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Amerikansk økonomi

American economy

Économie américaine

Economía estadounidense

US-Wirtschaft

Kilder og analyser af økonomiske forhold i USA.
Sources and analysis of economic conditions in the United States.
Økonomi, generelle værker: Den Internationale Bank for Genopbygning og Udvikling, Verdensbanken /
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development: Country at a Glance, 2011.
- http://go.worldbank.org/YB2ATM3HY0
Krigsudgifter: CRS: The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11. / : Amy Belasco, 2014.
Bistand til udenlandet: CRS: Foreign Aid: An Introduction to U.S. Programs and Policy. / : Curt Tarnoff ; Marian L. Lawson, 2016.
'In FY2015, U.S. foreign assistance, defined broadly, was estimated at $48.57 billion, or 1.3% of total federal budget authority. About 43% of this assistance was for bilateral economic development programs, including political/strategic economic assistance; 35% for military aid and non-military security assistance; 16% for humanitarian activities; and 6% to support the work of multilateral institutions. Assistance can take the form of cash transfers, equipment and commodities, infrastructure, or technical assistance, and, in recent decades, is provided almost exclusively on a grant rather than loan basis. The United States is the largest foreign aid donor in the world, accounting for about 24% of total official development assistance from major donor governments in 2014 (latest year for which this data is available). Key foreign assistance trends in the past decade include growth in development aid, particularly global health programs; increased security assistance directed toward U.S. allies in the anti-terrorism effort; and high levels of humanitarian assistance to address a range of crises, from the earthquake in Haiti to the violence in Syria. Adjusted for inflation, annual foreign assistance funding over the past decade was the highest it has been since the Marshall Plan in the years immediately following World War II. In FY2015, Afghanistan, Israel, Iraq, Egypt, and Jordan were the top recipients of U.S. aid, reflecting long-standing aid commitments to Israel and Egypt, the strategic significance of Afghanistan and Iraq, and the strategic and humanitarian importance of Jordan as the crisis in neighboring Syria continues to unfold. Africa was the top aid recipient region in FY2015, at 32%, followed by the Near East, at 31%, and South and Central Asia, at 25%. This was a significant shift from a decade prior, when Africa received only 17% of aid and South Central Asia 12%, reflecting significant increases in HIV/AIDS-related programs concentrated in Africa and large increases in aid to Afghanistan and Pakistan between FY2005 and FY2015. The drawdown of U.S. military forces in Iraq and Afghanistan led to reduced military assistance starting in FY2011, but growing concern about the Islamic State in Iraq and elsewhere may stall or reverse this trend.'
Amerikansk banklovgivning / American banking legislation: Banks and Banking: Containing a codification of documents of general applicability and future effect As of January 1, 2010 With Ancillaries Published by Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration: A Special Edition of the Federal Register
- http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title12-vol1/content-detail.html
'THIS TITLE
Title 12—BANKS AND BANKING is composed of seven volumes. The parts in these volumes are arranged in the following order: parts 1–199, 200–219, 220–299, 300–499, 500–599, part 600–899, and 900–end. The first volume containing parts 1–199 is comprised of chapter I—Comptroller of the Currency, Department of the Treasury. The second and third volumes containing parts 200–299 are comprised of chapter II—Federal Reserve System. The fourth volume containing parts 300–499 is comprised of chapter III—Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and chapter IV— Export-Import Bank of the United States. The fifth volume containing parts 500– 599 is comprised of chapter V—Office of Thrift Supervision, Department of the Treasury. The sixth volume containing parts 600–899 is comprised of chapter VI— Farm Credit Administration, chapter VII—National Credit Union Administration, chapter VIII—Federal Financing Bank. The seventh volume containing part 900– end is comprised of chapter IX—Federal Housing Finance Board, chapter XI— Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council, chapter XII—Federal Housing Finance Agency, chapter XIV—Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation, chapter XV—Department of the Treasury, chapter XVII—Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight, Department of Housing and Urban Development and chapter XVIII—Community Development Financial Institutions Fund, Department of the Treasury. The contents of these volumes represent all of the current regulations codified under this title of the CFR as of January 1, 2010.'
