.
United States. Bureau of the Budget fra 1970 Office of Management and Budget.
- http://www.archive.org/search.php?query=creator%3A%22United+States.+Bureau+of+the+Budget%22
Members of Congress Who Die in Office: Historic and Current Practices. / R. Eric Petersen ; Jennifer E. Manning. CRS, 2012. - 28 s.

Litteratur

Trump's Russian Laundromat : How to use Trump Tower and other luxury high-rises to clean dirty money, run an international crime syndicate, and propel a failed real estate developer into the White House. / : Craig Unger. New Republic, July 13, 2017.
- https://newrepublic.com
Trumps russiske pengevaskeri.
/ : David Rehling. I: Information, 22. juli 2007.
CRS Insight: President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection: Toward Final Disclosure of Withheld Records in October 2017. / : R. Eric Petersen, 2017.

CRS: The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS). / : James K. Jackson. 2012. - 27 s.
'The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) is an interagency committee that serves the President in overseeing the national security implications of foreign investment in the economy. Originally established by an Executive Order of President Ford in 1975'.
CRS: 2012-2013 Presidential Election Period: National Security Considerations and Options. / : John Rollins. October 5, 2012. - 39 s.
'The Presidential election period encompasses all pre- and post-government transition-related issues and activities.'
'A presidential election period is a unique time in America and holds the promise of opportunity, as well as a possible risk to the nation’s security interests. While possible changes in Administration during U.S. involvement in national security-related activities are not unique to the 2012-2013 election period, many observers suggest that the current security environment may portend a time of increased risk to the current presidential election period. Whether the enemies of the United States choose to undertake action that may harm the nation’s security interests during the 2012-2013 election period, or the existing or new President experiences a relatively peaceful period during the transition, many foreign policy and security challenges will await the Administration. Collaboration and coordination during the presidential election period between the current Administration and that of a potentially new one may have a long-lasting effect on the new President’s ability to effectively safeguard U.S. interests and may affect the legacy of the outgoing President'.
CRS: The Executive Budget Process: An Overview. / : Michelle D. Christensen. 2012. - 16 s.
'The U.S. Constitution vests Congress with the power to raise revenue and borrow money. Those funds may only be drawn from the Treasury in consequence of appropriations made by law. The Constitution, however, is largely silent with respect to the President’s role in the budget process. Instead, the current executive budget process is largely the result of statutes enacted by Congress.
The executive budget process consists of three main phases: development of the President’s budget proposal, submission and justification of the President’s budget proposal, and execution of enacted appropriations and other budgetary legislation. The purpose of this report is to provide an introduction to many elements of the executive budget process, highlighting the roles of the President, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), and executive agencies.
The Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 established the modern executive budget process.'
CRS: Former Presidents: Pensions, Office Allowances, and Other Federal Benefits. / : Wendy Ginsberg ; Daniel J. Richardson, 2016.
'The Former Presidents Act (FPA; 3 U.S.C. §102 note) was enacted to “maintain the dignity” of the Office of the President. The act provides the former President—and his or her spouse—certain benefits to help him respond to post-presidency mail and speaking requests, among other informal public duties often required of a former President. Prior to enactment of the FPA in 1958, former Presidents leaving office received no pension or other federal assistance. The FPA charges the General Services Administration (GSA) with providing former U.S. Presidents a pension, support staff, office support, travel funds, and mailing privileges.'
CRS: Informing Congress: The Role of the Executive in Times of War and Military Conflict, 1941-2001. 2002. - 53 s.
- http://www.policyarchive.org/handle/10207/bitstreams/1482.pdf
CRS: National Emergency Powers / Nationale Nødhjælpsforanstaltningsbeføjelser eller undtagelsesbeføjelser. / Harold C. Relyea. 2001. - 24 s. - http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/6216.pdf
CRS: Presidential Advisers’ Testimony Before Congressional Committees: A Brief Overview. / Harold C. Relyea. 2002. - 22 s. - - http://www.iwar.org.uk/news-archive/crs/9663.pdf
CRS: Presidential Appointments, the Senate’s Confirmation Process, and Changes Made in the 112th Congress. / : Maeve P. Carey. October 9, 2012. - 28 s.
'The responsibility for populating top positions in the executive and judicial branches of government is one the Senate and the President share. The President nominates an individual, the Senate may confirm him, and the President would then present him with a signed commission. The Constitution divided the responsibility for choosing those who would run the federal government by granting the President the power of appointment and the Senate the power of advice and consent'.
CRS: Presidential Claims of Executive Privilege: History, Law, Practice and Recent Developments. / : Morton Rosenberg, 2008. - 44 s.
'Presidential claims of a right to preserve the confidentiality of information and documents in the face of legislative demands have figured prominently, though intermittently, in executive-congressional relations since at least 1792. Few such interbranch disputes over access to information have reached the courts for substantive resolution, the vast majority achieving resolution through political negotiation and accommodation. In fact, it was not until the Watergate-related lawsuits in the 1970’s seeking access to President Nixon’s tapes that the existence of a presidential confidentiality privilege was judicially established as a necessary derivative of the President’s status in our constitutional scheme of separated powers'.
