- Geografi ; natur
; klima ; demografi ;
historie ; ophørte fredsbevægelser ; ophørte politiske partier ; ophørte sociale bevægelser ;
krige ; kultur ;
biblioteker ; kunst ; film; musik ; musikorganisationer ;
folkemusik ; jazz ;
pop ; rock ;
musiklitteratur ; politik:
indenrigspolitik ; udenrigspolitik ; præsidenter ;
regering ; lovgivende forsamling ; valg ; militær ;
efterretningstjenester ; aktuelle politiske
partier 2010 ; aktuelle
religion ; aktuelle sociale
bevægelser ; sociale forhold ; uddannelse ;
universiteter og våbenhandel.
- Kilder og analyser af økonomiske forhold i USA.
- Sources and analysis of economic conditions in the United
- Økonomi, generelle værker:
Den Internationale Bank for Genopbygning og Udvikling,
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development: Country
at a Glance, 2011.
- Krigsudgifter: CRS: The Cost of Iraq,
Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since
9/11. / : Amy Belasco, 2014.
- Bistand til udenlandet: CRS:
Foreign Aid: An Introduction to U.S. Programs and Policy. / :
Curt Tarnoff ; Marian L. Lawson, 2016.
'In FY2015, U.S. foreign assistance, defined broadly, was estimated
at $48.57 billion, or 1.3% of total federal budget authority. About
43% of this assistance was for bilateral economic development
programs, including political/strategic economic assistance; 35%
for military aid and non-military security assistance; 16% for
humanitarian activities; and 6% to support the work of multilateral
institutions. Assistance can take the form of cash transfers,
equipment and commodities, infrastructure, or technical assistance,
and, in recent decades, is provided almost exclusively on a grant
rather than loan basis. The United States is the largest foreign
aid donor in the world, accounting for about 24% of total official
development assistance from major donor governments in 2014 (latest
year for which this data is available). Key foreign assistance
trends in the past decade include growth in development aid,
particularly global health programs; increased security assistance
directed toward U.S. allies in the anti-terrorism effort; and high
levels of humanitarian assistance to address a range of crises,
from the earthquake in Haiti to the violence in Syria. Adjusted for
inflation, annual foreign assistance funding over the past decade
was the highest it has been since the Marshall Plan in the years
immediately following World War II. In FY2015, Afghanistan, Israel,
Iraq, Egypt, and Jordan were the top recipients of U.S. aid,
reflecting long-standing aid commitments to Israel and Egypt, the
strategic significance of Afghanistan and Iraq, and the strategic
and humanitarian importance of Jordan as the crisis in neighboring
Syria continues to unfold. Africa was the top aid recipient region
in FY2015, at 32%, followed by the Near East, at 31%, and South and
Central Asia, at 25%. This was a significant shift from a decade
prior, when Africa received only 17% of aid and South Central Asia
12%, reflecting significant increases in HIV/AIDS-related programs
concentrated in Africa and large increases in aid to Afghanistan
and Pakistan between FY2005 and FY2015. The drawdown of U.S.
military forces in Iraq and Afghanistan led to reduced military
assistance starting in FY2011, but growing concern about the
Islamic State in Iraq and elsewhere may stall or reverse this
- Amerikansk banklovgivning / American banking
legislation: Banks and Banking: Containing a codification of
documents of general applicability and future effect As of January
1, 2010 With Ancillaries Published by Office of the Federal
Register, National Archives and Records Administration: A Special
Edition of the Federal Register
Title 12—BANKS AND BANKING is composed of seven volumes. The
parts in these volumes are arranged in the following order: parts
1–199, 200–219, 220–299, 300–499,
500–599, part 600–899, and 900–end. The first
volume containing parts 1–199 is comprised of chapter
I—Comptroller of the Currency, Department of the Treasury.
The second and third volumes containing parts 200–299 are
comprised of chapter II—Federal Reserve System. The fourth
volume containing parts 300–499 is comprised of chapter
III—Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and chapter
IV— Export-Import Bank of the United States. The fifth volume
containing parts 500– 599 is comprised of chapter
V—Office of Thrift Supervision, Department of the Treasury.