Gældskrisen: CRS: The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases. / : D. Andrew Austin ; Mindy R. Levit. December 27, 2012. - 37 s.
'Total federal debt can increase in two ways. First, debt increases when the government sells debt to the public to finance budget deficits and acquire the financial resources needed to meet its obligations. This increases debt held by the public. Second, debt increases when the federal government issues debt to certain government accounts, such as the Social Security, Medicare, and Transportation trust funds, in exchange for their reported surpluses. This increases debt held by government accounts. The sum of debt held by the public and debt held by government accounts is the total federal debt. Surpluses reduce debt held by the public, while deficits raise it.'
CRS: The United States as a Net Debtor Nation: Overview of the International Investment Position. / : James K. Jackson. November 8, 2012. - 21 s.
CRS: The Budget Control Act of 2011: Budgetary Effects of Proposals to Replace the FY2013 Sequester. / : Mindy R. Levit. November 9, 2012. - 13 s.
'The Budget Control Act of 2011 (BCA; P.L. 112-25) provided for an increase in the statutory limit on the public debt in conjunction with a variety of measures to reduce the budget deficit. Included in these measures was the creation of a Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction, which was tasked to develop and submit a plan to Congress containing deficit reduction to total at least $1.2 trillion over the FY2012-FY2021 period. However, because the committee did not report out recommendations, the BCA’s automatic spending reduction process was triggered. This process, set to begin on January 2, 2013, would reduce federal outlays over the next decade unless legislation is enacted to prevent it.'
CRS: The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS). / : James K. Jackson. 2012. - 27 s.
'The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) is an interagency committee that serves the President in overseeing the national security implications of foreign investment in the economy. Originally established by an Executive Order of President Ford in 1975'.
The Durst Organization : US National Debt Clock - http://www.usdebtclock.org/
- http://www.archive.org/search.php?query=Military%20expenditures%20AND%20mediatype%3Atexts
Profit: An Analysis of Where American Companies Report Profits: Indications of Profit Shifting. / : Mark P. Keightley. 2013. - 15 s.
'This report uses data on the operations of U.S. multinational companies (MNCs) to examine the extent to which, if any, MNCs are moving profits out of high-tax countries (or out of the U.S.) and into low-tax countries with little corresponding change in business operations, a practice known as “profit shifting.” To do this, the profits reported by American firms in two groups of countries are compared with measures of real economic activity in those locations. The first group consists of the five countries commonly identified as being “tax preferred” or “tax haven” countries, and includes Bermuda, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Switzerland. The second group, which provides a baseline for comparison, consists of five more traditional economies. This group includes Australia, Canada, Germany, Mexico, and the United Kingdom.'
Note 1: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis., U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Operations of U.S. Parent Companies and Their Foreign Affiliates (Revised 2008 Statistics), Table II.A.1, November 2011,
- http://www.bea.gov/scb/account_articles/international/iidguide.htm.
'The International Economics Directorate of the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) collects and analyzes data on U.S. direct investment abroad (USDIA), foreign direct investment in the United States (FDIUS), and U.S. international services transactions.' And
'Beginning with 1990, an article in the September issue of the SCB has presented detailed data on cross-border services transactions and on sales of services by majority-owned foreign affiliates of U.S. companies and by majority-owned U.S. affiliates of foreign companies'. Eksempelopslag: U.S. International Services Cross-Border Trade in 2011 and Services Supplied Through Affiliates in 2010. / : Marilyn Ibarra-Caton and Charu Sharma. 2012. - 19 s.
- http://www.bea.gov/scb/pdf/2012/10%20October/1012_initernational_services.pdf
CRS: Consumers and Food Price Inflation. / : Randy Schnepf. 2013. - 37 s.
Fattigdom: CRS: Poverty in the United States: 2012 / Thomas Gabe. 2013. - 85 s.
Eksempel på militærrelaterede udgifter: Minimum Returns : The Economic Impacts of Pentagon Spending. / : By William D. Hartung with Natalie Peterson. - Washington, DC: Center for International Policy, 2013. - 16 s.