CRS: Presidential Signing Statements: Constitutional and Institutional Implications / Todd Garvey. 2012. - 34 s.
CRS: Presidential Travel: Policy and Costs. /: L. Elaine Halchin. 2012. - 8 s.
- http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RS21835.pdf
'For security and other reasons, the President, Vice President, and First Lady use military aircraft when they travel.
The White House generally categorizes the trips as fulfilling either official or political functions. Often, a trip involves both official and political, or unofficial, activities. When a trip is for an official function, the government pays all costs, including per diem (food and lodging), car rentals, and other incidental expenses'.
CRS: The President’s Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP): Issues for Congress . / : John F. Sargent Jr.; Dana A. Shea. November 26, 2012. - 48 s.
'Congress established the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) through the National Science and Technology Policy, Organization, and Priorities Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-282). The act states that “The primary function of the OSTP Director is to provide, within the Executive Office of the President [EOP], advice on the scientific, engineering, and technological aspects of issues that require attention at the highest level of Government.” Further, “The Office shall serve as a source of scientific and technological analysis and judgment for the President with respect to major policies, plans, and programs of the Federal Government.”
In the years leading up to World War II, the importance of research and development (R&D) to the nation’s economic and military strength became increasingly evident. As a result, President Franklin D. Roosevelt established the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) in 1941...'
GAO: Strategic Weapons: Changes in the Nuclear Weapons Targeting Process Since 1991. 2012. - 16 s.
President's Daily Briefs from Kennedy and Johnson Finally Released (Eight Years After Archive, Professor Larry Berman Lawsuit)
CIA Told Courts the PDB Was Itself an Intelligence Method
9th Circuit Ruled PDBs Could Not Be Withheld as a Class
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 530
Compiled and edited by Tom Blanton and Lauren Harper
Washington, D.C., September 16, 2015 - Today the CIA and the LBJ Library are releasing online a collection of 2,500 declassified President's Daily Briefs (PDBs) from the Kennedy and Johnson administrations. The PDBs are Top Secret documents containing the most current and significant intelligence information that the CIA believes that the President needs to know, and are records that CIA Director George Tenet once claimed could never be released for publication "no matter how old or historically significant it may be," and that White House Press Secretary Ari Fleischer described as "the most highly sensitized classified document in the government."
The release of this collection of PDBs comes eight years after the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled against the National Security Archive and Professor Larry Berman, then a professor of political science at University of California Davis, now based at George State University, in his efforts to obtain the disclosure of two Presidential Daily Briefs written for President Lyndon B. Johnson in the 1960s. Professor Berman and the Archive were represented by Thomas R. Burke and Duffy Carolan of the law firm Davis Wright Tremaine LLP in San Francisco, CA. In its ruling, the Court noted - without viewing the documents - that their disclosure could "reveal protected intelligence sources and methods." The Court rejected, however, the CIA's "attempt to create a per se status exemption for PDBs."
At the time of the 2007 ruling, Archive General Counsel Meredith Fuchs said that while disappointed with the Court's decision, "Our goal in this litigation was to force the agency to conduct a genuine review and assess the true sensitivity of each document. We hope the Agency will take the Court's analysis to heart and do the right thing in the future."
President’s Daily Brief Spotlighted Soviet Missile and Space Programs in 1960s and 1970s
Daily Briefings Underscored Threats to National Security, Propaganda Value of Rival Programs
National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 574
Washington, D.C., December 20, 2016 – Soviet missile and space programs were among the most frequent topics briefed to the president of the United States by U.S. intelligence during the administrations of John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard M. Nixon, and Gerald R. Ford, according to a review of recently declassified excerpts of the President’s Daily Brief posted today by the National Security Archive at The George Washington University. Of all the issues that crossed the president’s desk during this tense period of the Cold War, the USSR’s strategic capabilities and space program represented constant areas of concern because of the threat they posed both to U.S. national security and to American prestige in the propaganda war with its superpower rival.
Today’s Electronic Briefing Book presents a selection of entries on both programs compiled and introduced by James E. David, curator for national security space programs at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. In addition to excerpts from 66 PDB entries, the posting provides further background and context.
After years of legal battles under the Freedom of Information Act, the CIA released significant portions of the PDBs from the Kennedy-Johnson era (in 2015) and the Nixon-Ford period (in 2016). In late 2016, the National Security Archive published a highly indexed collection of those materials as part of the “Digital National Security Archive” through ProQuest. The materials in this posting are available through DNSA or by visiting the Archive’s offices in Gelman Library at The George Washington University.


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