The sixth volume containing parts 600–899 is comprised of
chapter VI— Farm Credit Administration, chapter
VII—National Credit Union Administration, chapter
VIII—Federal Financing Bank. The seventh volume containing
part 900– end is comprised of chapter IX—Federal
Housing Finance Board, chapter XI— Federal Financial
Institutions Examination Council, chapter XII—Federal Housing
Finance Agency, chapter XIV—Farm Credit System Insurance
Corporation, chapter XV—Department of the Treasury, chapter
XVII—Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight,
Department of Housing and Urban Development and chapter
XVIII—Community Development Financial Institutions Fund,
Department of the Treasury. The contents of these volumes represent
all of the current regulations codified under this title of the CFR
as of January 1, 2010.'
- Gældskrisen: CRS: The Debt
Limit: History and Recent Increases. / : D. Andrew Austin ;
Mindy R. Levit. December 27, 2012. - 37 s.
'Total federal debt can increase in two ways. First, debt increases
when the government sells debt to the public to finance budget
deficits and acquire the financial resources needed to meet its
obligations. This increases debt held by the public. Second, debt
increases when the federal government issues debt to certain
government accounts, such as the Social Security, Medicare, and
Transportation trust funds, in exchange for their reported
surpluses. This increases debt held by government accounts. The sum
of debt held by the public and debt held by government accounts is
the total federal debt. Surpluses reduce debt held by the public,
while deficits raise it.'
CRS: The United States as a Net Debtor
Nation: Overview of the International Investment Position. / :
James K. Jackson. November 8, 2012. - 21 s.
CRS: The Budget Control Act of
2011: Budgetary Effects of Proposals to Replace the FY2013
Sequester. / : Mindy R. Levit. November 9, 2012. - 13 s.
'The Budget Control Act of 2011 (BCA; P.L. 112-25) provided for an
increase in the statutory limit on the public debt in conjunction
with a variety of measures to reduce the budget deficit. Included
in these measures was the creation of a Joint Select Committee on
Deficit Reduction, which was tasked to develop and submit a plan to
Congress containing deficit reduction to total at least $1.2
trillion over the FY2012-FY2021 period. However, because the
committee did not report out recommendations, the BCA’s
automatic spending reduction process was triggered. This process,
set to begin on January 2, 2013, would reduce federal outlays over
the next decade unless legislation is enacted to prevent it.'
CRS: The Committee on Foreign
Investment in the United States (CFIUS). / : James K.
Jackson. 2012. - 27 s.
'The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)
is an interagency committee that serves the President in overseeing
the national security implications of foreign investment in the
economy. Originally established by an Executive Order of President
Ford in 1975'.
The Durst Organization : US National Debt Clock -
Profit: An Analysis of Where
American Companies Report Profits: Indications of Profit
Shifting. / : Mark P. Keightley. 2013. - 15 s.
'This report uses data on the operations of U.S. multinational
companies (MNCs) to examine the extent to which, if any, MNCs are
moving profits out of high-tax countries (or out of the U.S.) and
into low-tax countries with little corresponding change in business
operations, a practice known as “profit shifting.” To
do this, the profits reported by American firms in two groups of
countries are compared with measures of real economic activity in
those locations. The first group consists of the five countries
commonly identified as being “tax preferred” or
“tax haven” countries, and includes Bermuda, Ireland,
Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Switzerland. The second group,
which provides a baseline for comparison, consists of five more
traditional economies. This group includes Australia, Canada,
Germany, Mexico, and the United Kingdom.'
Note 1: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.,
U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Operations of U.S. Parent Companies
and Their Foreign Affiliates (Revised 2008 Statistics), Table
II.A.1, November 2011,
'The International Economics Directorate of the Bureau of Economic
Analysis (BEA) collects and analyzes data on U.S. direct investment
abroad (USDIA), foreign direct investment in the United States
(FDIUS), and U.S. international services transactions.' And
'Beginning with 1990, an article in the September issue of the SCB
has presented detailed data on cross-border services transactions
and on sales of services by majority-owned foreign affiliates of
U.S. companies and by majority-owned U.S. affiliates of foreign
companies'. Eksempelopslag: U.S. International Services
Cross-Border Trade in 2011 and Services Supplied Through Affiliates
in 2010. / : Marilyn Ibarra-Caton and Charu Sharma. 2012. - 19
and Food Price Inflation. / : Randy Schnepf. 2013. - 37 s.