'Over the past two years, Pentagon contractors have financed a series of studies that have made exaggerated claims about the economic impacts of reductions in Pentagon spending. This report refutes a number of the key findings of those industry-backed reports, which have been extensively promoted in an effort to influence politicians and the media in Washington and around the country. Specifically, this analysis looks at the impacts of Pentagon contracting for weapons, supplies and services.'
Direct Overt U.S. Aid Appropriations and Military Reimbursements to Pakistan, FY2002-FY2013 : Prepared by the Congressional Research Service for distribution to multiple congressional offices, February 29, 2012.
Økonomihistorie: CRS: Federal Grants to State and Local Governments: A Brief History. / Ben Canada. 2003. - 16 s.
- http://usinfo.org/enus/government/statelocal/docs/fedgrants.pdf
Phillips, Ulrich Bonnell: American Negro Slavery : a survey of the supply, employment and control of Negro labor as determined by the plantation régime (1929). - http://www.archive.org/details/americannegrosla00phil
Banker: USAs Centralbank / the Federal Reserve System, etableres 1913.
United States Government Accountability Office: Federal Reserve System : Opportunities Exist to Strengthen Policies and Processes for Managing Emergency Assistance Report to Congressional Addressees July 2011.
Første analyse af den amerikanske centralbank!
Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989.
Børser, COCUM, Det fængsels-industrielle kompleks, New deal, reaganomics, slaveri, økonomiske kriser.
Børser: Amex Defense Index, Securities and Exchange Commission.
Villard, Oswald Garrison: The early history of Wall street; (1897).
- http://www.archive.org/details/earlyhistoryofwa00vill
Broken at the Top: How America's dysfunctional tax system costs billions in corporate tax dodging. Oxfam America 2016.
Økonomiske kriser: 1720, 1772, 1792, 1796-1797, 1819, 1825, 1837, 1847, 1857, 1873, 1884, 1890, 1896, 1907, 1929, 1985, 1987, 1991, 2007–2010-. Den samlede føderale restgæld var 14,183 milliarder dollar 4. marts 2011. / Total federal debt outstanding was $14,183 billion on March 4, 2011. The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases, CRS, 2011.
- http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL31967.pdf
Burcharth, Martin: Amerikanerne har mistet appetitten på oversøiske landkrigeEfter Afghanistan og Irak skal Pentagon vælge nye prioriteter og lægge ny strategi i en tid med økonomisk smalhals. I: Information, 07/27/2011.
Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations. CRS, 2011.
- http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41633.pdf
BNP - FN data, landbrug, fiskeri, industri.
Landbrug, skovbrug: FAO Country Profiles
Se også CRS: Federal Aid to Roads and Highways Since the 18th Century: A Legislative History / John Williamson. January 6, 2012. - 16 s. [Online].
CRS: Unapproved Genetically Modified Wheat Discovered in Oregon: Status and Implications. / : Tadlock Cowan. 2013. - 8 s.
CRS: U.S. Farm Income. / : Randy Schnepf. December 10, 2012. - 29 s.
'According to USDA’s Economic Research Service (ERS), national net farm income—a key indicator of U.S. farm well-being—is forecast at $114 billion in 2012, down 3.3% from last year’s record, but still the second-highest total on record.
In addition to near-record farm income, farm wealth is also at record levels. Farm asset values— which reflect farm investors’ and lenders’ expectations about long-term profitability of farmsector investments—are expected to rise nearly 7% in 2012 to a record $2,540 billion for a fourth consecutive year of gains. Farm land cash markets have continued to see gains related to strong crop prices in 2012. Since 2008, farm asset values are up 26% while farm debt has risen by only 10%. As a result, the farm debt-to-asset ratio has declined steadily since 2008 and is expected to fall to 10.5%, its second-lowest level since 1960.'
'For information on state-level farm income, see the “U.S. and State Farm Income and Wealth Statistics,” available as part of the Farm Income and Wealth Statistics, Farm Income and Costs, Farm Economy Topics, Economic Research Service (ERS), USDA, at
- http://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/farm-income-and-wealth-statistics.aspx '.