Fattigdom: CRS: Poverty in the United
States: 2012 / Thomas Gabe. 2013. - 85 s.
- Eksempel på militærrelaterede udgifter: Minimum
Returns : The Economic Impacts of Pentagon Spending. / : By
William D. Hartung with Natalie Peterson. - Washington, DC: Center
for International Policy, 2013. - 16 s.
'Over the past two years, Pentagon contractors have financed a
series of studies that have made exaggerated claims about the
economic impacts of reductions in Pentagon spending. This report
refutes a number of the key findings of those industry-backed
reports, which have been extensively promoted in an effort to
influence politicians and the media in Washington and around the
country. Specifically, this analysis looks at the impacts of
Pentagon contracting for weapons, supplies and services.'
Direct Overt U.S. Aid Appropriations
and Military Reimbursements to Pakistan, FY2002-FY2013 :
Prepared by the Congressional Research Service for distribution to
multiple congressional offices, February 29, 2012.
- Økonomihistorie: CRS: Federal Grants to State and Local
Governments: A Brief History. / Ben Canada. 2003. - 16 s.
Phillips, Ulrich Bonnell: American Negro Slavery : a survey
of the supply, employment and control of Negro labor as determined
by the plantation régime (1929). -
- Banker: USAs Centralbank / the Federal Reserve System,
United States Government Accountability Office: Federal Reserve System : Opportunities Exist to
Strengthen Policies and Processes for Managing Emergency Assistance
Report to Congressional Addressees July 2011.
Første analyse af den amerikanske centralbank!
Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of
- Børser, COCUM, Det
fængsels-industrielle kompleks, New deal, reaganomics, slaveri, økonomiske
- Børser: Amex Defense
Index, Securities and Exchange Commission.
Villard, Oswald Garrison: The early history of Wall street; (1897).
- Broken at the Top: How
America's dysfunctional tax system costs billions in corporate tax
dodging. Oxfam America 2016.
- Økonomiske kriser: 1720, 1772, 1792, 1796-1797, 1819,
1825, 1837, 1847, 1857, 1873, 1884, 1890, 1896, 1907, 1929, 1985,
2007–2010-. Den samlede føderale restgæld var
14,183 milliarder dollar 4. marts 2011. / Total federal debt
outstanding was $14,183 billion on March 4, 2011. The Debt Limit:
History and Recent Increases, CRS, 2011.
Burcharth, Martin: Amerikanerne har mistet appetitten på
oversøiske landkrigeEfter Afghanistan og Irak skal Pentagon
vælge nye prioriteter og lægge ny strategi i en tid med
økonomisk smalhals. I: Information, 07/27/2011.
Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on
Government Operations. CRS, 2011.
- BNP - FN data, landbrug, fiskeri, industri.
- Landbrug, skovbrug: FAO Country Profiles
- Se også CRS: Federal Aid to Roads and Highways Since the
18th Century: A Legislative History / John Williamson. January 6,
2012. - 16 s. [Online].
- CRS: Unapproved Genetically Modified
Wheat Discovered in Oregon: Status and Implications. / :
Tadlock Cowan. 2013. - 8 s.
CRS: U.S. Farm Income. / : Randy Schnepf.
December 10, 2012. - 29 s.
'According to USDA’s Economic Research Service (ERS),
national net farm income—a key indicator of U.S. farm
well-being—is forecast at $114 billion in 2012, down 3.3%
from last year’s record, but still the second-highest total
In addition to near-record farm income, farm wealth is also at
record levels. Farm asset values— which reflect farm
investors’ and lenders’ expectations about long-term
profitability of farmsector investments—are expected to rise
nearly 7% in 2012 to a record $2,540 billion for a fourth
consecutive year of gains. Farm land cash markets have continued to
see gains related to strong crop prices in 2012. Since 2008, farm
asset values are up 26% while farm debt has risen by only 10%. As a
result, the farm debt-to-asset ratio has declined steadily since
2008 and is expected to fall to 10.5%, its second-lowest level
'For information on state-level farm income, see the “U.S.