Fødevaresikkerhed: CRS: The Federal Food Safety System: A Primer. / : Renée Johnson, Specialist in Agricultural Policy. November 26, 2012. - 15 s.
'Amerikanerne bruger mere end 1 bilioner dollars på mad hvert år, næsten halvdelen i restauranter, skoler og andre steder uden for hjemmet. Rigsrevisionen (GAO) har identificeret så mange som 15 føderale agenturer der samlet forvalter mindst 30 love vedrørende fødevaresikkerhed. Levnedsmiddel og sundhedsmyndigheden (FDA), som er en del af det amerikanske Sundhedsministerium (HHS) og Fødevaresikkerhed og Inspektiontjenesten (FSIS), der er en del af det amerikanske Landbrugsministerium (USDA), omfatter sammen størstedelen af både den samlede støtte og den samlede bemanding af regeringens mad regelsystem. '
'Americans spend more than $1 trillion on food each year, nearly half of it in restaurants, schools, and other places outside the home. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) has identified as many as 15 federal agencies collectively administering at least 30 laws related to food safety. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which is part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), which is part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), together comprise the majority of both the total funding and the total staffing of the government’s food regulatory system.'
Naturresourcer: U.S. Defense Logistics Agency: Federal Strategic and Critical Materials Inventory / Forbunds-republikkens strategiske og kritiske materialelager, herunder : ferrochromium, ferromangan, germanium, kobolt, krom, iridium, tin, radium, wolframmalm og koncentrater deraf samt zink.
United States mineral resources. / Edited by Brobst, Donald Albert; Pratt, Walden P. U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1973. - 722 s. ; Professional Paper, 820)
- http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/pp820
Aluminium. Asbest. bor. cement, Fosfor. World Phosphate Rock Reserves and Resources. / Steven J. Van Kauwenbergh. - Muscle Shoals, AL: International Center for Soil Fertility and Agricultural Development. 2010. - 60 pp.
- http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNADW835.pdf.
Germanium, Guld. Helium. kobber. Kul. Lapis. Magnan. Mika / mica - glimmer.
Olie og naturgas, herunder Alaska Oil Pipeline - Deep-water Horizon olieudslippet, 2010 ; Prudhoe Bay olie-udslippet, 2006. Naturgas. CRS: Natural Gas in the U.S. Economy: Opportunities for Growth. / : Robert Pirog ; Michael Ratner. November 6, 2012. - 35 s. CRS: Europe’s Energy Security: Options and Challenges to Natural Gas Supply Diversification. / Michael Ratner et al. 2012. - 32 s. Rhenium. Salt, herunder Salmon Site eller Tatum Salt Dome (depotet), i Lamar County, Mississippi.
Kul: CRS: Mountaintop Mining: Background on Current Controversies. / Claudia Copeland. 2013.
'Mountaintop removal mining involves removing the top of a mountain in order to recover the coal seams contained there. This practice occurs in six Appalachian states (Kentucky, West Virginia, Virginia, Tennessee, Pennsylvania, and Ohio). It creates an immense quantity of excess spoil (dirt and rock that previously composed the mountaintop), which is typically placed in valley fills on the sides of the former mountains, burying streams that flow through the valleys. Mountaintop mining is regulated under several laws, including the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA).'
From hero to zero: Peabody Energy Corp. / : Inês Rocha, José Maria Antunes, Maria Coutinho.
- London : The Ecconomist, Case Study Competition 2015.
FEP - School of Economics and Management, University of Porto.
- https://www.economist.com/sites/default/files/case_resolution_fictconsulting.pdf
Verdens største kulselskab er ved at gå fallit : På ét år har Peabody Energy, den største private kulproducent i verden, tabt 98 pct. af sin markedsværdi og er nu ikke mere i stand til at betale renterne på sin milliardgæld. Om mindre end en måned kan det være slut. / : Jørgen Steen Nielsen. I: Information, 4. marts 2016.
Sjældne jordarters metaller, U.S. Mining Database: uran ; Atlas Mineral Corporation: Moab uranium tailings, Utah / mineaffald. Bureau of Mines / Minerals yearbook metals and minerals (except fuels) 1952. Year 1952, Volume I (1955). United States Government Printing Office, 1955-.
- http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/usbmmyb.html
Decommissioning of U.S. Uranium Production Facilities. Energy Information Administration, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels. U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC. 1995. - 71 pp.
IAEA: The long term stabilization of uranium mill tailings: Final report of a co-ordinated research project 2000–2004.
- Vienna: IAEA, 2004. - 309 pp. - http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/te_1403_web.pdf
, nikkel, selen, sølv, tin, vanadium og zink.
Sampson, Anthony: De syv søstre. Gyldendal, 1976.
Strategic and Critical Materials Operations Report To Congress : Operations under the Strategic and Critical Materials Stockpiling Act during the Period October 2009 through September 2010. Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics. January 2011. - 75 pp.
Erhverv, handel og industri: Society of American Archivists Business Archives: Directory of Corporate Archives in the United States and Canada. Atomkraftværker - World Nuclear Association: Nuclear Power in the USA.
Produktion og eksport af: Biler, fly, våben.
CRS Insight: Westinghouse Bankruptcy Filing Could Put New U.S.Nuclear Projects at Risk. / : Mark Holt, 2017.
Westinghouse Electric Company, et stort atomteknologibedrift, der leverede næsten halvdelen af de 99 nuværende amerikanske kommercielle kernekraftreaktorer, indleverede konkursbehandling den 29. marts 2017. / Westinghouse Electric Company, a major nuclear technology firm that supplied nearly half of the 99 currently operating U.S. commercial reactors, filed for bankruptcy reorganization on March 29, 2017. The bankruptcy filing raised fundamental questions about the future of the U.S. nuclear power industry, and particularly whether four new reactorsthat Westinghouse is constructing for electric utilities in Georgia and South Carolina will be completed. The four reactors are the first to begin construction in the United States since the mid-1970s, and the nuclear industry had hoped they would pave the way for many more.
Because the Georgia two-reactor project, whose lead owner is Georgia Power, received $8.3 billion in loan guarantees from the Department of Energy (DOE), concerns have also been raised about potential federal liability should the borrowers default. The South Carolina project, with lead owner South Carolina Electric and Gas (SCE&G), did not receive DOE loan guarantees.
The Japanese industrial conglomerate Toshiba Corporation bought the majority of Westinghouse in 2006.
massemedier og underholdning: aviser, film, musik, metalindustri: biler, fly, skibe. Tekstiler.
CRS: The Corporate Income Tax System: Overview and Options for Reform. / : Mark P. Keightley ; Molly F. Sherlock. 2012. - 38 s.
'A particular aspect of the corporate tax system that receives substantial attention is the 35% statutory corporate tax rate. Although the U.S. has the world’s highest statutory corporate tax rate, the U.S. effective corporate tax rate is similar to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average. Further, the U.S. collects less in corporate tax revenue relative to Gross Domestic Production (GDP) (1.9% in 2009) than the average of other OECD countries (2.8% in 2009).'
Amerikanske tekstilproducenter producerer garn, tråd og stof til beklædning, boligudstyr, og til forskellige industrielle anvendelser.
GAO: Southeast Asia: Trends in U.S. and Chinese Economic Engagement in Indonesia and Vietnam, 2015.
U.S. textile manufacturers produce yarn, thread, and fabric for apparel, home furnishings, and for various industrial applications. In 2011, the U.S. textile industry generated $53 billion in shipments and directly employed about 238,000 Americans, accounting for 2% of all U.S. factory jobs.
CRS: U.S. Textile Manufacturing and the Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations. / : Michaela D. Platzer. 2012. - 25 s.
The Entertainment Industry collections at the American Heritage Center. / : Compiled by D. Claudia Thompson and Shaun A. Hayes. 2009. - 163 s.
- http://www.uwyo.edu/ahc/collections/guides/ent-industry.pdf
Se også: USA: Sociale forhold.

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