and State Farm Income and Wealth Statistics,” available as
part of the Farm Income and Wealth Statistics, Farm Income and
Costs, Farm Economy Topics, Economic Research Service (ERS), USDA,
- Fødevaresikkerhed: CRS: The
Federal Food Safety System: A Primer. / : Renée
Johnson, Specialist in Agricultural Policy. November 26, 2012. - 15
'Amerikanerne bruger mere end 1 bilioner dollars på mad hvert
år, næsten halvdelen i restauranter, skoler og andre
steder uden for hjemmet. Rigsrevisionen (GAO) har identificeret
så mange som 15 føderale agenturer der samlet
forvalter mindst 30 love vedrørende
fødevaresikkerhed. Levnedsmiddel og sundhedsmyndigheden
(FDA), som er en del af det amerikanske Sundhedsministerium (HHS)
og Fødevaresikkerhed og Inspektiontjenesten (FSIS), der er
en del af det amerikanske Landbrugsministerium (USDA), omfatter
sammen størstedelen af både den samlede støtte
og den samlede bemanding af regeringens mad regelsystem. '
'Americans spend more than $1 trillion on food each year, nearly
half of it in restaurants, schools, and other places outside the
home. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) has identified as
many as 15 federal agencies collectively administering at least 30
laws related to food safety. The Food and Drug Administration
(FDA), which is part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services (HHS), and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS),
which is part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA),
together comprise the majority of both the total funding and the
total staffing of the government’s food regulatory
- Naturresourcer: U.S. Defense Logistics Agency: Federal
Strategic and Critical Materials Inventory / Forbunds-republikkens
strategiske og kritiske materialelager, herunder : ferrochromium,
ferromangan, germanium, kobolt,
krom, iridium, tin, radium,
wolframmalm og koncentrater deraf samt zink.
United States mineral resources. / Edited by Brobst, Donald
Albert; Pratt, Walden P. U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1973. - 722 s. ;
Professional Paper, 820)
Aluminium. Asbest. bor.
cement, Fosfor. World Phosphate Rock
Reserves and Resources. / Steven J. Van Kauwenbergh. - Muscle
Shoals, AL: International Center for Soil Fertility and
Agricultural Development. 2010. - 60 pp.
Germanium, Guld. Helium.
Kul. Lapis. Magnan. Mika /
mica - glimmer.
Olie og naturgas, herunder Alaska
Oil Pipeline - Deep-water Horizon olieudslippet, 2010 ; Prudhoe Bay
olie-udslippet, 2006. Naturgas. CRS:
Natural Gas in the U.S. Economy: Opportunities for Growth. / :
Robert Pirog ; Michael Ratner. November 6, 2012. - 35 s. CRS:
Europe’s Energy Security: Options and Challenges to
Natural Gas Supply Diversification. / Michael Ratner et al. 2012. -
32 s. Rhenium. Salt, herunder Salmon
Site eller Tatum Salt Dome (depotet), i Lamar County,
Kul: CRS: Mountaintop Mining: Background on Current
Controversies. / Claudia Copeland. 2013.
'Mountaintop removal mining involves removing the top of a mountain
in order to recover the coal seams contained there. This practice
occurs in six Appalachian states (Kentucky, West Virginia,
Virginia, Tennessee, Pennsylvania, and Ohio). It creates an immense
quantity of excess spoil (dirt and rock that previously composed
the mountaintop), which is typically placed in valley fills on the
sides of the former mountains, burying streams that flow through
the valleys. Mountaintop mining is regulated under several laws,
including the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Surface Mining Control
and Reclamation Act (SMCRA).'
- From hero to zero: Peabody
Energy Corp. / : Inês Rocha, José Maria Antunes,
- London : The Ecconomist, Case Study Competition 2015.
FEP - School of Economics and Management, University of Porto.
- Verdens største kulselskab er ved at gå
fallit : På ét år har Peabody Energy, den
største private kulproducent i verden, tabt 98 pct. af sin
markedsværdi og er nu ikke mere i stand til at betale
renterne på sin milliardgæld. Om mindre end en
måned kan det være slut. / : Jørgen Steen
Nielsen. I: Information, 4. marts 2016.
- Sjældne jordarters
metaller, U.S. Mining
Database: uran ; Atlas Mineral
Corporation: Moab uranium tailings,
Utah / mineaffald. Bureau of
Mines / Minerals yearbook metals and minerals (except fuels) 1952.
Year 1952, Volume I (1955). United States Government Printing
Decommissioning of U.S. Uranium Production Facilities. Energy
Information Administration, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and
Alternate Fuels. U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC. 1995. -
IAEA: The long term stabilization of uranium mill tailings: Final
report of a co-ordinated research project 2000–2004.
- Vienna: IAEA, 2004. - 309 pp. -
, nikkel, selen,
sølv, tin, vanadium og
Sampson, Anthony: De syv søstre. Gyldendal, 1976.
Strategic and Critical Materials Operations Report To Congress :
Operations under the Strategic and Critical Materials Stockpiling
Act during the Period October 2009 through September 2010. Under
Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics.
January 2011. - 75 pp.
- Erhverv, handel og industri: Society of American Archivists
Business Archives: Directory of Corporate Archives in the United
States and Canada.
Atomkraftværker - World Nuclear Association:
Nuclear Power in the USA.
Produktion og eksport af: Biler, fly,
- CRS Insight:
Westinghouse Bankruptcy Filing Could Put New U.S.Nuclear Projects
at Risk. / : Mark Holt, 2017.
Westinghouse Electric Company, et stort atomteknologibedrift, der
leverede næsten halvdelen af de 99 nuværende
amerikanske kommercielle kernekraftreaktorer, indleverede
konkursbehandling den 29. marts 2017. / Westinghouse Electric
Company, a major nuclear technology firm that supplied nearly half
of the 99 currently operating U.S. commercial reactors, filed for
bankruptcy reorganization on March 29, 2017. The bankruptcy filing
raised fundamental questions about the future of the U.S. nuclear
power industry, and particularly whether four new reactorsthat
Westinghouse is constructing for electric utilities in Georgia and
South Carolina will be completed. The four reactors are the first
to begin construction in the United States since the mid-1970s, and
the nuclear industry had hoped they would pave the way for many
Because the Georgia two-reactor project, whose lead owner is
Georgia Power, received $8.3 billion in loan guarantees from the
Department of Energy (DOE), concerns have also been raised about
potential federal liability should the borrowers default. The South
Carolina project, with lead owner South Carolina Electric and Gas
(SCE&G), did not receive DOE loan guarantees.
The Japanese industrial conglomerate Toshiba Corporation bought the
majority of Westinghouse in 2006.
- massemedier og underholdning:
aviser, film, musik, metalindustri: biler, fly, skibe.
CRS: The Corporate Income Tax System: Overview and Options for
Reform. / : Mark P. Keightley ; Molly F. Sherlock. 2012. - 38
'A particular aspect of the corporate tax system that receives
substantial attention is the 35% statutory corporate tax rate.
Although the U.S. has the world’s highest statutory corporate
tax rate, the U.S. effective corporate tax rate is similar to the
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
average. Further, the U.S. collects less in corporate tax revenue
relative to Gross Domestic Production (GDP) (1.9% in 2009) than the
average of other OECD countries (2.8% in 2009).'
Amerikanske tekstilproducenter producerer garn, tråd og stof
til beklædning, boligudstyr, og til forskellige industrielle
- GAO: Southeast Asia: Trends in
U.S. and Chinese Economic Engagement in Indonesia and Vietnam,
- U.S. textile manufacturers produce yarn, thread, and fabric for
apparel, home furnishings, and for various industrial applications.
In 2011, the U.S. textile industry generated $53 billion in
shipments and directly employed about 238,000 Americans, accounting
for 2% of all U.S. factory jobs.
CRS: U.S. Textile Manufacturing and the
Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations. / : Michaela D.
Platzer. 2012. - 25 s.
The Entertainment Industry collections at the American Heritage
Center. / : Compiled by D. Claudia Thompson and Shaun A. Hayes.
2009. - 163 s.
- Se også: USA: Sociale
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